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           Search results for: Monoclonal Anti-dEGF Receptor, Cytoplasmic Domain produced in mouse Antibody   

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The Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Mouse TLT-1 Suggests That TLT-1 Plays a Role in Wound Healing.

Platelets play a vital role in hemostasis and inflammation. The membrane receptor TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT-1) is involved in platelet aggregation, bleeding, and inflammation, and it is localized in the α-granules of platelets. Upon platelet activation, TLT-1 is released from α-granules both in its transmembrane form and as a soluble fragment (sTLT-1). Higher levels of sTLT-1 have been detected in the plasma of patients with acute inflammation or sepsis, suggesting an important role for TLT-1 during inflammation. However, the roles of TLT-1 in hemostasis and inflammation are not well understood. We are developing the mouse model of TLT-1 to mechanistically test clinical associations of TLT-1 in health and disease. To facilitate our studies, monoclonal murine TLT-1 (mTLT-1) antibodies were produced by the immunization of a rabbit using the negatively charged region of the mTLT-1 extracellular domain PPVPGPREGEEAEDEK. In the present study, we demonstrate that two selected clones, 4.6 and 4.8, are suitable for the detection of mTLT-1 by western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent staining, flow cytometry and inhibit platelet aggregation in aggregometry assays. In addition, we found that the topical administration of clone 4.8 delayed the wound healing process in an experimental burn model. These results suggest that TLT-1 plays an important role in wound healing and because both clones specifically detect mTLT-1, they are suitable to further develop TLT-1 based models of inflammation and hemostasis in vivo.

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Rat monoclonal anti mouse Monoclonal Anti Alkaline Mouse Anti-Insulin(1G11) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1G11) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1D4:) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1D4 ) Measles Virus Nucleoprote Mouse Anti-Insulin(1G11) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1G11) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1G11) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1D4 ) Mouse Anti-Insulin(1D4:)

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Domain-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human Rev-erbβ.

The nuclear receptor Rev-erbβ is a potent transcriptional factor whose functional study has been limited by the lack of suitable antibodies against it. To better understand Rev-erbβ's biological roles, we generated five hybridoma cell lines secreting antibodies against human Rev-erbβ in mice immunized with the purified, prokaryotically expressed recombinant Rev-erbβ-6His fusion protein. Using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses, all the five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) showed strong immunoreactivity to both prokaryotically and eukaryotically expressed recombinant Rev-erbβ. An immunoprecipitation study showed that all five monoclonal antibodies against Rev-erbβ were able to pull down the recombinant Rev-erbβ-Flag protein, but only one of the MAbs against Rev-erbβ, 37H8, could pull down the endogenous Rev-erbβ protein. Furthermore, domain specificity of these MAbs was characterized. Due to the high similarities between Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ in the C and E domains, those C and E domain-specific anti-Rev-erbβ antibodies can react with human Rev-erbα as well. The MAbs produced in the study will provide a valuable tool for investigating the function of Rev-erbβ.

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Human IgE antibody, Monoc Cytokine (Human) Antibody FDA normal and tumor orga MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD19 RPE FDA normal and tumor orga Th1 Th2 Th17 (Human) Anti Human Growth Hormone anti Rabbit Anti-Human APP (KP FDA normal organ tissue a Cytokine (Human) Antibody Cytokine (Human) Antibody Mouse Anti-Human IgG (CH3

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Development of a recombinant antibody to target peptides and proteins to sialoadhesin-expressing macrophages.

Sialoadhesin (Sn)-expressing monocytes/macrophages have been associated with several diseases like inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as viral infections, and they also appear to play a role in the initiation of an adaptive immune response. This makes Sn-expressing cells not only attractive targets for cell-directed therapies, but also an appealing target for vaccination. Furthermore, since Sn was shown to be an endocytic receptor, the conjugation of effector molecules to an Sn-specific ligand should allow intracellular delivery of these conjugates. Previously, we developed functional Sn-specific immunoconjugates that were generated via chemical coupling. Although successful, the system requires significant optimization for each immunoconjugate to be made. To generate a more flexible and controlled system, we developed a recombinant antibody vector allowing the creation of genetic antibody fusion constructs. This paper reports on the characterization of the recombinant antibody and the evaluation of its use for Sn-directed targeting.

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Botulinum neurotoxins and botulism: a novel therapeutic approach.

