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#25411475   2014/12/02 Save this To Up

Adipose-derived stromal cells promote allograft tolerance induction.

Amputations and unsalvageable injuries with devastating tissue loss are common in the combat wounded. Reconstructive transplantation in the civilian setting using vascular composite allotransplants (VCAs) with multiple tissues (skin, muscle, nerve, bone) combined with long-term multidrug immunosuppression has been encouraging. However, skin rejection remains a critical complication. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are easily obtained from normal individuals in high numbers, precluding ex vivo expansion. The reparative function and paracrine immunomodulatory capacity of ASCs has gained considerable attention. The present study investigated whether ASCs facilitate long-term skin allograft survival. ASCs were isolated from fresh human subcutaneous adipose lipoaspirate. Full-thickness skin grafts from BALB/c mice were transplanted onto the dorsal flanks of C57BL/6 mice treated with five doses of anti-CD4/CD8 monoclonal antibodies (10 mg/kg) on days 0, +2, +5, +7, and +14 relative to skin grafting. A single nonmyeloablative low dose of busulfan (5 mg/kg) was given on day +5. Seven days after skin transplantation, ASCs (3×10(6)) were infused i.v. with or without donor bone marrow cells (BMCs; 5×10(5)). ASC+BMC coinfusion with minimal conditioning led to stable lymphoid and myeloid macrochimerism, deletion of alloreactive T cells, expansion of regulatory T cells, and long-term allograft survival (>200 days). ASCs constitutively produced high levels of anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, APO-1/Fas (CD95), and programmed cell death-1 ligand-2. These findings serve as a foundation for developing a translational advanced VCA protocol, embodying both ASCs and low-dose donor BMCs, in nonhuman primates, with the goal of enhancing functional outcomes and eliminating the complications associated with long-term immunosuppression.

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#21718313   2011/08/09 Save this To Up

Increased interleukin-10 production by ASC-deficient CD4+ T cells impairs bystander T-cell proliferation.

Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) is an important component of the inflammasome, functioning as an adaptor protein that facilitates the recruitment and activation of procaspases that in turn promote the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Despite initial focus on the inflammatory properties of ASC there is emerging evidence that highlights the importance of ASC in facilitating adaptive immune responses. However, the cellular and molecular basis for the involvement of ASC in adaptive immunity remains largely unexplored. We have previously demonstrated that activated ASC-deficient T cells have dampened proliferative responses. We have therefore explored the underlying cellular mechanism(s) by which ASC regulates T-cell proliferation. We show that under activating conditions (anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation) in bulk T-cell cultures the presence of ASC(-/-) CD4(+) T cells is sufficient to suppress the proliferative responses of neighbouring T cells. Furthermore, ASC(-/-) CD4(+) T cells upon activation exhibit a suppressive cytokine profile, with elevated production of IL-10 and reduced secretion of T helper type 1 cytokines, interferon-γ and IL-2. This increase in IL-10 secretion within the activated ASC(-/-) CD4(+) T-cell compartment was not associated with a proportional increase in conventional Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Interestingly, when equal numbers of fluorescence-activated cell sorted ASC(+/+) and ASC(-/-) Treg cells (CD4(+) CD44(intermediate/high) CD25(+)) were activated in vitro, the ASC(-/-) fraction produced significantly more IL-10 than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that ASC(-/-) Treg cells have greater suppressive capacity. Collectively, these results imply that the ASC may influence the development and functioning of Treg cells.

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#10188727   1999/04/13 Save this To Up

A comparison of an anti-gastrin antibody and cytotoxic drugs in the therapy of human gastric ascites in SCID mice.

The therapeutic effect of antibodies raised by the immunogen Gastrimmune was compared with both a CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist, CI-988, and 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin in a gastric cancer model. The human gastric ascites cell line, MGLVA1asc, produced and secreted progastrin and glycine-extended gastrin as determined by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry. Cells were also stained with an antiserum directed against the human CCKB/gastrin receptor. MGLVAI asc cells were injected i.p. into SCID mice. Antibodies raised by Gastrimmune immunization of rabbits (affinity for G17 of 0.15 nM and GlyG17 of 0.47 nM) were passively infused i.p. and significantly enhanced survival by up to 5 days (p=0.0024 from vehicle controls). The enhancement in survival was not significantly different from that achieved by treatment with 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin. A CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist, CI-988, did not affect survival with cells injected at 7.5 x 10(5) cells/mouse but significantly increased the survival of mice injected with a lower cell innoculum of 5 x 10(5) cells/mouse from 30 to 35 days (p=0.0186). At this lower innoculum antibodies raised by Gastrimmune induced complete survival in 2 animals with the remaining dead by day 36 (p=0.0022). Thus, both endocrine and autocrine pathways mediated by precursor and mature gastrin molecules may be jointly operational in the gastric cancer scenario and may be important targets for therapeutic agents.

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