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#27678524   2016/09/28 Save this To Up

A microtubule inhibitor, ABT-751, induces autophagy and delays apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

The objective was to investigate the upstream mechanisms of apoptosis which were triggered by a novel anti-microtubule drug, ABT-751, in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Effects of ABT-751 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric, alkaline comet, soft agar, immunoblotting, CytoID, green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta detection, plasmid transfection, nuclear/cytosol fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, small-hairpin RNA interference and mitochondria/cytosol fractionation assays. Results showed that ABT-751 caused dysregulation of microtubule, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. ABT-751 also induced early autophagy via upregulation of nuclear TP53 and downregulation of the AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Through modulation of the expression levels of DNA damage checkpoint proteins and G2/M cell cycle regulators, ABT-751 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, ABT-751 triggered apoptosis with marked downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, upregulation of mitochondrial BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 and BCL2 like 11 protein levels, and cleavages of caspase 8 (CASP8), CASP9, CASP3 and DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha proteins. Suppression of ROS significantly decreased ABT-751-induced autophagic and apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy significantly increased the percentages of ABT-751-induced apoptotic cells. The autophagy induced by ABT-751 plays a protective role to postpone apoptosis by exerting adaptive responses following microtubule damage, ROS and/or impaired mitochondria.

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#26351264   2015/11/02 Save this To Up

NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.

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AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 5α-Androstan-3β-ol � ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β-

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#22904156   2012/10/16 Save this To Up

α-Crystallin B prevents apoptosis after H2O2 exposure in mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes.

α-Crystallin B (cryAB) is the most abundant small heat shock protein in cardiomyocytes (CMs) and has been shown to have potent antiapoptotic properties. Because the mechanism by which cryAB prevents apoptosis has not been fully characterized, we examined its protective effects at the cellular level by silencing cryAB in mouse neonatal CMs using lentivector-mediated transduction of short hairpin RNAs. Subcellular fractionation of whole hearts showed that cryAB is cytosolic under control conditions, and after H(2)O(2) exposure, it translocates to the mitochondria. Phosphorylated cryAB (PcryAB) is mainly associated with the mitochondria, and any residual cytosolic PcryAB translocates to the mitochondria after H(2)O(2) exposure. H(2)O(2) exposure caused increases in cryAB and PcryAB levels, and cryAB silencing resulted in increased levels of apoptosis after exposure to H(2)O(2). Coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed an apparent interaction of both cryAB and PcryAB with mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC), translocase of outer mitochondrial membranes 20 kDa (TOM 20), caspase 3, and caspase 12 in mouse cardiac tissue. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that the cardioprotective effects of cryAB are mediated by its translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria under conditions of oxidative stress and that cryAB interactions with VDAC, TOM 20, caspase 3, and caspase 12 may be part of its protective mechanism.

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#22449440   2012/04/16 Save this To Up

Standardized flavonoid-rich fraction of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

Artemisia princeps Pampanini is widely used in Eastern traditional medicine for the treatment of circulatory disorders, such as, dysmenorrhea, hematuria, hemorrhoids, and inflammation, and is also used to treat chronic conditions, such as, cancers, ulcers, and digestive disorders.

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#21810437   2011/09/06 Save this To Up

Involvement of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 in goniothalamin-induced TP53-dependent and -independent apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived cells.

The objective was to investigate the upstream apoptotic mechanisms that were triggered by a styrylpyrone derivative, goniothalamin (GTN), in tumor protein p53 (TP53)-positive and -negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-derived cells. Effects of GTN were evaluated by the flow cytometry, alkaline comet assay, immunocytochemistry, small-hairpin RNA interference, mitochondria/cytosol fractionation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting analysis and caspase 3 activity assays in two HCC-derived cell lines. Results indicated that GTN triggered phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, also known as NOXA)-mediated apoptosis via TP53-dependent and -independent pathways. In TP53-positive SK-Hep1 cells, GTN furthermore induced TP53 transcription-dependent and -independent apoptosis. After GTN treatment, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, formation of DNA double-strand breaks, transactivation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 gene, translocation of TP53 and/or PMAIP1 proteins to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspases and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines were sustained. GTN might represent a novel class of anticancer drug that induces apoptosis in HCC-derived cells through PMAIP1 transactivation regardless of the status of TP53 gene.

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#17275856   2007/02/19 Save this To Up

ACTX-8, a cytotoxic L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom, induces apoptosis in Hela cervical cancer cells.

ACTX-8 is a protein isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom in our laboratory. It demonstrates cytotoxic activity on various carcinoma cell lines in vitro. However, the mechanism by which ACTX-8 inhibits cell proliferation remains poorly understood. In this study the influence of ACTX-8 on the activation of apoptotic pathway in Hela cells was investigated. We demonstrated that cell death induced by ACTX-8 was concentration- and time-dependent. Apoptotic changes such as phosphatidyl serine externalization and DNA fragmentation were detected in ACTX-8-treated cells. Caspase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were involved in ACTX-8-induced apoptosis, but pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, could not inhibit cell death induced by ACTX-8 completely, which proved the existence of another pathway for ACTX-8-induced cell death. We found cytochrome c release into cytosol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation in ACTX-8-treated cells, which indicated that mitochondrial pathway played a role in ACTX-8-induced cell apoptosis. The ratio of expression levels of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members was not changed by ACTX-8 treatment. However Bad and Bax were translocated from cytosol into mitochondria, and the coimmunoprecipitation result indicated that in mitochondria Bak and Bcl-xL dissociation was followed by the binding of Bad and Bcl-xL. Taken together, the study indicated mitochondrial pathway played an important role in the ACTX-8-induced apoptosis, which was regulated by Bcl-2 family members.

