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Inflammatory cell expression of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) within refractory periapical granuloma.

Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) is highly important within the immune system. Characterization of the expression of TLR2 within inflammatory cells in periapical lesions could help in diagnosis and management of refractory cases. The aim of the study is identification of Toll-like receptor (TLR2) through immunohistochemical and immunofluroscence expression in inflammatory cells within refractory periapical granuloma cases. Eight cases of refractory periapical granuloma were selected out of 772 cases. Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal rabbit antihuman TLR2, monoclonal mouse antihuman CD38, CD68 and CD83 primary antibodies, as well as immunofluorescence staining with goat anti-rabbit TLR2, donkey anti-mouse CD38, CD68 and CD83 primary antibodies was conducted. Positive controls, negative controls and experimental sections with no primary antibody were included in the study. Qualitative analysis and double immunofluorescence technique was used to characterize the TLR cells. In periapical granuloma, lymphocytes (CD38 cells) expressed the most amount of TLR reactivity followed by macrophages (CD68 cells), and odontogenic epithelial cells. Neutrophils, red blood cells (RBCs) and collagen ground substance were negative to TLR2.  TLR2 was highly expressed by lymphocytes and plasma cells indicative of their major role in the inflammatory process and antigen recognition in refractory periapical granuloma. Dendritic cells expressing TLR2 were low in number suggesting a minor role in sustaining these lesions.

2989 related Products with: Inflammatory cell expression of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) within refractory periapical granuloma.

Human Killer cell immunog Rat Toll Like Receptor 2( Rat monoclonal anti mouse Cellufine GCL-2000 Media Pressure Injection Cell w Adenosine A2b Receptor Androgen Receptor Ab-1 An Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Bradykinin receptor B1 An Activin receptor-like kin Rabbit Anti-Human Toll-Li Glucagon receptor

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Combination treatment with anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 prevents and reverses autoimmune diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, although B cells also play an important role in T1D development. Both T cell- and B cell-directed immunotherapies have shown efficacy in the prevention and reversal of T1D. However, whether the combined strategy of targeting both T and B cells could further improve therapeutic efficacy remains to be explored. We show that combined treatment with intravenous antihuman CD20 (hCD20) and oral anti-CD3 significantly delays diabetes development in prediabetic hCD20 transgenic NOD mice. More importantly, the combined treatment reverses diabetes in >60% of mice newly diagnosed with diabetes. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the addition of oral anti-CD3 to the B-cell depletion therapy synergistically enhances the suppressive function of regulatory T cells. Of note, the oral anti-CD3 treatment induced a fraction of interleukin (IL)-10-producing CD4 T cells in the small intestine through IL-10- and IL-27-producing dendritic cells. Thus, the findings demonstrate that combining anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 is superior to anti-CD20 monotherapy for restoring normoglycemia in diabetic NOD mice, providing important preclinical evidence for the optimization of B cell-directed therapy for T1D.

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Rabbit anti Androgen Rece Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Goat Anti-Human Androgen Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Anti-Androgen Receptor pr Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Anti Androgen Receptor pr Rabbit Anti-CD20 Polyclon Goat Anti-Human CD314 Ant Rabbit Anti-EDG1 CD363 Po Mouse Anti-Rat CD200 Liga

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Characterization and application of two novel monoclonal antibodies against 2IgB7-H3: expression analysis of 2IgB7-H3 on dendritic cells and tumor cells.

2IgB7-H3 has recently been identified as a new member of the B7 family. Its expression at the protein level remains largely unknown due to the lack of the specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). To characterize the expression of 2IgB7-H3, we newly generated two mouse antihuman 2IgB7-H3 mAbs (4H7 and 21D4). We found the constitutive expression of 2IgB7-H3 on a series of tumor cell lines. Furthermore, the expression was examined on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) and DCs from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) by means of mAb staining. The results showed that 2IgB7-H3 was expressed on Mo-DCs at a high and stable level during differentiation in vitro. With the maturation of DCs from CD34(+) HPCs, the expression of the molecule was upregulated. However, the 2IgB7-H3 was not expressed on fresh isolated T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, or CD34(+) HPCs. These results suggested that 2IgB7-H3 may be a valuable surface antigen for the detection of DCs.

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Rat Anti-Mouse Dendritic Rat monoclonal anti mouse Mouse Anti-Human Follicul Rat monoclonal anti mouse anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Anti-bodywall muscle cell Mouse Anti-Human Endothel Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo Anti bodywall muscle cell Mouse Anti-Human Follicul Anti bodywall muscle cell

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Inhibition of mammary carcinoma development in HER-2/neu transgenic mice through induction of autoimmunity by xenogeneic DNA vaccination.

