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           Search results for: Manganese(Ⅳ) Oxide, powder[DISCONTINUED]   

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#29051613   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Electrochemical Magnetization Switching and Energy Storage in Manganese Oxide filled Carbon Nanotubes.

The ferrimagnetic and high-capacity electrode material Mn3O4 is encapsulated inside multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). We show that the rigid hollow cavities of the CNT enforce size-controlled nanoparticles which are electrochemically active inside the CNT. The ferrimagnetic Mn3O4 filling is switched by electrochemical conversion reaction to antiferromagnetic MnO. The conversion reaction is further exploited for electrochemical energy storage. Our studies confirm that the theoretical reversible capacity of the Mn3O4 filling is fully accessible. Upon reversible cycling, the Mn3O4@CNT nanocomposite reaches a maximum discharge capacity of 461 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) with a capacity retention of 90% after 50 cycles. We attribute the good cycling stability to the hybrid nature of the nanocomposite: (1) Carbon encasements ensure electrical contact to the active material by forming a stable conductive network which is unaffected by potential cracks of the encapsulate. (2) The CNT shells resist strong volume changes of the encapsulate in response to electrochemical cycling, which in conventional (i.e., non-nanocomposite) Mn3O4 hinders the application in energy storage devices. Our results demonstrate that Mn3O4 nanostructures can be successfully grown inside CNT and the resulting nanocomposite can be reversibly converted and exploited for lithium-ion batteries.

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#29048084   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Thermal evolution of MnxOy nanofibres as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

Manganese oxides (MnxOy) are considered as a promising catalyst alternative to platinum in fuel cell applications. In fact, a proper catalyst is needed in order to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode, and platinum is considered the best material due to its low overpotential for this reaction. Contrary to platinum, MnxOy is inexpensive, environmentally friendly and can be shaped into several nanostructures; furthermore, most of them show significant electro-catalytic performance. Several strategies have been carried out in order to increase their efficiency, by preparing light and high-surface area materials. In this framework, nanofibres are among the most promising nanostructures that can be used for this purpose. In this work, a study of the thermal, morphological and catalytic behavior of MnxOy nanofibres obtained through the electrospinning technique is proposed. Emphasis is given to the thermal evolution of the precursors, proposing a possible crystallization mechanism of the different manganese oxides obtained. It turns out that manganese oxide nanofibres exhibit good catalytic performance for the ORR, comparable to those obtained by using Pt-based catalysts.

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#29043792   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Rates of Cr(VI) Generation from CrxFe1-x(OH)3 Solids upon Reaction with Manganese Oxide.

The reaction of manganese oxides with Cr(III)-bearing solids in soils and sediments can lead to the natural production of Cr(VI) in groundwater. Building on previous knowledge of MnO2 as an oxidant for Cr(III)-containing solids, this study systematically evaluated the rates and mechanisms of the oxidation of Cr(III) in iron oxides by δ-MnO2. The Fe/Cr ratio (x = 0.055-0.23 in CrxFe1-x(OH)3) and pH (5-9) greatly influenced the Cr(VI) production rates by controlling the solubility of Cr(III) in iron oxides. We established a quantitative relationship between Cr(VI) production rates and Cr(III) solubility of CrxFe1-x(OH)3, which can help predict Cr(VI) production rates at different conditions. The adsorption of Cr(VI) and Mn(II) on solids shows a typical pH dependence for anions and cations. A multichamber reactor was used to assess the role of solid-solid contact in CrxFe1-x(OH)3-MnO2 interactions, which eliminates the contact of the two solids while still allowing aqueous species transport across a permeable membrane. Cr(VI) production rates were much lower in multichamber than in completely mixed batch experiments, indicating that the redox interaction is accelerated by mixing of the solids. Our results suggest that soluble Cr(III) released from CrxFe1-x(OH)3 solids to aqueous solution can migrate to MnO2 surfaces where it is oxidized.

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#29030889   2017/10/14 Save this To Up

Activating Inert Alkali Metal Ions by Electron Transfer from Manganese Oxide for Formaldehyde Abatement.

