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#28765892   2017/08/02 Save this To Up

Production of bFGF monoclonal antibody and its inhibition of metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma.

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) are associated with drug resistance in lung cancer. In the present study, mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against human bFGF, targeting the binding site of bFGF with FGFR1 were produced, and the antitumor activity and inhibition of metastasis was studied in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC). A total of four hybridoma cell strains that stably secreted bFGF mAb were obtained. mAbE12 was selected as the most effective for use in the following studies, with a relative affinity constant of 5.66x108 l/mol. mAbE12 was demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, mAbE12 blocked migration and metastasis of LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. This occurred due to a mAbE12‑induced upregulation of E‑cadherin expression through the protein kinase B‑glycogen synthase kinase 3 β‑Snail pathway. These results suggested that mAbE12 may be a potential antibody for the treatment of lung cancer.

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Small cell lung carcinoma Non small cell lung carci Non small cell lung carci Lung small cell carcinoma Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon HIV1 integrase antibody, Anti 3 DG imidazolone Mon Lung carcinoma and normal Lung carcinoma and normal

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#28433633   2017/04/23 Save this To Up

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a potential therapeutic target for EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas contain a subpopulation of cells that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and can grow independently of EGFR. To kill these cancer cells, we need a novel therapeutic approach other than EGFR inhibitors. If a molecule is specifically expressed on the cell surface of such EGFR-independent EGFR-mutant cancer cells, it can be a therapeutic target. We found that a mesenchymal EGFR-independent subline derived from HCC827 cells, an EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell line, expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to a greater extent than its parental cells. ACE2 was also expressed at least partially in most of the primary EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas examined, and the ACE2 expression level in the cancer cells was much higher than that in normal lung epithelial cells. In addition, we developed an anti-ACE2 mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed H8R64, that was internalized by ACE2-expressing cells. If an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a humanized mAb based on H8R64 and a potent anticancer drug were produced, it could be effective for the treatment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas.

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PERMANENT AQUEOUS MOUNTIN MOUSE ANTI CANINE DISTEMP MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD NATIVE HUMAN PROLACTIN, P RABBIT ANTI GSK3 BETA (pS Lung adenocarcinoma (grad 10x ELISA WASH BUFFER, Pr 10X PHOSPHATE BUFFERED SA Human Angiotensin convert

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#28377452   2017/04/05 Save this To Up

Differential Expression of VEGFA Isoforms Regulates Metastasis and Response to Anti-VEGFA Therapy in Sarcoma.

Elevated plasma concentrations of soluble VEGFA isoforms are associated with poor prognosis in parallel with improved response to treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody bevacizumab. To uncover the underlying mechanism to these observations, we administered anti-VEGFA therapy to mice bearing luminescent mouse fibrosarcomas expressing single VEGFA isoforms or their wild-type counterparts expressing all isoforms (fs120, fs164, fs188, or fsWT). Expression of the more soluble isoforms conferred an advantage for lung metastasis from subcutaneous tumors (fs120/164 vs. fs188/WT); fs120 cells also produced more lung colonies than fs188 cells when injected intravenously. Metastasis from subcutaneous fs120 tumors was more sensitive than fs188 to treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody B20-4.1.1. Despite elevated plasma levels of VEGFA in fs120 tumor-bearing mice and a dependence on VEGF receptor 1 activity for metastasis to the lung, B20-4.1.1 did not affect survival in the lung on intravenous injection. B20-4.1.1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and decreased vascular density in both fs120 and fs188 tumors. However, migration of fs120, but not fs188 cells, in vitro was inhibited by B20-4.1.1. The greater survival of fs120 cells in the lung was associated with VEGFR1-dependent accumulation of CD11b-positive myeloid cells and higher expression of the VEGFR1 ligand, PlGF2, by the fs120 cells in vitro and in the plasma and lungs of fs120 tumor-bearing mice. We conclude that soluble VEGFA isoform expression increases fibrosarcoma metastasis through multiple mechanisms that vary in their sensitivity to anti-VEGF/VEGFR inhibition, with VEGFA-targeted therapy suppressing metastasis through effects on the primary tumor rather than the metastatic site. Cancer Res; 77(10); 2633-46. ©2017 AACR.

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#28132803   2017/01/30 Save this To Up

Combined blockade of Tim-3 and MEK inhibitor enhances the efficacy against melanoma.

