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           Search results for: MCE Membrane Filter, Pore:0.45(μm), Diameter47(mm)   

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#28780808   2017/08/07 Save this To Up

[Determination method of iron and its inorganic oxide in the air of workplace].

Objective: To establish the method for determination of iron and its inorganic oxide in the air of workplace. Methods: The iron and its inorganic oxide was collected by MCE filter membrane and then digested by electric heating digestion apparatus. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for the detection of iron and its inorganic oxide. Results: The sampling efficiency was higher than 97%; under the 372.0 nm wavelength, the linearity of AAS was good at the range of 1.0~150.0 μg/ml, the minimum quantitation concentration was 0.28 mg/m(3), the maximum quantitation concentration was 6.24 mg/m(3), the recovery was ranged from 99%~102%, the RSD of intra-and inter-batch precision were 0.5%~1.2% and 1.0%~2.2%, respectively; the linearity of ICP-OES was good at the range of 0.1~500 μg/ml, the minimum quantitation concentration was 0.28 mg/m(3), the maximum quantitation concentration was 20.8 mg/m(3), the recovery was ranged from 101%~103%, the RSD of intra-and inter-batch precision were 0.5%~1.0% and 1.5%~1.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The sampling method and determination method meet the requirements of analysis and apply to the collection and determination of iron and its inorganic oxide in the air of workplace.

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#26834310   2016/02/02 Save this To Up

Air sampling filtration media: Collection efficiency for respirable size-selective sampling.

The collection efficiencies of commonly used membrane air sampling filters in the ultrafine particle size range were investigated. Mixed cellulose ester (MCE; 0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polycarbonate (0.4, 0.8, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE; 0.45, 1, 2, and 5 μm pore sizes), polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 0.8 and 5 μm pore sizes), and silver membrane (0.45, 0.8, 1.2, and 5 μm pore sizes) filters were exposed to polydisperse sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 10-400 nm. Test aerosols were nebulized and introduced into a calm air chamber through a diffusion dryer and aerosol neutralizer. The testing filters (37 mm diameter) were mounted in a conductive polypropylene filter-holder (cassette) within a metal testing tube. The experiments were conducted at flow rates between 1.7 and 11.2 l min(-1). The particle size distributions of NaCl challenge aerosol were measured upstream and downstream of the test filters by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Three different filters of each type with at least three repetitions for each pore size were tested. In general, the collection efficiency varied with airflow, pore size, and sampling duration. In addition, both collection efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreased pore size and increased sampling flow rate, but they differed among filter types and manufacturer. The present study confirmed that the MCE, PTFE, and PVC filters have a relatively high collection efficiency for challenge particles much smaller than their nominal pore size and are considerably more efficient than polycarbonate and silver membrane filters, especially at larger nominal pore sizes.

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#26452803   2015/10/10 Save this To Up

A non-invasive genomic diagnostic method for bladder cancer using size-based filtration and microchip electrophoresis.

Bladder cancer (BC) cells spontaneously exfoliated in the urine of patients with BC. Detection of exfoliated tumor cells has clinical significance in cancer therapy because it would enable earlier non-invasive screening, diagnosis, or prognosis of BC. In this research, a method for analyzing genetic abnormalities of BC cells collected from urine samples was developed. Target BC cells were isolated by filtration. To find conditions that achieve high cell recovery, we investigated the effects of filter type, concentration of fixative, and flow rate. Cells captured on the filter membrane were completely retrieved within 15s. Selected genes for genomic analysis, mutated genes (FGFR3, TERT and HRAS) and methylated genes (ALX4, RALL3, MT1A, and RUNX3) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and subsequently, were identified by microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Analysis by MCE reduces the risk of contamination, sample consumption, and analysis time. Our developed approach is economical, effectively isolates cancer cells, and permits flexible molecular characterization, all of which make this approach a promising method for non-invasive BC detection.

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#23869402   2013/08/20 Save this To Up

Filtration recovery of extracellular DNA from environmental water samples.

qPCR methods are able to analyze DNA from microbes within hours of collecting water samples, providing the promptest notification and public awareness possible when unsafe pathogenic levels are reached. Health risk, however, may be overestimated by the presence of extracellular DNA (eDNA) that is corecovered by the filtration procedure which is the most commonly used method to concentrate target microbes from environmental waters. Using C. parvum 18S rRNA gene fragment as a representative of eDNA, we examined the impact of filters (types and pore sizes) and physiochemical properties of surface water samples on the recovery of spiked DNA. Our results indicated that binding affinities of various filter membranes were quantifiably different for eDNA fragments with the polycarbonate (PC) binding the least and mixed cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate (MCE) binding the most as evidenced by up to 16% recovery of the spiked plasmid DNA with a pore size of 0.2 μm. Water quality parameters also had a distinct influence on the recovery of eDNA which was enhanced by the presence of high total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations and reduced pH. At pH 5.5, with 150 mg/L of clay, DNA recovery was increased to as much as 18%. By shielding the negative charge, thus increasing the interaction of DNA and colloids, the increase of Na(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations resulted in more DNA binding and consequently more recovery from environmental water samples. Therefore, in addition to analytical uncertainties, potential differences in qPCR data from filtered waters characterized with low pH and high TSS and ionic strength should be considered in pollution assessments.

