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Circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are considered to be chronic inflammatory disorders implicated with recurrent tissue damage to the intestine. There is a positive correlation between platelet-leukocyte aggregates and ischemic vascular risk. There are limited data about the relationship between platelet-leukocyte aggregates and IBD. This study was designed to determine whether platelet-leukocyte aggregates increase in IBD, and whether a relationship exists between the elevation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and disease activity.

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Differential major histocompatibility complex class II locus expression on human laryngeal epithelium.

The survival of a laryngeal allograft will be dependent on the immunological composition of the donor larynx and, in particular, on the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens on professional and non-professional antigen-presenting cells. Laryngeal and tonsillar biopsies from normal individuals aged 18-78 years were processed and prepared for quantitative, multiple-colour immunofluorescence using mouse antihuman monoclonal antibodies to human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, HLA-DQ and CD45. The laryngeal epithelium expressed HLA-DR locus products at variable levels, but expression of HLA-DQ was virtually absent. Tonsillar epithelial cells expressed HLA-DR at the basal layer only, while HLA-DQ was similarly not expressed. In contrast, both HLA-DR and -DQ locus products were present on lamina propria and intraepithelial leucocytes in both laryngeal and tonsillar mucosae, although at varying levels. The finding that laryngeal epithelial cells express MHC class II antigens has implications for the survival of laryngeal allografts and suggests that they may require significant immunomodulation. In addition, antigen presentation by epithelial cells has been hypothesized to contribute to the immunoregulatory function of mucosal tissues, and the finding that HLA-DQ locus products are only expressed at low levels by laryngeal epithelium raises questions about the repertoire of peptides to which the mucosal immune system can respond.

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The kinetics and extent of engraftment of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice reflect the phase of the donor's disease: an in vivo model of chronic myelogenous leukemia biology.

In vitro studies have provided little consensus on the kinetic abnormality underlying the myeloid expansion of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Transplantation of human CML cells into non-obese diabetic mice with severe immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID mice) may therefore be a useful model. A CML cell line (BV173) and peripheral blood cells collected from CML patients in chronic phase (CP), accelerated phase (AP), or blastic phase (BP) were injected into preirradiated NOD/SCID mice. Animals were killed at serial intervals; cell suspensions and/or tissue sections from different organs were studied by immunohistochemistry and/or flow cytometry using antihuman CD45 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the BCR-ABL fusion gene. One hour after injection, cells were sequestered in the lungs and liver, but 2 weeks later they were no longer detectable in either site. Similar short-term kinetics were observed using 51Cr-labeled cells. The first signs of engraftment for BV173, AP, and BP cells were detected in the bone marrow (BM) at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks the median percentages of human cells in murine marrow were 4% (range, 1 to 9) for CP, 11% (range, 5 to 36) for AP, 38.5% (range, 18 to 79) for BP, and 54% (range, 31 to 69) for BV173. CP cells progressively infiltrated BM (21%) and spleen (6%) by 18 to 20 weeks; no animals injected with the cell line or BP cells survived beyond 12 weeks. The rate of increase in human cell numbers was higher for BP (7.3%/week) as compared with CP (0.9%/week) and AP (0. 5%/week). FISH analysis with BCR and ABL probes showed that some of the human cells engrafting after injection of CP cells lacked a BCR-ABL gene and were presumably normal. We conclude that CML cells proliferate in NOD/SCID mice with kinetics that recapitulate the phase of the donor's disease, thus providing an in vivo model of CML biology.

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Growth of human hematopoietic cells in immunodeficient mice conditioned with cyclophosphamide and busulfan.

Human hematopoietic cells survive and proliferate for at least 10 weeks in severe combined immunodeficient mice prepared with the cytotoxic drugs busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The human cells growing in the mice can be detected by in situ hybridization using a probe detecting human repetitive DNA or by staining the cells with antihuman antibodies (anti-CD45 and anti-HLA I). Busulfan/cyclophosphamide-treated mice were injected with a wide range of cell doses, ranging from 5 to 50 million unfractionated bone marrow cells and 2 to 40 million low density bone marrow cells. Animals were killed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks after transplantation. Human cells were found in many animals and could be detected as early as one week after transplantation. The peak of repopulation was at two to five weeks, but in some animals human cells could be detected for as long as 10 weeks. Many of the human cells expressed high levels of glycophorin, but mature human erythrocytes were not found. The human cells were not uniformly distributed throughout the marrow. They grew in small clusters in the subepiphyseal region. The extent of human hematopoietic repopulation in the mouse was extremely variable. At no time and at no dose was repopulation achieved in all of the animals. Treatment with human growth factors is not necessary for the survival of the human hematopoietic cells but, in their absence, normal hematopoiesis does not occur.

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Lymphocytic infiltrates in the spinal cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Immunohistochemical examination was undertaken to assess the presence of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets in the spinal cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

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