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           Search results for: Monoclonal ANTI-D-tag M2-Alkaline Phosphatase produced in mouse Antibody   

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Enhancement of lateral flow immunoassay by alkaline phosphatase: a simple and highly sensitive test for potato virus X.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was used as an amplification tool in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Potato virus Х (PVX) was selected as a target analyte because of its high economic importance. Two conjugates of gold nanoparticles were applied, one with mouse monoclonal antibody against PVX and one with ALP-labeled antibody against mouse IgG. They were immobilized to two fiberglass membranes on the test strip for use in LFIA. After exposure to the sample, a substrate for ALP (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium) was dropped on the test strip. The insoluble dark-violet diformazan produced by ALP precipitated on the membrane and significantly increased the color intensity of the control and test zones. The limit of detection (0.3 ng mL) was 27 times lower than that of conventional LFIA for both buffer and potato leaf extracts. The ALP-enhanced LFIA does not require additional preparation procedures or washing steps and may be used by nontrained persons in resource-limited conditions. The new method of enhancement is highly promising and may lead to application for routine LFIA in different areas. Graphical abstract Two gold nanoparticles (GNP) conjugates were used - the first with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (GNP-mAb); the second - alkaline phosphatase-labeled antibody against mAb (GNP-anti-mAb-ALP). The immuno complexes are captured by the polyclonal antibodies (pAb) in the test zone. Addition of the substrate solution (BCIP/NBT) results in the accumulation of the insoluble colored product and in a significance increase in color intensity.

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Innate IFN-γ-Producing Cells Developing in the Absence of IL-2 Receptor Common γ-Chain.

IFN-γ is known to be predominantly produced by lymphoid cells such as certain subsets of T cells, NK cells, and other group 1 innate lymphoid cells. In this study, we used IFN-γ reporter mouse models to search for additional cells capable of secreting this cytokine. We identified a novel and rare population of nonconventional IFN-γ-producing cells of hematopoietic origin that were characterized by the expression of Thy1.2 and the lack of lymphoid, myeloid, and NK lineage markers. The expression of IFN-γ by this population was higher in the liver and lower in the spleen. Furthermore, these cells were present in mice lacking both the and the common γ-chain (γc) genes (Rag2γc), indicating their innate nature and their γc cytokine independence. Rag2γc mice are as resistant to as Rag2 mice, whereas Rag2 mice lacking IFN-γ are more susceptible than either or Rag2γc These lineage-negative CD45/Thy1.2 cells are found within the mycobacterially induced granulomatous structure in the livers of infected Rag2γc animals and are adjacent to macrophages that expressed inducible NO synthase, suggesting a potential protective role for these IFN-γ-producing cells. Accordingly, Thy1.2-specific mAb administration to infected Rag2γc animals increased growth in the liver. Overall, our results demonstrate that a population of Thy1.2 non-NK innate-like cells present in the liver expresses IFN-γ and can confer protection against infection in immunocompromised mice.

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Chemiluminescence reaction kinetics-resolved multianalyte immunoassay strategy using a bispecific monoclonal antibody as the unique recognition reagent.

The multianalyte immunoassay (MIA) has attracted increasing attention due to its high sample throughput, short assay time, low sample consumption, and reduced overall cost. However, up to now, the reported MIA methods commonly require multiple antibodies since each antibody can recognize only one antigen. Herein, a novel bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMcAb) that could bind methyl parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously was produced by a hybrid hybridomas strategy. A chemiluminescence (CL) reaction kinetics-resolved strategy was designed for MIA of methyl parathion and imidacloprid using the BsMcAb as the unique recognition reagent. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were adopted as the signal probes to tag the haptens of the two pesticides due to their very different CL kinetic characteristics. After competitive immunoreactions, the HRP-tagged methyl parathion hapten and the ALP-tagged imidacloprid hapten were simultaneously bound to the BsMcAb since there were two different antigen-binding sites in it. Then, two CL reactions were simultaneously triggered by adding the CL coreactants, and the signals for methyl parathion and imidacloprid detections were collected at 0.6 and 1000 s, respectively. The linear ranges for methyl parathion and imidacloprid were both 1.0-500 ng/mL, with detection limits of 0.33 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully used to detect pesticides spiked in ginseng and American ginseng with acceptable recoveries of 80-118%. This proof-of-principle work demonstrated the feasibility of MIA using only one antibody.

