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Enhanced post-traumatic headache-like behaviors and diminished contribution of peripheral CGRP in female rats following a mild closed head injury.

Females are thought to have increased risk of developing post-traumatic headache following a traumatic head injury or concussion. However, the processes underlying this susceptibility remain unclear. We previously demonstrated the development of post-traumatic headache-like pain behaviors in a male rat model of mild closed head injury, along with the ability of sumatriptan and an anti-calcitonin-gene-related peptide monoclonal antibody to ameliorate these behaviors. Here, we conducted a follow-up study to explore the development of post-traumatic headache-like behaviors and the effectiveness of these headache therapies in females subjected to the same head trauma protocol.

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Anti-PD-1 treatment impairs opioid antinociception in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Emerging immunotherapies with monoclonal antibodies against programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) have shown success in treating cancers. However, PD-1 signaling in neurons is largely unknown. We recently reported that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) primary sensory neurons express PD-1 and activation of PD-1 inhibits neuronal excitability and pain. Opioids are mainstay treatments for cancer pain, and morphine produces antinociception via mu opioid receptor (MOR). Here, we report that morphine antinociception and MOR signaling require neuronal PD-1. Morphine-induced antinociception after systemic or intrathecal injection was compromised in mice. Morphine antinociception was also diminished in wild-type mice after intravenous or intrathecal administration of nivolumab, a clinically used anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody. In mouse models of inflammatory, neuropathic, and cancer pain, spinal morphine antinociception was compromised in mice. MOR and PD-1 are coexpressed in sensory neurons and their axons in mouse and human DRG tissues. Morphine produced antinociception by (i) suppressing calcium currents in DRG neurons, (ii) suppressing excitatory synaptic transmission, and (iii) inducing outward currents in spinal cord neurons; all of these actions were impaired by PD-1 blockade in mice. Loss of PD-1 also enhanced opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance and potentiates opioid-induced microgliosis and long-term potentiation in the spinal cord in mice. Last, intrathecal infusion of nivolumab inhibited intrathecal morphine-induced antinociception in nonhuman primates. Our findings demonstrate that PD-1 regulates opioid receptor signaling in nociceptive neurons, leading to altered opioid-induced antinociception in rodents and nonhuman primates.

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Structural and Functional Comparison of Fumarylacetoacetate Domain Containing Protein 1 (FAHD1) in Human and Mouse.

FAH domain containing protein 1 (FAHD1) is a mammalian mitochondrial protein, displaying bifunctionality as acylpyruvate hydrolase (ApH) and oxaloacetate decarboxylase (ODx) activity. We report the crystal structure of mouse FAHD1 and structural mapping of the active site of mouse FAHD1. Despite high structural similarity with human FAHD1, a rabbit monoclonal antibody could be produced that is able to recognize mouse FAHD1, but not the human form, whereas a polyclonal antibody recognized both proteins. Epitope mapping in combination with our deposited crystal structures revealed that the epitope overlaps with a reported SIRT3 deacetylation site in mouse FAHD1.

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Development of monoclonal antibodies against melon necrotic spot virus and their use for virus detection.

Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) is endemic in cucurbit crops worldwide, causing epidemic outbreaks from time to time. MNSV is transmitted in nature by a soil-inhabiting fungus and also through seeds, making its detection in seed certification programs a necessity. Polyclonal antisera and RT-PCR-based detection assays have been developed for MNSV, but up to now no monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described for this virus. In this study, we have produced mAbs in BALB/c mice against the MNSV over-expressed coat protein (CP). Titers of the antibodies produced against the recombinant MNSV CP ranged around 10 - 10 and the IgG yields for each mAb from ascitic fluids ranged from 1.51 to 6 mg/mL. Supernatants from ten hybridoma cell lines were evaluated in Western blot analysis and seven of them efficiently recognized the MNSV CP in crude extracts of MNSV-infected leaf material; the 2D4H4 hybridoma cell line was selected for further purification and characterization. The isotype of the 2D4H4 immunoglobulin class was identified as IgG2a and kappa light-chain. Western-blot analyses showed that mAb 2D4H4 provided sensitive and specific detection of MNSV. A TAS-ELISA protocol was developed for mAb 2D4H4. Using this protocol, limits of detection of 1:20,480 and 1:10,240 (g/mL, w/v) were attained for the homologous isolate and a heterologous MNSV isolate, respectively. Moreover, mAb 2D4H4 was used successfully to localize the MNSV CP in infected cells by immunocytochemistry/transmission electron microscopy, illustrating the usefulness of this mAb for advanced cellular studies.

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Cysteine String Proteins.

Cysteine string protein (CSP) was discovered by use of a synapse-specific, monoclonal antibody to screen a cDNA expression library in Drosophila. A vertebrate CSP homolog was later identified and shown to co-purify with synaptic vesicles. CSP-α is now recognized as a membrane constituent of many regulated secretory organelles. Knockout of the csp gene in Drosophila produced temperature-sensitive paralysis reflecting a loss of evoked (but not spontaneous) transmitter release. However, CSP's role in regulated exocytosis remains ambiguous. Fruit flies lacking the csp gene also exhibited nerve terminal degeneration as did mice deficient in the csp-α gene. This phenotype has been ascribed to the depletion of a functional pool of the t-SNARE, SNAP-25. However, recent studies showing that an endosomal pool of CSP-α contributes to a novel, protein-export pathway argues that CSP's role in neurodegeneration is more complex. Clients of this later pathway include tau and α-synuclein, proteins linked to neurodegeneration. Additionally, mutations in the csp-α gene cause an adult-onset, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and diminished CSP-α expression is an early event in Alzheimer's disease. Collectively, these findings indicate that much remains to be learned about the role of CSPs in cellular secretory pathways and human disease.

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