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           Search results for: Mouse Anti-Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O1   

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#28566375   2017/06/01 Save this To Up

Rapid Engineering of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine and Challenge Viruses.

There are seven antigenically distinct serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), each of which has intratypic variants. In the present study, we have developed methods to efficiently generate promising vaccines against seven serotypes or subtypes. The capsid-encoding gene (P1) of the vaccine strain O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 was replaced with the amplified or synthetic genes from the O, A, Asia1, C, SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 serotypes. Viruses of the seven serotype were rescued successfully. Each chimeric FMDV with a replacement of P1 showed serotype-specific antigenicity and varied in terms of pathogenesis in pigs and mice. Vaccination of pigs with an experimental trivalent vaccine containing the inactivated recombinants based on the main serotypes O, A, and Asia1 effectively protected them from virus challenge. This technology could be a potential strategy for a customized vaccine with challenge tools to protect against epizootic disease caused by specific serotypes or subtypes of FMDV.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) causes significant economic losses. For vaccine preparation, the selection of vaccine strains was complicated by high antigenic variation. In the present study, we suggested an effective strategy to rapidly prepare and evaluate mass-produced customized vaccines against epidemic strains. The P1 gene encoding the structural proteins of the well-known vaccine virus was replaced by the synthetic or amplified genes of viruses of seven representative serotypes. These chimeric viruses generally replicated readily in cell culture and had a particle size similar to that of the original vaccine strain. Their antigenicity mirrored that of the original serotype from which their P1 gene was derived. Animal infection experiments revealed that the recombinants varied in terms of pathogenicity. This strategy will be a useful tool for rapidly generating customized FMD vaccines or challenge viruses for all serotypes, especially for FMD-free countries, which have prohibited the import of FMDVs.

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#26607309   2016/02/06 Save this To Up

Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle.

Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4(+) and CD8(+) gamma interferon (IFN-γ)(+) cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle.

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#25085313   2014/08/08 Save this To Up

Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O and application in identification of antigenic variation in relation to vaccine strain selection.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has severe implications for animal farming which leads to considerable financial losses because of its rapid spread, high morbidity and loss of productivity. For these reasons, the use of vaccine is often favoured to prevent and control FMD. Selection of the proper vaccine is extremely difficult because of the antigenic variation within FMDV serotypes. The aim of the current study was to produce a panel of mAbs and use it for the characterization of new isolates of FMDV serotype O.

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#18689675   2008/08/20 Save this To Up

Acquisition of classical CTX prophage from Vibrio cholerae O141 by El Tor strains aided by lytic phages and chitin-induced competence.

The El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1, causing the current seventh pandemic of cholera, has replaced the classical biotype, which caused the sixth pandemic. The CTX prophages encoding cholera toxin in the two biotypes have distinct repressor (rstR) genes. Recently, new variants of El Tor strains that carry the classical type (CTX(class)) prophage have emerged. These "hybrid" strains apparently originate through lateral gene transfer and recombination events. To explore possible donors of the CTX(class) prophage and its mode of transfer, we tested environmental V. cholerae isolates for the presence of CTX(class) prophage and mobility of the phage genome. Of the 272 environmental V. cholerae isolates tested, 6 were found to carry the CTX(class) prophage; all of these belonged to the O141 serogroup. These O141 strains were unable to produce infectious CTX(class) phage or to transmit the prophage to recipient strains in the mouse model of infection; however, the CTX(class) prophage was acquired by El Tor strains when cultured with the O141 strains in microcosms composed of filtered environmental water, a chitin substrate, and a V. cholerae O141-specific bacteriophage. The CTX(class) prophage either coexisted with or replaced the resident CTX(ET) prophage, resulting in El Tor strains with CTX genotypes similar to those of the naturally occurring hybrid strains. Our results support a model involving phages and natural chitin substrate in the emergence of new variants of pathogenic V. cholerae. Furthermore, the O141 strains apparently represent an alternative reservoir of the CTX(class) phage genome, because the classical V. cholerae O1 strains are possibly extinct.

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#11107617   2001/01/12 Save this To Up

Identification of antigenic epitopes on the foot and mouth disease virus isolate O1/Manisa/Turkey/69 using monoclonal antibodies.

A panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced against a strain of type O foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) from the Middle East, O1/Manisa/Turkey/69. Seven neutralising MAbs were fully characterised and all were found to react with conformational epitopes. Monoclonal antibody neutralisation-resistant mutants (MARMs) were generated from the parental virus stock and the complete capsid sequences of these MARMs were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that five of the MARMs had amino acid substitutions at either residue 72 or 73 of VP2 (beta B-beta C loop), indicating that five of the MAbs were directed against antigenic site 2. The sixth MARM contained a single amino acid substitution at position 198 of VP1 (carboxy-terminal region). The seventh MARM contained two amino acid substitutions, at position 72 of VP2 and position 149 of VP1 (beta G-beta H loop). These findings indicate that MAbs directed against a type O FMDV from the Middle East recognise residues in the same structural features to those raised against strains from Europe of the same serotype.