Plasmid DNA vectors encoding the full-length (VR1012/HER-2-FL) or only the extracellular and transmembrane domains (VR1012/HER-2-ECD-TM) of human (h) HER-2/neu proto-oncogene were used to vaccinate HER-2/neu transgenic mice (N202) engineered to overexpress the rat (r) neu proto-oncogene product (r-p185(neu)). Both the full-length and the deleted vaccines were significantly (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively) more active than the empty vector (VR1012/EV) in preventing and delaying HER-2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis. A low-level intratumoral infiltrate of dendritic cells, macrophages, CD8 T cells and polymorphonuclear granulocytes in association with low-level cytokine production was observed, which was not detected in tumors from control mice. Morphologic analyses showed that vaccination with VR1012/HER-2-FL or ECD-TM also efficiently hampered the development of terminal ductal lobular units (TDLU). Analyses of sera from vaccinated mice revealed high titers of antihuman HER-2/neu antibodies, which correlated with the delayed time of tumor onset (P = 0.002). These antibodies did not cross-react with r-p185(neu). Nontransgenic mice treated with the vaccines produced autoreactive antibodies targeting mouse (m)-p185(neu) and showed impaired function of the lactating mammary gland and accelerated involution of the gland after weaning. Together, these data indicate that xenogeneic DNA immunization breaks tolerance against the endogenous m-p185(neu), impairing the development of mammary TDLU in which m-p185(neu) expression is concentrated. The reduction in the number of TDLU decreases the number of glandular structures available for r-p185(neu)-dependent mammary carcinogenesis, resulting in a significant inhibition of mammary carcinoma development.

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Mouse Anti-Influenza B Vi Hyperplasia and carcinoma Colon carcinoma tissue ar Mouse Anti-Insulin-Like G Goat Anti-Human Neuroligi N-Acetyl-2-O-(5-bromo-1H- Lung carcinoma tissue arr Stomach carcinoma for ant Middle advanced stage lun Goat Anti- Neurochondrin, Breast invasive ductal ca Neutrophil Elastase Inhib

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Absorbable microparticulate cation exchanger for immunotherapeutic delivery.

An absorbable microparticulate cation exchanger was synthesized as a versatile carrier for biologically active proteins. In this work, acid-terminated polyglycolide (or polyglycolic acid) microparticulates (PG-MP) were surface modified for either sustained release of cytokines or as a platform for immunomodulation. The intended goal was to achieve in situ recruitment/maturation of dendritic cells and activation of T cells for tumor immunotherapy. PG-MP were prepared with a volume weighted mean diameter of 7.02 micro (range: 2.09-14.58 micro). Accessible carboxylic acid groups were determined to be 0.3 mmol/g with a corresponding zeta potential of -21.87 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Under low magnification, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a highly textured surface due to processing from repetitive jet milling. However, a moderately porous architecture was noted at higher magnification. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to characterize the PG-MP surface before and after adsorption of human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Adsorption of GM-CSF on PG-MP (PG-GMCSF) resulted in a modest increase in the surface atomic concentration of nitrogen (0.97%). Pretreating the surface with poly-L-lysine (PG/Lys-GMCSF) prior to adding GM-CSF produced a nearly threefold increase in the surface nitrogen concentration (4.20% compared to 1.47%). This manipulation not only increased loading content, but also prolonged the release of GM-CSF released from 6 days to 26 days. ESCA on the post-release PG-MP samples (PG-GMCSF and PG/Lys-GMCSF) revealed a similar residual surface nitrogen concentration (2.26% vs. 2.35%). The observation was consistent with irreversibly adsorbed GM-CSF. It is postulated that irreversibly bound GM-CSF is released over time as a function of microparticulate degradation. Biological activity of released GM-CSF was confirmed by the proliferation of a GM-CSF-dependent cell line (TF-1) in the presence of microparticulates. PG-MP mediated activation of T cells was achieved through irreversible adsorption of either antimouse cd3 plus antimouse cd28 monoclonal antibodies (alpha-cd3/cd28-MP) or antihuman CD3 plus antihuman CD28 monoclonal antibodies (alpha-CD3/CD28-MP) on PG-MP. Irreversibly adsorbed antibodies were capable of activating both resting mouse and human T cells. Intracellular flow cytometry on mouse T cells revealed that nearly 50% of the activated cells produced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This was consistent with a TH-1 or cell-mediated response. In vivo efficacy was evaluated in a mouse flank tumor model showing a significant antitumor effect both alone and in combination. Combination therapy was most effective at preventing tumor implantation (8/8 mice) and was able induce tumor regression (4/7 mice) and/or stable disease (3/7 mice) in a regression model. In these studies, immunohistochemistry was used to confirm local recruitment of dendritic cells. In conclusion, the PG-MP represents a novel absorbable cation exchanger that can be readily manipulated to deliver biologically active proteins for immunotherapy.