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Lymphocyte-mediated macrophage apoptosis during IL-12 stimulation.

In contrast to the well known immunostimulatory roles of IL-12, little has been known about its immunosuppressive roles. In the present study, IL-12-activated lymphocyte-mediated macrophage apoptosis was investigated by employing murine lymphocyte/macrophage cocultures. IL-12-activated lymphocytes and their culture supernatants induced an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in macrophages. The NO synthesis was markedly inhibited by blocking antibodies to IFN-γ and TNF-α, suggesting the key role of these lymphocyte cytokines in mediating the NO synthesis. The endogenously produced NO inhibited macrophage proliferation, and induced apoptosis in concordance with the accumulation of p53, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and DR5, and the activation of caspase-3, processes that were inhibited by N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine, aminoguanidine (NO synthase inhibitors) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (an NO scavenger). These results were further supported by the findings obtained from the experiments employing IFN-γ-knockout and iNOS-knockout mice. Our study demonstrated a novel, non-contact-dependent mechanism of macrophage suppression by IL-12-activated lymphocytes: induction of growth inhibition and apoptosis of macrophages due to endogenous NO synthesis induced by cytokines secreted from IL-12-activated lymphocytes.

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Production of monoclonal antibodies for Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase and patient sera screening using sandwich ELISA.

Malaria is a worldwide infectious disease. There are many diagnostic kits to detect malaria infection. However, the sensitivity of these diagnostic kits remains a problem. To develop a diagnostic kit for malaria that has high sensitivity, it is necessary to produce monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) with high affinity. The present study was undertaken to produce hybridoma cells that can be used to generate McAbs with high affinity and specificity against Plasmodium vivax lactate dehydrogenase (pvLDH). In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant polypeptides that encode pvLDH. McAbs against pvLDH were produced according to the protocol of hybridoma technique using myeloma cells (SP2/0 cell lines). The McAbs were characterized by isotyping and by Western blot analysis. Two McAbs (D2H and D7E) against pvLDH antigen were obtained. The isotypes of D2H and D7E were IgG2b. They recognize 33 kDa proteins that were defined as pvLDH by Western blot analysis. In the affinity test, D2H and D7E showed positively optical density value until each McAbs were serially diluted at concentrations of 0.156 and 0.078 μg/ml, respectively. To evaluate sensitivity and specificity against clinical specimens of P. vivax, purified McAbs were tested with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and blood samples (n = 180) of P. vivax patients using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, showing the 98% sensitivity. We suggest that McAbs produced in this study may be used for developing efficient and rapid diagnostic kits.

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Regulation of human osteoclast development by dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP).

Osteoclasts (OC) are bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells that are generated via fusion of OC precursors (OCP). The frequency of OCP is elevated in patients with erosive inflammatory arthritis and metabolic bone diseases. Although many cytokines and cell surface receptors are known to participate in osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this cellular transformation are poorly understood. Herein, we focused our studies on the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a seven-pass transmembrane receptor-like protein known to be essential for cell-to-cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. We identified an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in the cytoplasmic tail of DC-STAMP, and developed an anti-DC-STAMP monoclonal antibody 1A2 that detected DC-STAMP expression on human tumor giant cells, blocked OC formation in vitro, and distinguished four patterns of human PBMC with a positive correlation to OC potential. In freshly isolated monocytes, DC-STAMP(high) cells produced a higher number of OC in culture than DC-STAMP(low) cells and the surface expression of DC-STAMP gradually declined during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, we showed that DC-STAMP is phosphorylated on its tyrosine residues and physically interacts with SHP-1 and CD16, an SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase and an ITAM-associated protein, respectively. Taken together, these data show that DC-STAMP is a potential OCP biomarker in inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, in addition to its effect on cell fusion, DC-STAMP dynamically regulates cell signaling during osteoclastogenesis.

