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#27907201   2016/12/01 Save this To Up

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Promotes Hepatic Stellate Cells Migration via Canonical NF-κB/MMP9 Pathway.

In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line-LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65. The result of transwell assay revealed that TWEAK promoted LX-2 migration. Subsequently, our data testified that the expression and activity of MMP9 was induced by TWEAK in LX-2 cells, which enhanced the migration. Furthermore, our findings showed that TWEAK upregulated the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 protein to increase MMP9 expression in LX-2 cells. Meanwhile, the alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and desmin expression were upregulated following TWEAK treatment. The results in the present study revealed that TWEAK promotes HSCs migration via canonical NF-κB/MMP9 pathway, which possibly provides a molecular basis targeting TWEAK for the therapy of liver fibrosis.

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#27644875   2016/09/24 Save this To Up

Protection of carboxymethylated chitosan on chondrocytes from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.

Chondrocyte apoptosis is the most important element of development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Nitric oxide (NO) was used as the agent to induce chondrocyte apoptosis. Carboxymethylated chitosan (CMCS) has anti-apoptosis effect on many cell types in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of CMCS on NO-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the probable molecular mechanisms. The newborn Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study for isolation of chondrocytes. The cell viability was determined by cell counting kit (CCK-8), cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin-V/PI double staining assay kit. The levels of phosphorylated-PI3K (p-PI3K), phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by Western blot analysis. The caspase-3 activity was determined by a quantitative colorimetric assay. Results showed that pretreatment with CMCS could inhibit the apoptosis induced by NO. CMCS could decrease the activity of NO and decrease the expression of Bcl-2, p-PI3K and p-Akt, increase the expression of Bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3. CMCS also could reverse the effect of NO that prompted matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and inhibited tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) activity. All the present results indicated that CMCS can protect NO induced chondrocytes apoptosis by activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

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#12115547   2002/07/12 Save this To Up

Transcriptional profiling of a human papillomavirus 33-positive squamous epithelial cell line which acquired a selective growth advantage after viral integration.

Alterations in gene expression represent key events in carcinogenesis. We have studied HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis, using an HPV-33-positive cell line (UT-DEC-1) established from a low-grade vaginal dysplasia (VAIN-I). Early-passage cells contained HPV-33 in episomal form, but these were superseded at later passages by cells carrying only integrated virus. To gain insight into the biologic significance of HPV integration, we compared the level of gene expression in normal vaginal keratinocytes, early-passage and late-passage UT-DEC-1 cells, using cDNA microarrays. Total RNA was isolated from cells by CsCl-gradient centrifugation, reverse-transcribed with MMLV reverse transcriptase and labeled with alpha-(32)P ATP. A cDNA microarray expression profile analysis was performed with Clontech's Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array kit. The 16 upregulated genes (cut-off 2-fold), identified by comparing both cell types to control keratinocytes, appeared to support cell-cycle progression or to be functional in mitosis. These included, e.g., MCM4 DNA replication licensing factor, cdc2p34 and chromatin assembly factor 1 p48 subunit. Downregulated genes (44 altogether) interfered with apoptosis and cell adhesion, including the apoptosis-inducing genes FRAP, Bik and caspase-9 precursor. The most significant differences between the late and early passages (29 and 46 constantly up- and downregulated genes without any fluctuation) were overexpression of the transcription factors E2F5 with its dimerization partner DP1, NF-kappa B and serine/threonine kinases and underexpression of enzymes of the MAPK pathway. Acquisition of a selective growth advantage after viral integration might be explained by a major shift from a MAPK pathway to cell-cycle dysregulation (G(2)/M).

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