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#18176793   2008/01/07 Save this To Up

Ceramide induces release of mitochondrial proapoptotic proteins in caspase-dependent and -independent manner in HT-29 cells.

In this study, the release of mitochondrial proapoptotic intermembrane space proteins induced by exogenous C(2)-ceramide in human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell line was investigated. HT-29 cells were treated with 12.5, 25 and 50 micromol/L C(2)-ceramide in vitro. Flow cytometer was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPhi(m)). Subcellular fractions were extracted by Mitochondrial/Cytosol Fractionation Kit after C(2)-ceramide treatment for 24 h. SDS-PAGE was used to determine the level of cytochrome c (Cyt c), high temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2) and second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (Smac) released from mitochondria, the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-3 for 24 h. The results showed that DeltaPhi(m) began to decrease from 6 h after 25 and 50 micromol/L C(2)-ceramide treatment (P<0.05) and cyclosporin A (CsA) could inhibit the collapse of DeltaPhi(m) through regulating mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore. There was no effect of C(2)-ceramide on the expression of Cyt c, HtrA2 and Smac in the total levels. 12.5, 25 and 50 micromol/L C(2)-ceramide could induce Cyt c, HtrA2 and Smac to release from mitochondria to cytosol and down-regulate the expression of XIAP (P<0.05). Also there was expression of cleaved caspase-3 with C(2)-ceramide treatment. After the treatment with caspase inhibitor, C(2)-ceramide still induced the release of Cyt c and HtrA2, but Smac did not. Therefore, C(2)-ceramide could induce apoptosis of HT-29 cells through the mitochondria pathway. The release of Cyt c, HtrA2 and Smac from mitochondria did not occur via the same mechanism, the release of Cyt c and HtrA2 was caspase-independent and the release of Smac was caspase-dependent.

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#17111171   2007/02/12 Save this To Up

Subcellular localization of fumarase in mammalian cells and tissues.

Fumarase, a mitochondrial matrix protein, is previously indicated to be present in substantial amounts in the cytosol as well. However, recent studies show that newly synthesized human fumarase is efficiently imported into mitochondria with no detectable amount in the cytosol. To clarify its subcellular localization, the subcellular distribution of fumarase in mammalian cells/tissues was examined by a number of different methods. Cell fractionation using either a mitochondria fraction kit or extraction with low concentrations of digitonin, detected no fumarase in a 100,000 g supernatant fraction. Immunofluorescence labeling with an affinity-purified antibody to fumarase and an antibody to the mitochondrial Hsp60 protein showed identical labeling pattern with labeling seen mainly in mitochondria. Detailed studies were performed using high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy to determine the subcellular localization of fumarase in rat tissues, embedded in LR White resin. In thin sections from kidney, liver, heart, adrenal gland and anterior pituitary, strong and specific labeling due to fumarase antibody was only detected in mitochondria. However, in the pancreatic acinar cells, in addition to mitochondria, highly significant labeling was also observed in the zymogen granules and endoplasmic reticulum. The observed labeling in all cases was completely abolished upon omission of the primary antibody indicating that it was specific. In a western blot of purified zymogen granules, a fumarase-antibody cross-reactive protein of the same molecular mass as seen in the mitochondria was present. These results provide evidence that fumarase in mammalian cells/tissues is mainly localized in mitochondria and significant amounts of this protein are not present in the cytosol. However, these studies also reveal that in certain tissues, in addition to mitochondria, this protein is also present at specific extramitochondrial sites. Although the cellular function of fumarase at these extramitochondrial locations is not known, the appearance/localization of fumarase outside mitochondria may help explain how mutations in this mitochondrial protein can give rise to a number of different types of cancers.

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#4206594   1974/05/29 Save this To Up

Genetic control of mitochondrial thymidine kinase in human-mouse and monkey-mouse somatic cell hybrids.

Distinctive thymidine (dT) kinase molecular forms are present in mouse, human, and monkey mitochondria. Disk polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (disk PAGE) analyses have shown that the mitochondrial-specific dT kinases differ from cytosol dT kinases in relative electrophoretic mobilities (Rm). Furthermore, the mouse mitochondrial dT kinase differs in Rm value from primate mitochondrial dT kinases. The mouse and primate cytosol dT kinases can also be distinguished. Disk PAGE analyses have been carried out on the cytosol and mitochondrial dT kinases of human-mouse (WIL-8) and monkey-mouse (mK.CV(III)) somatic cell hybrids in order to learn whether the mitochondria of the hybrid cells contained murine mitochondrial-specific, primate mitochondrial-specific, or both dT kinases. WIL-8 cells were derived from cytosol dT kinase-negative, mitochondrial dT kinase-positive mouse fibro blasts and from cytosol dT kinase-positive, mitochondrial dT kinase-positive human embryonic lung cells; they contained mostly mouse chromosomes and a few human chromosomes, including the determinant for human cytosol dT kinase. The mK.CV(III) cells were derived from cytosol dT kinase-negative, mitochondrial dT kinase-positive mouse kidney cells and from cytosol dT kinase-positive, mitochondrial dT kinase-positive monkey kidney cells; they contained mostly mouse chromosomes and a few monkey chromosomes, including the determinant for monkey cytosol dT kinase. Disk PAGE analyses demonstrated that the mitochondria of human-mouse and monkey-mouse somatic cell hybrids contained the mouse-specific mitochondrial dT kinase but not the human- or monkey-specific mitochondrial dT kinase. These findings suggest that primate cytosol and mitochondrial thymidine kinase genes are coded on different chromosomes.

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