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#17072349   2007/04/19 Save this To Up

Nucleophosmin is a novel Bax chaperone that regulates apoptotic cell death.

The proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 family protein Bax is a key regulatory point in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the factors controlling the process of Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria have yet to be fully identified and characterized. We performed affinity chromatography using peptides corresponding to the mitochondrial-targeting region of Bax, which is normally sequestered within the inactive structure. The molecular chaperone nucleophosmin was identified as a novel Bax-binding protein by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and proximity assays confirmed the Bax-nucleophosmin protein-protein interaction and verified that nucleophosmin only bound to activated conformationally altered Bax. Confocal microscopy in a cell-based apoptosis model, demonstrated that nucleophosmin translocation from nucleolus to cytosol preceded Bax movement. Specific knockdown of nucleophosmin expression using RNAi attenuated apoptosis as measured by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of the caspase cascade. In a mouse model of ischaemic stroke, subcellular fractionation studies verified that nucleophosmin translocation occurred within 3 h, at a time before Bax translocation but after Bax conformational changes have occurred. Thus, we have elucidated a novel molecular mechanism whereby Bax becomes activated and translocates to the mitochondria to orchestrate mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death, which opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

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#16963632   2006/09/11 Save this To Up

A eukaryote without catalase-containing microbodies: Neurospora crassa exhibits a unique cellular distribution of its four catalases.

Microbodies usually house catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide generated within the organelle by the action of various oxidases. Here we have analyzed whether peroxisomes (i.e., catalase-containing microbodies) exist in Neurospora crassa. Three distinct catalase isoforms were identified by native catalase activity gels under various peroxisome-inducing conditions. Subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation revealed that most of the spectrophotometrically measured activity was present in the light upper fractions, with an additional small peak coinciding with the peak fractions of HEX-1, the marker protein for Woronin bodies, a compartment related to the microbody family. However, neither in-gel assays nor monospecific antibodies generated against the three purified catalases detected the enzymes in any dense organellar fraction. Furthermore, staining of an N. crassa wild-type strain with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and H(2)O(2) did not lead to catalase-dependent reaction products within microbodies. Nonetheless, N. crassa does possess a gene (cat-4) whose product is most similar to the peroxisomal type of monofunctional catalases. This novel protein indeed exhibited catalase activity, but was not localized to microbodies either. We conclude that N. crassa lacks catalase-containing peroxisomes, a characteristic that is probably restricted to a few filamentous fungi that produce little hydrogen peroxide within microbodies.

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#16125124   2005/09/26 Save this To Up

Isolation and characterization of subcellular protein fractions from mouse heart.

In this study, we report different protocols used to obtain highly enriched and well-characterized protein fractions that could be used to determine the subcellular localization of proteins. Different protein fractions (total, cytosolic, total membrane, sarcolemmal, and nuclear) were isolated from mouse heart by a combination of either polytron homogenization or liquid nitrogen pulverization followed by density gradient centrifugation. Triton X-100 was used in specific fractions to help in the solubilization of proteins obtained with fractionation protocols. Following the isolation, enzymatic assays and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate the enrichment and/or cross-contamination of these protein fractions. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Na+/K+-ATPase, mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, glucose-regulated protein, and nucleoporin P62 were used as specific markers for the cytosol, sarcolemma, mitochondria, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus, respectively. The results show that we obtained enriched protein fractions with little to no cross-contamination. These purification protocols allow us to obtain different protein fractions that could be used in a wide variety of studies.

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#16098110   2005/08/15 Save this To Up

Identification, subcellular localization and biochemical characterization of water-soluble heteroglycans (SHG) in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana L.: distinct SHG reside in the cytosol and in the apoplast.

Water-soluble heteroglycans (SHG) were isolated from leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. and from two starch-deficient mutants. Major constituents of the SHG are arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucose. SHG was separated into low (<10 kDa; SHG(S)) and high (>10 kDa; SHG(L)) molecular weight compounds. SHG(S) was resolved into approximately 25 distinct oligoglycans by ion exchange chromatography. SHG(L) was further separated into two subfractions, designated as subfraction I and II, by field flow fractionation. For the intracellular localization of the various SHG compounds several approaches were chosen: first, leaf material was subjected to non-aqueous fractionation. The apolar gradient fractions were characterized by monitoring markers and were used as starting material for the SHG isolation. Subfraction I and SHG(S) exhibited a distribution similar to that of cytosolic markers whereas subfraction II cofractionated with crystalline cellulose. Secondly, intact organelles were isolated and used for SHG isolation. Preparations of intact organelles (mitochondria plus peroxisomes) contained no significant amount of any heteroglycan. In isolated intact microsomes a series of oligoglycans was recovered but neither subfraction I nor II. In in vitro assays using glucose 1-phosphate and recombinant cytosolic (Pho 2) phosphorylase both SHG(S) and subfraction I acted as glucosyl acceptor whereas subfraction II was essentially inactive. Rabbit muscle phosphorylase a did not utilize any of the plant glycans indicating a specific Pho 2-glycan interaction. As revealed by in vivo labeling experiments using 14CO2 carbon fluxes into subfraction I and II differed. Furthermore, in leaves the pool size of subfraction I varied during the light-dark regime.

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