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RANKL induces heterogeneous DC-STAMP(lo) and DC-STAMP(hi) osteoclast precursors of which the DC-STAMP(lo) precursors are the master fusogens.

Osteoclasts (OC) are multinucleated bone resorbing cells that form via RANKL-induced fusion of heterogeneous mononuclear OC precursors (OCP). Currently, there are no unique surface markers to distinguish these OCP populations, which are diagnostic for erosive and metabolic bone diseases using culture assays. Thus, we investigated expression of DC-STAMP, a surface receptor required for OCP fusion, during osteoclastogenesis in vitro using a novel monoclonal antibody (1A2). Immunoprecipitation-Western blot analysis of OCP membrane proteins detected 106 kDa dimeric and 53 kDa monomeric DC-STAMP in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions, respectively, with greater sensitivity versus rabbit anti-sera (KR104). 1A2 also detected 99.9% of undifferentiated monocytes as a single population by flow cytometry with a MFI 100-fold over background, while KR104 was not useful in this assay. Functionally, 1A2 inhibited OCP fusion in vitro. RANKL stimulation of OCP induced DC-STAMP(lo) and DC-STAMP(hi) cells, which mature into OC and mononuclear cells respectively as determined by fluorescent microscopy and TRAP assays. Addition of DC-STAMP(hi) cells to purified DC-STAMP(lo) cultures produced larger, more nucleated OC vs. pure DC-STAMP(lo) cultures. RT-qPCR analysis of these two populations showed that OC markers (Trap and Oc-stamp) and fusogenic gene expression (Cd9 and Cd47), were significantly increased in DC-STAMP(lo) vs. DC-STAMP(hi) cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that DC-STAMP is expressed on OCP as a dimer, which is efficiently detected by 1A2 via flow cytometry. RANKL induces osteoclastogenesis by stimulating DC-STAMP internalization in some OCP, and these DC-STAMP(lo) cells display the "master fusogen" phenotype. In contrast, DC-STAMP(hi) OCP can only act as mononuclear donors.

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Pretargeting CD45 enhances the selective delivery of radiation to hematolymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates.

Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) is designed to enhance the directed delivery of radionuclides to malignant cells. Through a series of studies in 19 nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis), the potential therapeutic advantage of anti-CD45 PRIT was evaluated. Anti-CD45 PRIT demonstrated a significant improvement in target-to-normal organ ratios of absorbed radiation compared with directly radiolabeled bivalent antibody (conventional radioimmunotherapy [RIT]). Radio-DOTA-biotin administered 48 hours after anti-CD45 streptavidin fusion protein (FP) [BC8 (scFv)(4)SA] produced markedly lower concentrations of radiation in nontarget tissues compared with conventional RIT. PRIT generated superior target:normal organ ratios in the blood, lung, and liver (10.3:1, 18.9:1, and 9.9:1, respectively) compared with the conventional RIT controls (2.6:1, 6.4:1, and 2.9:1, respectively). The FP demonstrated superior retention in target tissues relative to comparable directly radiolabeled bivalent anti-CD45 RIT. The time point of administration of the second step radiolabeled ligand (radio-DOTA-biotin) significantly impacted the biodistribution of radioactivity in target tissues. Rapid clearance of the FP from the circulation rendered unnecessary the addition of a synthetic clearing agent in this model. These results support proceeding to anti-CD45 PRIT clinical trials for patients with both leukemia and lymphoma.

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Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts with the HB22.7 anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody and phosphatase inhibitors improves efficacy.

To examine the role of phosphatase inhibition on anti-CD22, HB22.7-mediated lymphomacidal effects.

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Localization of insulinoma associated protein 2, IA-2 in mouse neuroendocrine tissues using two novel monoclonal antibodies.

Insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family that is localized on the insulin granule membrane. IA-2 is also well known as one of the major autoantigens in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. IA-2 gene deficient mice were recently established and showed abnormalities in insulin secretion. Thus, detailed localization of IA-2 was studied using wild-type and IA-2 gene deficient mice.

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