Insights into the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and immune checkpoints have led combined targeted therapy and immunotherapy to be a promising regimen. Trametinib, as a mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor, has demonstrated effectiveness in patients with advanced melanoma. T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3), an immune checkpoint molecule, participates in multiple negative regulation of antitumor immunity. We for the first time to our knowledge reported the combination of trametinib and anti-Tim-3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in treating B16-F10 melanoma mice. We discovered that trametinib remarkably promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation while inhibition of MEK improved the expression of Tim-3 and caused the decrease of CD8(+) T cells; to the contrary, anti-Tim-3 mAb enhanced antitumor immunity by stimulating CD8(+) T cells, thus the combined therapy produced potent antitumor effect cooperatively. Taken together, our study provides compelling evidence for combining trametinib and anti-Tim-3 mAb as a potential valuable regimen in treating melanoma.

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#27869438   2016/11/21 Save this To Up

Immunology Update: Biologics.

Biologics are substances made from a living organism or its products. These include genes, proteins (eg, antibodies, receptors, enzymes, inhibitors), recombinant proteins, and fusion proteins. Biologics often are produced using recombinant DNA technology. For example, monoclonal antibodies are produced by inserting human genes into immortalized cell cultures, which then produce the gene product (ie, an antibody) in large quantity. Another approach is to fuse genetic material from nonhuman sources (eg, mice) with human genetic material. The fused gene is inserted into a tissue culture that produces the gene product (ie, a chimeric monoclonal antibody). Biologics are used to manage many conditions, including malignant and nonmalignant conditions. They are widely used in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 [formerly HER2 or HER2/neu])-positive breast cancer. They also are used in the treatment of leukemias, lymphomas, and colorectal and lung cancer. Biologics improve outcomes in autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis. Other uses include erythropoietin for renal failure-associated anemia and the new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors for treatment of patients with persistently elevated low-density lipoprotein levels despite statin treatment who are at high risk of cardiovascular events.

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#27597525   2016/09/30 Save this To Up

An animal model of Miller Fisher syndrome: Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide is produced by the autoimmune attack of nerve terminals and activates Schwann cells.

The neuromuscular junction is a tripartite synapse composed of the presynaptic nerve terminal, the muscle and perisynaptic Schwann cells. Its functionality is essential for the execution of body movements and is compromised in a number of disorders, including Miller Fisher syndrome, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome: this autoimmune peripheral neuropathy is triggered by autoantibodies specific for the polysialogangliosides GQ1b and GT1a present in motor axon terminals, including those innervating ocular muscles, and in sensory neurons. Their binding to the presynaptic membrane activates the complement cascade, leading to a nerve degeneration that resembles that caused by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins. Here we have studied the intra- and inter-cellular signaling triggered by the binding and complement activation of a mouse monoclonal anti-GQ1b/GT1a antibody to primary cultures of spinal cord motor neurons and cerebellar granular neurons. We found that a membrane attack complex is rapidly assembled following antibody binding, leading to calcium accumulation, which affects mitochondrial functionality. Consequently, using fluorescent probes specific for mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, we found that this reactive oxygen species is rapidly produced by mitochondria of damaged neurons, and that it triggers the activation of the MAP kinase pathway in Schwann cells. These results throw light on the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Miller Fisher syndrome, and may well be relevant to other pathologies of the motor axon terminals, including some subtypes of the Guillain Barré syndrome.

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#27609583   2016/09/09 Save this To Up

[Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibodies against chicken cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (cChk2)].

Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chicken cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (cChk2). Methods The cChk2 gene was amplified by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-3. After induced by IPTG, cChk2 was expressed in BL21 (DE3) E.coli cells and analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine its soluability. BALB/c mice were immunized with cChk2 protein peritoneally. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blotting were used to detect anti-serum; if the detection result was positive, IFA and limited dilution was performed to screen hybridoma clones that produced antibodies against cChk2. Results cChk2 was mainly expressed in inclusion bodies. The anti-sera were able to recognize Chk2. Nine positive hybridoma clones were obtained and identified as 1F4, 2D9, 2G1, 3D9, 3E3, 4B5, 4E2, 5C9 and 5F7. Conclusion The study has prepared mAbs against cChk2 with a good specificity and a high titer.