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#21695696   2011/09/28 Save this To Up

Impact of extractables/leachables from filters on stability of protein formulations.

Aqueous extractables/leachables from three sterilizing-grade filter membranes [polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyethersulfone (PES), and mixed cellulose ester (MCE)] were found to significantly reduce the surface tension of aqueous solutions. To evaluate the effect of these extractables/leachables from filter membranes on stability of protein formulations, model IgG2 formulations (with or without added surfactant) were spiked with different levels of filter extractables from stock solutions as a stress study. The stock solutions of extractables were created by processing the filter membranes through autoclaving and soaking steps. The IgG2 formulations were subsequently subject to agitation and temperature stress. Extractables/leachables from the filters were found to have a significant protective (PVDF, PES) and destabilizing (MCE) impact on both visible and subvisible particulates formation under agitation stress for formulations that did not contain any additional surfactant such as polysorbate 80. The impact of filter extractables/leachables on chemical stability of the antibody formulation displayed a more complicated pattern, but was generally destabilizing, causing increases in aggregation, oxidation, and acidic species. In conclusion, extractables/leachables from filter membranes may have impact on protein formulation stability and caution should be exercised during protein filtration, especially when filtering small volumes and in preformulation or high-throughput screening studies.

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#19037817   2008/11/27 Save this To Up

Efficiency of sampling and analysis of asbestos fibers on filter media: implications for exposure assessment.

To measure airborne asbestos and other fibers, an air sample must represent the actual number and size of fibers. Typically, mixed cellulose ester (MCE, 0.45 or 0.8 microm pore size) and, to a much lesser extent, capillary-pore polycarbonate (PC, 0.4 microm pore size) membrane filters are used to collect airborne asbestos for count measurement and fiber size analysis. In this research study, chrysotile asbestos (fibers both shorter and longer than 5 microm) were generated in an aerosol chamber and sampled by 25 mm diameter MCE filter media to compare the fiber retention efficiency of 0.45 microm pore size filters vs. 0.8 microm pore size filter media. In addition, the effect of plasma etching times on fiber densities was evaluated. This study demonstrated a significant difference in fiber retention efficiency between 0.45 microm and 0.8 microm pore size MCE filters for asbestos aerosols (structures longer than or equal to 0.5 microm length). The fiber retention efficiency of a 0.45 microm pore size MCE filter is statistically significantly higher than that of the 0.8 microm pore size MCE filter. However, for asbestos structures longer than 5 microm, there is no statistically significant difference between the fiber retention efficiencies of the 0.45 microm and 0.8 microm pore size MCE filters. The mean density of asbestos fibers (longer than or equal to 0.5 microm) increased with etching time. Doubling the etching time increased the asbestos filter loading in this study by an average of 13%. The amount of plasma etching time had no effect on the filter loading for fibers longer than 5 microm. Many asbestos exposure risk models attribute health effects to fibers longer than 5 microm. In these models, both the 0.45 microm and 0.8 microm pore size MCE filter can produce suitable estimates of the airborne asbestos concentrations. However, some models suggest a more significant role for asbestos fibers shorter than 5 microm. Exposure monitoring for these models should consider only the 0.45 microm pore size MCE filters as recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) protocol and other methods.

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#17763069   2007/08/31 Save this To Up

Performance of membrane filters used for TEM analysis of asbestos.

This article presents findings related to characteristics of membrane filters that can affect the recovery of asbestos and the quality of preparations for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Certain applications and preparation steps can lead to unacceptable performance of membrane filters used in analysis of asbestos by TEM. Unless substantial care is used in the collapsing of mixed-cellulose ester (MCE) filters with an acetone hot block, grid preparations can suffer and fiber recoveries can be compromised. Calibration of the etching depth of MCE filters, especially at differing locations in an asher's chamber, is critical for reliable fiber recovery. Excessive etching of MCE filters with aerosol-deposited asbestos can lead to loss of short fibers, while insufficient etching of MCE filters with aqueous-deposited asbestos can, paradoxically, also lead to loss of short fibers. Interlaboratory precision on MCE filters is improved by aerosol-deposited asbestos, as opposed to aqueous deposition. In comparison, straightforward preparation, improved solvents, and reduced contamination make PC filters an increasingly acceptable alternative. Variations in the geometric configuration during application of carbon films can lead to fiber loss and unacceptable grid quality for either type of filter.

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