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#9826360   1998/12/24 Save this To Up

Analysis of clinical and environmental strains of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae for susceptibility to CTXPhi: molecular basis for origination of new strains with epidemic potential.

Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains are lysogens of CTXPhi, a filamentous phage which encodes cholera toxin. The receptor for CTXPhi for invading V. cholerae cells is the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), the genes for which reside in a larger genetic element, the TCP pathogenicity island. We analyzed 146 CTX-negative strains of V. cholerae O1 or non-O1 isolated from patients or surface waters in five different countries for the presence of the TCP pathogenicity island, the regulatory gene toxR, and the CTXPhi attachment sequence attRS, as well as for susceptibility of the strains to CTXPhi, to investigate the molecular basis for the emergence of new clones of toxigenic V. cholerae. DNA probe or PCR assays for tcpA, tcpI, acfB, toxR, and attRS revealed that 6.85% of the strains, all of which belonged to the O1 serogroup, carried the TCP pathogenicity island, toxR, and multiple copies of attRS, whereas the remaining 93.15% of the strains were negative for TCP but positive for either one or both or neither of toxR and attRS. An analysis of the strains for susceptibility to CTXPhi, using a genetically marked derivative of the phage CTX-KmPhi, showed that all TCP-positive CTX-negative strains and 1 of 136 TCP-negative strains were infected by the phage either in vitro or in the intestines of infant mice. The phage genome integrated into the chromosome of infected V. cholerae O1 cells forming stable lysogens. Comparative analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns revealed that the lysogens derived from nontoxigenic progenitors were either closely related to or distinctly different from previously described clones of toxigenic V. cholerae. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of lysogenic conversion of naturally occurring nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains by CTXPhi. The results of this study further indicated that strains belonging to the O1 serogroup of V. cholerae are more likely to possess the TCP pathogenicity island and hence to be infected by CTXPhi, leading to the origination of potential new epidemic clones.

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#9680132   1998/08/14 Save this To Up

Monoclonal antibodies, against O1 serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus, from a natural bovine host, recognize similar antigenic features to those defined by the mouse.

Eight neutralizing and two non-neutralizing anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) bovine IgG1 and IgG2 monoclonal antibodies (BMAbs) recognize conformationally dependent epitopes. The majority of those shown to neutralize virus passively protected mice from virus challenge, regardless of isotype. Well-characterized anti-FMDV mouse MAbs, representing five independent neutralizing epitopes on O1 serotype virus, were examined with each of the ten BMAbs in a competition-based ELISA. Five of the neutralizing BMAbs (C48, C65, C74, C83 and MH6) were shown to be directed against epitopes on, or in close proximity to, that previously defined as neutralizing antigenic site 2. Another neutralizing BMAb, MH5, bound to an epitope on, or in close proximity to antigenic site 3. Two neutralizing BMAbs (C2 and C96) simultaneously abrogated the binding of mouse antibodies to sites 2 and 4, contesting the autonomous nature of these two regions. None of the BMAbs were shown to be directed towards the immunodominant antigenic site 1. Sequence analyses of neutralization escape mutants supported the competition ELISA results, and included changes at site 2 (VP2 aa C78Y), site 3 (VP1 N46S) and site 4 (VP3 E58K). Additionally, a substitution at a previously unrecorded location (VP2 aa T1881) prevented the binding of site 2 (C48) and sites 2 and 4 (C2) directed BMAbs. Although the bovine and murine anti-FMDV repertoires may not be identical these results support the recognition of similar antigenic features. This is the first report characterizing anti-FMDV MAbs produced from a natural target host, the cow.

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#1375792   1992/06/30 Save this To Up

Antigenic relationships of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia-1 isolates demonstrated by monoclonal antibodies.

A panel (26) of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was elicited against three distinct isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1. Each MAb was characterized according to the location of its epitope: Class I, restricted to the intact virion (140S); Class II, restricted to 140S and the virion protein subunit (12Sps); Class III, available on 140S, 12Sps and virus protein 1; Class IV, restricted to 12Sps. In addition, the MAbs were further categorized by isotype, neutralization of viral infectivity, capacity to bind in radioimmunoassay and precipitation in the Ouchterlony reaction. Neutralization of FMDV infectivity by a MAb of the IgA isotype is reported for the first time. A minimum of seven distinct neutralization epitopes were described on FMDV Asia-1. Some of the neutralizing MAbs bound FMDVs in addition to those that they neutralized. The MAbs defined epitopes common to FMDV serotypes Asia-1, A, O1 and C but neutralizing capacity was restricted to serotype Asia-1. Class IV MAbs defined epitopes highly conserved throughout the FMDV serotypes. Identification of FMDV neutralization epitopes makes possible the direct selection of optimal FMDV strains for vaccine fabrication. In addition, these data are crucial to the design of future synthetic vaccines.

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