Alkali metal ions often act as promoters rather than active components due to their stable outermost electronic configurations and their inert properties in heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we activate inert alkali metal ions such as K+ and Rb+ by electron transfer from hollandite-type manganese oxide (HMO) support for HCHO oxidation. Results from synchrotron X-ray diffraction, absorption, and photoelectron spectroscopies demonstrate that the electronic density of states of single alkali metal adatoms is much higher than that of K+ or Rb+, because electrons transfer from manganese to the alkali metal adatoms through bridging lattice oxygen. The electron transfer originates from the interactions of alkali d-sp frontier orbitals with lattice oxygen sp3 orbitals occupied by lone-pair electrons. Reaction kinetics data of HCHO oxidation reveal that the high electronic density of states of single alkali metal adatoms is favorable for the activation of molecular oxygen. Mn L3-edge and O K-edge soft-X-ray absorption spectra demonstrate that lattice oxygen gains part of electrons from the Mn eg orbitals, leading to the upshift of lattice oxygen orbitals in energy. Therefore, the facile activation of molecular oxygen by the electron-abundant alkali metal adatoms and active lattice oxygen are responsible for the high catalytic activity in complete oxidation of HCHO. This work could assist the design of efficient and cheap catalysts by tuning the electronic states of active components.

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#29028539   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Electrospun polycaprolactam-manganese oxide fiber for headspace-solid phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water samples.

The nanofibrous polycaprolactam (polyamide 6 (PA6)) incorporated with manganese oxide (MnO) nanoparticles was fabricated by electrospinning and used as a new fiber coating for headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of the selected phthalate esters (PEs) in water samples prior to GC-μECD. The adsorbent was fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The main parameters that affect the HS-SPME efficiency such as extraction temperature, ionic strength, extraction and desorption times were investigated. The analytical figures of merit were obtained under the optimized conditions as follows: linear dynamic range (LDR), 0.500-5.00 × 10(2) ng mL(-1); relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 3), 1.86-10.9%; limits of detection (LODs), 0.0400-0.193 ng mL(-1). The method was applied for determination of the target analytes in river water, bottled water, mineral water and soda samples and the relative recoveries were obtained between 90.3 and 107%.

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#29028311   2017/10/13 Save this To Up

Radiolabeled, antibody-conjugated manganese oxide nanoparticles for tumor vasculature targeted positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Manganese oxide nanoparticles (Mn3O4 NPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of biomedical imaging because of their ability to create an enhanced imaging signal in MRI as novel potent T1 contrast agents. In this study, we present tumor vasculature-targeted imaging in mice using Mn3O4 NPs through conjugation to the anti-CD105 antibody TRC105 and radionuclide copper-64 ((64)Cu, t1/2: 12.7 h). The Mn3O4 conjugated NPs, (64)Cu-NOTA-Mn3O4@PEG-TRC105, exhibited sufficient stability in vitro and in vivo. Serial positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluated the pharmacokinetics and demonstrated targeting of (64)Cu-NOTA-Mn3O4@PEG-TRC105 to 4T1 murine breast tumors in vivo, compared to (64)Cu-NOTA-Mn3O4@PEG. The specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-Mn3O4@PEG-TRC105 for the vascular marker CD105 was confirmed through in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experiments. Since Mn3O4 conjugated NPs exhibited desirable properties for T1 enhanced imaging and low toxicity, the tumor-specific Mn3O4 conjugated NPs reported in this study may serve as promising multifunctional nanoplatforms for precise cancer imaging and diagnosis.

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#29016622   2017/10/10 Save this To Up

Manganese acquisition is facilitated by PilA in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

Manganese is an essential element required by cyanobacteria, as it is an essential part of the oxygen-evolving center of photosystem II. In the presence of atmospheric oxygen, manganese is present as manganese oxides, which have low solubility and consequently provide low bioavailability. It is unknown if cyanobacteria are able to utilize these manganese sources, and what mechanisms may be employed to do so. Recent evidence suggests that type IV pili in non-photosynthetic bacteria facilitate electron donation to extracellular electron acceptors, thereby enabling metal acquisition. Our present study investigates whether PilA1 (major pilin protein of type IV pili) enables the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6808 to access to Mn from manganese oxides. We present physiological and spectroscopic data, which indicate that the presence of PilA1 enhances the ability of cyanobacteria to grow on manganese oxides. These observations suggest a role of PilA1-containing pili in cyanobacterial manganese acquisition.

