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#28351935   2017/03/29 Save this To Up

Bidirectional immune tolerance in nonmyeloablative MHC-mismatched BMT for murine β-thalassemia.

Nonmyeloablative conditioning using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) (the murine preclinical equivalent of antithymocyte globulin [ATG]) facilitates immune tolerance after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) disparities and may be a useful strategy for nonmalignant disorders. We previously reported that donor effector T-cell function and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are regulated via recipient invariant natural killer T-cell (iNKT) interleukin-4-driven expansion of donor Foxp3(+) naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs). This occurs via recipient iNKT- and STAT6-dependent expansion of recipient myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs) that induce contact-dependent expansion of donor Treg through PD-1/PD ligand signaling. After TLI/ATS + BMT, Gr-1(low)CD11c(+) MDCs and Gr-1(high)CD11c(neg) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were enriched in GVHD target organs. We now report that the recovery of both recipient MDSCs (P < .01) and MDCs (P < .01) is significantly increased when the alkylator cyclophosphamide (CTX) is added to TLI/ATS conditioning. In a BALB/c → B6 lethal GVHD model, adoptive transfer of MDSCs from TLI/ATS/CTX-conditioned recipients is associated with significantly improved GVHD colitis and survival (P < .001), conversion of MDSCs to PD ligand-expressing MDCs, and increased donor naturally occurring Treg recovery (P < .01) compared with control treatment. Using BALB/c donors and β-thalassemic HW-80 recipients, we found significantly improved rates of engraftment and GVHD following TLI/ATS/CTX compared with TLI/ATS, lethal or sublethal total body irradiation/ATS/CTX, or CTX/ATS conditioning. These data provide preclinical support for trials of TLI/ATG/alkylator regimens for MHC-mismatched BMT for hemoglobinopathies. The data also delineate innate immune mechanisms by which TLI/ATS/CTX conditioning may augment transplantation tolerance.

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#27055651   2016/04/08 Save this To Up

α-Synuclein vaccination modulates regulatory T cell activation and microglia in the absence of brain pathology.

Passive and active immunization with α-synuclein has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease. We have previously shown that vaccination with α-synuclein, long before α-synuclein-induced brain pathology, prevents striatal degeneration by inducing regulatory T cell infiltration in parenchyma and antibody deposition on α-synuclein overexpressing neurons. However, the effect of peripheral α-synuclein on the immune system is unknown, as are the mechanistic changes induced in the CD4 T cell population during successful neuroprotective animal studies. We have studied the changes induced by vaccination with α-synuclein in the CD4 T cell pool and its impact on brain microglia to understand the immune mechanisms behind successful vaccination strategies in Parkinson's disease animal models.

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#26655443   2016/02/20 Save this To Up

B-1 B cell progenitors transiently and partially express keratin 5 during differentiation in bone marrow.

Keratin 5 (K5) is a cytoskeletal tissue-specific protein expressed in the epithelial cells of skin and esophagus and ectopic K5 expression in lymphocytes has never been reported.

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#25411317   2014/12/03 Save this To Up

Ovarian cancer stem cells express ROR1, which can be targeted for anti-cancer-stem-cell therapy.

Although initially responsive to chemotherapy, many patients with ovarian cancer subsequently develop relapsed and potentially fatal metastatic disease, which is thought to develop from cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are relatively resistant to conventional therapy. Here, we show that CSCs express a type I receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (ROR1), which is expressed during embryogenesis and by many different cancers, but not normal postpartum tissues. Ovarian cancers with high levels of ROR1 had stem cell-like gene-expression signatures. Furthermore, patients with ovarian cancers with high levels of ROR1 had higher rates of relapse and a shorter median survival than patients with ovarian cancers that expressed low-to-negligible amounts of ROR1. We found that ROR1-positive (ROR1(+)) cells isolated from primary tumor-derived xenografts (PDXs) also expressed aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) and had a greater capacity to form spheroids and to engraft immune-deficient mice than did ROR1-negative (ROR1(Neg)) ovarian cancer cells isolated from the same tumor population. Treatment with UC-961, an anti-ROR1 mAb, or shRNA silencing of ROR1 inhibited expression of the polycomb ring-finger oncogene, Bmi-1, and other genes associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, shRNA silencing of ROR1, depletion of ROR1(+) cells, or treatment with UC-961 impaired the capacity of ovarian cancer cells to form spheroids or tumor xenografts. More importantly, treatment with anti-ROR1 affected the capacity of the xenograft to reseed a virgin mouse, indicating that targeting ROR1 may affect CSC self-renewal. Collectively, these studies indicate that ovarian CSCs express ROR1, which contributes to their capacity to form tumors, making ROR1 a potential target for the therapy of patients with ovarian cancer.

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#24700748   2014/04/04 Save this To Up

Generation and characterization of nanobodies targeting PSMA for molecular imaging of prostate cancer.

