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#27875619   2016/11/22 Save this To Up

Automated leukocyte processing by microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement.

We previously developed a Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD) microfluidic method in silicon to separate cells of various sizes from blood (Davis et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 2006;103:14779-14784; Huang et al., Science 2004;304:987-990). Here, we present the reduction-to-practice of this technology with a commercially produced, high precision plastic microfluidic chip-based device designed for automated preparation of human leukocytes (white blood cells; WBCs) for flow cytometry, without centrifugation or manual handling of samples. After a human blood sample was incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the mixture was input to a DLD microfluidic chip (microchip) where it was driven through a micropost array designed to deflect WBCs via DLD on the basis of cell size from the Input flow stream into a buffer stream, thus separating WBCs and any larger cells from smaller cells and particles and washing them simultaneously. We developed a microfluidic cell processing protocol that recovered 88% (average) of input WBCs and removed 99.985% (average) of Input erythrocytes (red blood cells) and >99% of unbound mAb in 18 min (average). Flow cytometric evaluation of the microchip Product, with no further processing, lysis or centrifugation, revealed excellent forward and side light scattering and fluorescence characteristics of immunolabeled WBCs. These results indicate that cost-effective plastic DLD microchips can speed and automate leukocyte processing for high quality flow cytometry analysis, and suggest their utility for multiple other research and clinical applications involving enrichment or depletion of common or rare cell types from blood or tissue samples. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

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#19383358   2009/04/22 Save this To Up

A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies.

Cancer, being a major healthcare concern worldwide, is one of the main targets for the application of emerging proteomic technologies and these tools promise to revolutionize the way cancer will be diagnosed and treated in the near future. Today, as a result of the unprecedented advances that have taken place in molecular biology, cell biology and genomics there is a pressing need to accelerate the translation of basic discoveries into clinical applications. This need, compounded by mounting evidence that cellular model systems are unable to fully recapitulate all biological aspects of human dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large number of protocols for preparation of tissue lysates has been published, so far no single recipe is able to provide a "one-size fits all" solubilization procedure that can be used to analyse the same lysate using different proteomics technologies. Here we present evidence showing that cell lysis buffer 1 (CLB1), a lysis solution commercialized by Zeptosens [a division of Bayer (Schweiz) AG], provides excellent sample solubilization and very high 2D PAGE protein resolution both when using carrier ampholytes and immobilized pH gradient strips. Moreover, this buffer can also be used for array-based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis of a number of technically demanding specimens such as breast carcinoma core needle biopsies and problematic tissues such as brain cortex, cerebellum, skeletal muscle, kidney cortex and tongue. This solution when combined with a specific sample preparation technique - cryostat sectioning of frozen specimens - simplifies tissue sample preparation and solves most of the difficulties associated with the integration of data generated by different proteomic technologies.

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#3528173   1986/10/15 Save this To Up

Toxoplasma modifies macrophage phagosomes by secretion of a vesicular network rich in surface proteins.

Modification of macrophage phagosomes begins shortly after formation as Toxoplasma cells secrete membranous vesicles that form a reticulate network within the vacuole. The Toxoplasma-modified compartments then resist normal endocytic processing and digestion. We have used the pronounced Ca++-dependent stability of the intraphagosomal membrane (IPM) network to purify and characterize the structural proteins of this assembly. In addition to the structural matrix, Toxoplasma secretes a discrete set of soluble proteins, including a newly described 22-kD calcium-binding protein. The IPM network adheres to intact Toxoplasma cells after host cell lysis in the presence of 1 mM Ca++; however, the network readily disperses in calcium-free buffer and was purified as vesicles that sedimented at 100,000 g. Purified IPM vesicles were specifically recognized by immune sera from mice with chronic Toxoplasma infection and consisted primarily of a 30-kD protein when analyzed by SDS PAGE. IPM network proteins share a major antigenic component located on the surface of extracellular Toxoplasma cells as shown by immunoperoxidase electron microscopy using a polyclonal antibody prepared against the IPM vesicles. Moreover, in Toxoplasma-infected macrophages, anti-IMP antibody confirmed that the extensive IPM array contains proteins also found on the Toxoplasma cell surface. Our results indicate the IMP network represents a unique structural modification of the phagosome comprised in part of Toxoplasma surface proteins.

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