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#28985007   2017/10/06 Save this To Up

Lithiation Mechanism of Tunnel-Structured MnO2 Electrode Investigated by In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Manganese oxide (α-MnO2 ) has been considered a promising energy material, including as a lithium-based battery electrode candidate, due to its environmental friendliness. Thanks to its unique 1D [2 × 2] tunnel structure, α-MnO2 can be applied to a cathode by insertion reaction and to an anode by conversion reaction in corresponding voltage ranges, in a lithium-based battery. Numerous reports have attributed its remarkable performance to its unique tunnel structure; however, the precise electrochemical reaction mechanism remains unknown. In this study, finding of the lithiation mechanism of α-MnO2 nanowire by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is reported. By elaborately modifying the existing in situ TEM experimental technique, rapid lithium-ion diffusion through the tunnels is verified. Furthermore, by tracing the full lithiation procedure, the evolution of the MnO intermediate phase and the development of the MnO and Li2 O phases with preferred orientations is demonstrated, which explains how the conversion reaction occurs in α-MnO2 material. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the electrochemical lithiation process and mechanism of α-MnO2 material, in addition to the introduction of an improved in situ TEM biasing technique.

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#28963463   2017/09/30 Save this To Up

Biogenic manganese oxide nanoparticle formation by a multimeric multicopper oxidase Mnx.

Bacteria that produce Mn oxides are extraordinarily skilled engineers of nanomaterials that contribute significantly to global biogeochemical cycles. Their enzyme-based reaction mechanisms may be genetically tailored for environmental remediation applications or bioenergy production. However, significant challenges exist for structural characterization of the enzymes responsible for biomineralization. The active Mn oxidase in Bacillus sp. PL-12, Mnx, is a complex composed of a multicopper oxidase (MCO), MnxG, and two accessory proteins, MnxE and MnxF. MnxG shares sequence similarity with other, structurally characterized MCOs. MnxE and MnxF have no similarity to any characterized proteins. The ~200 kDa complex has been recalcitrant to crystallization, so its structure is unknown. Here, we show that native mass spectrometry defines the subunit topology and copper binding of Mnx, while high-resolution electron microscopy visualizes the protein and nascent Mn oxide minerals. These data provide critical structural information for understanding Mn biomineralization by such unexplored enzymes.Significant challenges exist for structural characterization of enzymes responsible for biomineralization. Here the authors show that native mass spectrometry and high resolution electron microscopy can define the subunit topology and copper binding of a manganese oxidizing complex, and describe early stage formation of its mineral products.

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#28961399   2017/09/29 Save this To Up

Active Antioxidizing Particles for On-Demand Pressure-Driven Molecular Release.

Overproduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to various health problems including inflammation, infection, and cancer. Abnormally high ROS levels can cause serious oxidative damage to biomolecules, cells, and tissues. A series of nano- or microsized particles has been developed to reduce the oxidative stress level by delivering antioxidant drugs. However, most systems are often plagued by slow molecular discharge, driven by diffusion. Herein, this study demonstrates the polymeric particles whose internal pressure can increase upon exposure to H2O2, one of the ROS, and in turn, discharge antioxidants actively. The on-demand pressurized particles are assembled by simultaneously encapsulating water-dispersible manganese oxide (MnO2) nanosheets and green tea derived epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) molecules into a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) spherical shell. In the presence of H2O2, the MnO2 nanosheets in the PLGA particle generate oxygen gas by decomposing H2O2 and increase the internal pressure. The pressurized PLGA particles release antioxidative EGCG actively and, in turn, protect vascular and brain tissues from oxidative damage more effectively than the particles without MnO2 nanosheets. This H2O2 responsive, self-pressurizing particle system would be useful to deliver a wide array of molecular cargos in response to the oxidation level.

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