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#27298212   2016/08/22 Save this To Up

Design, expression and evaluation of a novel humanized single chain antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

Various strategies have been attempted for targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as an essential biomarker in a variety of cancers. Several anti-EGFR antibodies including cetuximab are used in clinics for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing colorectal and head and neck cancers but the efficiency of these antibodies is threatened by their large size and chimeric nature. Humanized single chains antibodies (huscFv) are smaller generation of antibodies with lower immunogenicity may overcome these limitations. This article reports production and evaluation of a novel humanized anti-EGFR scFv. The CDRs of cetuximab heavy and light chains were grafted onto human antibody frameworks as framework donors. To maintain the antigen binding affinity of murine antibody, the murine vernier zone residues were retained in framework regions of huscFv. Additionally, two point mutations in CDR-L1 and CDR-L3 and three point mutations in CDR-H2 and CDR-H3 loops of the humanized scFv (huscFv) were introduced to increase affinity of the huscFv to EGFR. Analysis of results demonstrated that the humanness degree of resultant huscFv was increased as 19%. HuscFv was expressed in BL21 (DE3) and affinity purified via Ni-NTA column. The reactivity of huscFv with EGFR was evaluated by ELISA and dot blot techniques. Analysis by ELISA and dot blot showed that the huscFv was able to recognize and react with EGFR. Toxicity analysis by MTT assay indicated an inhibitory effect on growth of EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells. In conclusion, the huscFv produced in this study revealed decreased immunogenicity while retained growth inhibitory effect on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.

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#26803520   2016/02/13 Save this To Up

The role of the Annexin-A1/FPR2 system in the regulation of mast cell degranulation provoked by compound 48/80 and in the inhibitory action of nedocromil.

1.We investigated the role of Annexin (ANX)-A1 and its receptor, ALX/FPR2, in the regulation of mast cell degranulation produced by compound 48/80. 2.Both human cord-blood derived mast cells (CBDMCs) and murine bone marrow derived mast cells (BMDMCs) release phosphorylated ANX-A1 during treatment with glucocorticoids or the mast cell 'stabilising' drugs ketotifen and nedocromil. 3.Compound 48/80 also stimulated ANX-A1 phosphorylation and release and this was also potentiated by nedocromil. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to compound 48/80. 4.Nedocromil and ketotifen potently inhibited the release of histamine, PGD2, tryptase and β-hexosaminidase from mast cells challenged with compound 48/80. Anti-ANX-A1 neutralising Mabs prevented the inhibitory effect of these drugs. 5.BMDMCs derived from Anx-A1−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil or ketotifen but cells retained their sensitivity to the inhibitory action of hu-r-ANX-A1. 6.The fpr2/3 antagonist WRW4 blocked the action of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine, release. BMDMCs derived from fpr2/3−/− mice were insensitive to the inhibitory effects of nedocromil on PGD2, but not histamine release. 7.Compound 48/80 stimulated both p38 and JNK phosphorylation in CBDMCs and this was inhibited by nedocromil. Inhibition of p38 phosphorylation was ANX-A1 dependent. 8.We conclude that ANX-A1 is an important regulator of mast cell reactivity to compound 48/80 exerting a negative feedback effect through a mechanism that depends at least partly on the FPR receptor.

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#26671532   2016/03/17 Save this To Up

A human IgG-like bispecific antibody co-targeting epidermal growth factor receptor and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 for enhanced antitumor activity.

Both Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) play critical roles in tumorigenesis. We hypothesized co-targeting EGFR and VEGFR2 using a bispecific antibody might have significant therapeutic potential. Here,we designed and produced a human IgG-like bispecific antibody (Bi-Ab) based on the variable regions of cetuximab (an anti-EGFR antibody) and mAb-04 (an anti-VEGFR2 antibody developed in our lab) . The Bi-Ab was found to inhibit the proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells via ablating phosphorylation of receptor and downstream signaling. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated against established HT-29 and SKOV-3 xenografts grown in nude mice. Studies revealed our Bi-Ab was able to restrain xenografted tumor growth and prolong survival of mice through inhibiting cell proliferation,promoting apoptosis and anti-angiogenesis. In contrast to cetuximab or mAb-04 alone, our Bi-Ab exhibits enhanced antitumor activity and has equal or slightly superior activity to their combination (Combi). It shows promise as a therapeutic agent, especially for use against tumors EGFR and/or VEGFR2 over-expressing malignancies.

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