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Rabbit PAI-1 (wild type a Anti-daf-2(Abnormal dauer Rat PAI-1 (wild type late Cellufine Formyl , 500 ml DPO 4+ Buffer + Cations (5Z)-7-[(5-Acetyloxy-2-fo Manganese Cation Anti-BMP-1 (Bone Morphoge 5 Formyl 2 thiopheneboron Rabbit Anti-Azurocidin Ca QuantiChrom™ Formaldehy Benzyl 2-Benzyloxy-5-form

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Interdigitating reticulum cells in human renal grafts.

Seventeen human renal graft biopsies taken 1 h to 50 days after transplantation and 3 human renal non-graft biopsies (2 minimal change and 1 non-tumour portion of angiomyolipoma) were investigated with immunoelectron microscopy in order to identify interdigitating reticulum cells (IDC) or dendritic cells (DC) in renal tissues. The antibodies used consisted of a rabbit polyclonal antibody of antihuman S100 beta protein, mouse monoclonal antibodies of antihuman HLA-DR, anti-CD3, and anti-CD1a. IDC or DC were identified in 11 renal grafts. They were found both in the glomerular and interstitial (peritubular) capillary lumens but not in the interstitium of 1 case: both were present in the interstitial capillary lumens and interstitium of another case, and in the interstitium only of 9 cases. In the remaining 6 grafts and 3 non-grafts they were not detected. These 6 grafts and 3 non-grafts did not show any pathological change except for foot process fusion of the glomerular epithelia in 2 cases of minimal change. These findings suggest that IDC or DC are not normally present in human renal tissues. The presence of the cell in the glomerular and peritubular capillary lumens of a biopsy taken after 1 h and their presence in the interstitial capillary lumens of another graft biopsy, suggest that the IDC or DC in human renal grafts are derived from recipients, not donors, and that they migrate from the circulating blood toward the interstitium.

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GFP Expressing Human Inte Macrophage Colony Stimula Human Small Intestine Mic Human Internal Mammary Ar Goat Anti-Human, Mouse Re Human Large Intestine Mic Macrophage Colony Stimula Goat Anti-Human MAN2A1, ( Goat Anti-Human Frizzled Goat Anti-Human NHERF2 (i Goat Anti-Human GPR81 FKS Recombinant Human Interle

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Characterization of monoclonal antihuman-B-cell antibody BL13 as an anti-C3d-receptor (CR2) antibody.

BL13, a mouse monoclonal IgG1 antibody raised against human B cells, blocked the function of the C3d receptor (CR2) and bound with high affinity (5 X 10(8) L M-1) to CR2 on B lymphoma cells. Following capping with the second antibody, BL13 inhibited C3d-dependent rosette formation of Daudi and Raji cells and C3b-dependent CR2-mediated rosette formation with B lymphoma cells, but did not inhibit CR1-mediated rosettes between C3b-bearing cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Competitive binding experiments between biotinylated BL13 or anti-CR2 antibody HB-5 and unlabelled antibodies demonstrated that BL13 bound to an epitope that is distinct from that recognized by HB-5, and closely associated with that recognized by monoclonal antibody anti-B2. BL13 only reacted with some B cells and follicular dendritic cells in germinal centres in human lymph nodes, whereas HB-5 strongly reacted with circulating B cells and bound to most cells in the follicles. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity of antigenically defined CR2.

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Monoclonal Anti-ASPP1 pro Anti-bodywall muscle cell Anti-Aspergillus flavus M Monoclonal Anti-c-kit SCF Monoclonal Anti-Assembly Anti C Reactive Protein A Anti-Human, Mouse Monoclo Monoclonal Anti-dEGF Rece Anti-bodywall muscle cell Anti-bodywall muscle cell Monoclonal Anti-dEGF Rece Monoclonal Anti-Cellulose

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