Specific treatment is not available for human botulism. Current remedial mainstay is the passive administration of polyclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) derived from heterologous species (immunized animal or mouse hybridoma) together with supportive and symptomatic management. The antibody works extracellularly, probably by blocking the binding of receptor binding (R) domain to the neuronal receptors; thus inhibiting cellular entry of the holo-BoNT. The antibody cannot neutralize the intracellular toxin. Moreover, a conventional antibody with relatively large molecular size (150 kDa) is not accessible to the enzymatic groove and, thus, cannot directly inhibit the BoNT zinc metalloprotease activity. Recently, a 15-20 kDa single domain antibody (V(H)H) that binds specifically to light chain of BoNT serotype A was produced from a humanized-camel VH/V(H)H phage display library. The V(H)H has high sequence homology (>80%) to the human VH and could block the enzymatic activity of the BoNT. Molecular docking revealed not only the interface binding between the V(H)H and the toxin but also an insertion of the V(H)H CDR3 into the toxin enzymatic pocket. It is envisaged that, by molecular linking the V(H)H to a cell penetrating peptide (CPP), the CPP-V(H)H fusion protein would be able to traverse the hydrophobic cell membrane into the cytoplasm and inhibit the intracellular BoNT. This presents a novel and safe immunotherapeutic strategy for botulism by using a cell penetrating, humanized-single domain antibody that inhibits the BoNT by means of a direct blockade of the groove of the menace enzyme.

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Regulation of human osteoclast development by dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP).

Osteoclasts (OC) are bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells that are generated via fusion of OC precursors (OCP). The frequency of OCP is elevated in patients with erosive inflammatory arthritis and metabolic bone diseases. Although many cytokines and cell surface receptors are known to participate in osteoclastogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this cellular transformation are poorly understood. Herein, we focused our studies on the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a seven-pass transmembrane receptor-like protein known to be essential for cell-to-cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. We identified an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in the cytoplasmic tail of DC-STAMP, and developed an anti-DC-STAMP monoclonal antibody 1A2 that detected DC-STAMP expression on human tumor giant cells, blocked OC formation in vitro, and distinguished four patterns of human PBMC with a positive correlation to OC potential. In freshly isolated monocytes, DC-STAMP(high) cells produced a higher number of OC in culture than DC-STAMP(low) cells and the surface expression of DC-STAMP gradually declined during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, we showed that DC-STAMP is phosphorylated on its tyrosine residues and physically interacts with SHP-1 and CD16, an SH2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase and an ITAM-associated protein, respectively. Taken together, these data show that DC-STAMP is a potential OCP biomarker in inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, in addition to its effect on cell fusion, DC-STAMP dynamically regulates cell signaling during osteoclastogenesis.

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Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts with the HB22.7 anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody and phosphatase inhibitors improves efficacy.

To examine the role of phosphatase inhibition on anti-CD22, HB22.7-mediated lymphomacidal effects.

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Ly49Q defines 2 pDC subsets in mice.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important primary role for antiviral innate immunity by rapidly producing large amounts of type 1 interferon (IFN) upon viral infection. To study pDC biology, we generated a monoclonal antibody, termed 2E6, that recognizes pDCs. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the 2E6 antigen revealed that it is a type II C-type lectin, Ly49Q, that consists of 247 amino acids with high homology to the natural killer (NK) receptor family Ly49, with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif in the cytoplasmic domain. Ly49Q is expressed on pDCs but not on NK cells or myeloid dendritic cells. B220+, CD11c+, CD11b- pDCs in bone marrow were divided into Ly49Q+ and Ly49Q- subsets. While both subsets produced IFN-alpha upon cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) and herpes simplex virus stimulation, Ly49Q- pDCs responded poorly to influenza virus. In addition, Ly49Q- pDCs produced inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) upon stimulation at lower levels than those produced by Ly49Q+ pDCs. In contrast to bone marrow, Ly49Q+ pDCs were only found in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and spleen. These results indicate that Ly49Q is a specific marker for peripheral pDCs and that expression of Ly49Q defines 2 subsets of pDCs in bone marrow.

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Functional analysis of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen by using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

Protective antigen (PA) is central to the action of the lethal and edema toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis. It is the common cell-binding component, mediating the translocation of the enzymatic moieties (lethal factor [LF] and edema factor) into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against PA, able to neutralize the activities of the toxins in vitro and in vivo, were screened. Two such MAbs, named 7.5 and 48.3, were purified and further characterized. MAb 7.5 binds to domain 4 of PA and prevents the binding of PA to its cell receptor. MAb 48.3 binds to domain 2 and blocks the cleavage of PA into PA63, a step necessary for the subsequent interaction with the enzymatic moieties. The epitope recognized by this antibody is in a region involved in the oligomerization of PA63; thus, MAb 48.3 does not recognize the oligomer form. MAbs 7.5 and 48.3 neutralize the activities of anthrax toxins produced by B. anthracis in mice. Also, there is an additive effect between the two MAbs against PA and a MAb against LF, in protecting mice against a lethal challenge by the Sterne strain. This work contributes to the functional analysis of PA and offers immunotherapeutic perspectives for the treatment of anthrax disease.

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