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#22553809   2012/05/01 Save this To Up

CD73 expression as a potential marker of good prognosis in breast carcinoma.

Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a membrane-bound enzyme, which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine. CD73 has been postulated to play an important role in carcinogenesis, as adenosine promotes tumor progression and CD73-expressing cancer cell lines are more aggressive. However, other studies have shown that activated adenosine receptors may also inhibit cell proliferation. This study investigated the clinical significance of CD73 expression in breast cancer. The study group included 136 consecutive stage I-III breast cancer patients treated between 2001 and 2008 at 2 institutions. CD73 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays, using antihuman mouse monoclonal antibody. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. CD73 staining was expressed as the score calculated by multiplying the staining intensity (0=negative, 1=weak, 2=intermediate, 3=strong) and percentage of positive cells (0% to 100%). The median score among all samples was 100. Positive CD73 staining (defined as score equal or higher than 100) occurred in 74% of the cases. No correlation was found between CD73 expression and grading, tumor size, lymph node status, histologic type, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor status. Positive CD73 expression strongly correlated with longer disease-free survival (hazard ratio=0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.66; P=0.0044) and overall survival (hazard ratio =0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.85; P=0.027). Multivariate analysis for disease-free survival revealed correlation with tumor size and CD73 status. Elevated CD73 expression in breast cancer can predict a good prognosis. However, the actual role of CD73 in cancerogenesis remains unclear and requires further analysis.

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#2454813   1988/07/29 Save this To Up

Monoclonal antibodies against the androgen receptor: recognition of human and other mammalian androgen receptors.

Monoclonal antibodies against the androgen receptor (AR) will provide useful probes for elucidating both the structure and function of this important regulatory protein. Recently, human autoimmune anti-AR sera have been described. The purpose of the current work was to immortalize lymphocytes from the blood of patients with high titer anti-AR antibodies and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the receptor in vitro. Human serum samples (10 microliters) were incubated in high ionic strength buffer (400 mM KCl) for 16 h at 0 C with [3H]Mibolerone-labeled cytosol (100-200 fmol AR) from Dunning tumors. Receptor-antibody complexes were precipitated with goat antihuman immunoglobulin (Ig) antibody. From our 1005 serum samples examined, 5 specimens were detected which precipitated greater than 40% of the AR. These antibodies recognized the AR from human, rat, mouse, dog, steer, chicken, and hamster, but did not recognize estrogen, progesterone, or glucocorticoid receptors. By sucrose gradient analysis in high salt (0.4 M KCl) 1 of the antisera shifted the 4.4S monomeric receptor to 8S, and the others shifted the receptor to 18S. However, all of the antibodies were shown to be IgG class by immunoprecipitation with class-specific second antibodies. Peripheral blood lymphocytes donated by these patients were isolated by histopaque density gradient sedimentation, activated in vitro, transformed with Epstein-Barr virus, and seeded into 96-well plates. From 263 million human lymphocytes plated in 96-well dishes, 1215 wells gave rise to Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, and 8 of these wells were determined to be anti-AR positive. Cells from 2 of the positive wells were cloned and designated CB54 and UA67, both of which secreted IgG class antibodies against the AR. These 2 monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be highly specific for the AR and to cross-react with the AR from human, rat, and hamster. Studies with the monomeric form of the AR and its proteolytic fragment using sucrose density gradients have suggested that the 2 antibodies recognize different epitopes on the monomeric AR molecule. Furthermore, by Western blot analysis the antibodies have identified the AR as an 118K protein on a sodium dodecyl sulfate gel, which is consistent with our previous findings of the mol wt of the AR.

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