Nanobodies show attractive characteristics for tumor targeting in cancer diagnosis and therapy. A radiolabeled nanobody binding the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) could offer a noninvasive strategy to select prostate cancer patients eligible for PSMA-targeted therapies. We here describe the generation, production and in vivo evaluation of anti-PSMA nanobodies. Nanobodies were derived from heavy-chain-only antibodies, raised in immunized dromedaries. Binding characteristics were evaluated through ELISA and flow cytometry. Selected nanobodies were radiolabeled with (99m) Tc at their hexahistidine tail, after which cell binding capacity and internalization were evaluated on PSMA(pos) LNCaP and PSMA(neg) PC3 cell lines. In vivo tumor targeting was analyzed in both LNCaP and PC3 xenografted mice through SPECT/microCT and tissue sampling. A panel of 72 generated clones scored positive on ELISA, all contributing to three nanobody groups, of which group 3 dominated with 70 clones. ELISA and FACS analysis led to the selection of two dominant nanobodies. (99m) Tc-labeled PSMA6 and PSMA30 both showed specific binding on LNCAP cells, but not on PC3 cells. (99m) Tc-PSMA30 internalized significantly more in LNCaP cells compared to (99m) Tc-PSMA6. Higher absolute tumor uptake and tumor-to-normal organ ratios were observed for (99m) Tc-PSMA30 compared with (99m) Tc-PSMA6 and a (99m) Tc-control nanobody in LNCaP but not in PC3 tumor-bearing mice. PSMA30 nanobody has improved targeting characteristics both in vitro as well as in vivo compared with PSMA6 and the control nanobody, and was therefore selected as our in-house-developed lead compound for PSMA targeting.

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#24466150   2014/01/27 Save this To Up

Respiratory tract epithelial cells express retinaldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A and enhance IgA production by stimulated B cells in the presence of vitamin A.

Morbidity and mortality due to viral infections are major health concerns, particularly when individuals are vitamin A deficient. Vitamin A deficiency significantly impairs mucosal IgA, a first line of defense against virus at its point of entry. Previous reports have suggested that CD11c(Hi) dendritic cells (DCs) of the gastrointestinal tract produce retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A), which metabolizes vitamin A precursors to retinoic acid to support normal mucosal immunity. Given that the upper respiratory tract (URT) and gastrointestinal tract share numerous characteristics, we asked if the CD11c(Hi) DCs of the URT might also express ALDH1A. To address this question, we examined both CD11c(Hi) test cells and CD11c(Lo/neg) control cells from nasal tissue. Surprisingly, the CD11c(Lo/neg) cells expressed more ALDH1A mRNA per cell than did the CD11c(Hi) cells. Further evaluation of CD11c(Lo/neg) populations by PCR and staining of respiratory tract sections revealed that epithelial cells were robust producers of both ALDH1A mRNA and protein. Moreover, CD11c(Lo/neg) cells from nasal tissue (and a homogeneous respiratory tract epithelial cell line) enhanced IgA production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte cultures in the presence of the retinoic acid precursor retinol. Within co-cultures, there was increased expression of MCP-1, IL-6, and GM-CSF, the latter two of which were necessary for IgA upregulation. All three cytokines/chemokines were expressed by the LPS-stimulated respiratory tract epithelial cell line in the absence of splenocytes. These data demonstrate the autonomous potential of respiratory tract epithelial cells to support vitamin A-mediated IgA production, and encourage the clinical testing of intranasal vitamin A supplements in vitamin A deficient populations to improve mucosal immune responses toward respiratory tract pathogens and vaccines.

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#23122616   2013/03/07 Save this To Up

Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham mice as the immunized mice induced insufficient intestinal anti-LT antibody to neutralize the activity of the enterotoxin. These results show that our ETEC vaccine induced serum and mucosal antibody responses to CFA/I and LT after mucosal administration which then acted to protect the immunized mice against lung and intestinal colonization, as well as, intestinal fluid accumulation.

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#22504409   2012/06/05 Save this To Up

Evaluation of a non-viral vaccine in smallpox-vaccinated individuals and immunized HLA-transgenic mice.

The current poxvirus vaccine is associated with rare, but serious adverse events. Therefore, we investigated a non-replicating approach to vaccine design. Peptides encoding potential HLA-binding motifs were derived from the orthopoxvirus genes, D8L, A27L, and C12L (the IL-18-binding protein [vIL18BP105]), all of which are preserved among poxviruses that infect humans, and which may be a target of host immunity. The peptides were tested with poxvirus-vaccinated human PBMC and serum for eliciting memory responses, as well as with splenocytes and serum from peptide-immunized, human HLA-DR04 transgenic (HLA tg) mice. vIL18BP105 induced 5-fold proliferation of vaccinated-donor PBMC over non-vaccinated (P<0.001), including IL-2-producing CD8+ cells. Serum IgG recognizing vIL18BP105 was detected (P<0.002 vs non-vaccinated) by ELISA. Viral peptides were conjugated to the HLA-targeting mAb, L243, for immunization of HLA tg mice. Splenocytes from vIL18BP105-L243-immunized mice proliferated upon exposure to vIL18BP105 (P<0.001). Proliferating splenocytes were interferon-γ-producing CD4(+)CD45RA(neg). vIL18BP105-L243-immunized mice generated IgG more rapidly than free-peptide-immunized mice. Peptide-specific antibody was also detected when different L243-peptide conjugates were combined. vIL18BP, by eliciting human memory responses, is a viable antigen for inclusion in a virus-free vaccine. The immunogenicity of peptides was boosted by conjugation to L243, whether administered alone or combined.

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#21479995   2011/06/21 Save this To Up

The CD40 agonist antibody CP-870,893 enhances dendritic cell and B-cell activity and promotes anti-tumor efficacy in SCID-hu mice.

CD40 is a member of the TNF family of receptors that has been shown to play a crucial role in enhancing dendritic cell activity and fostering anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate the in vitro properties and in vivo efficacious activity of the CD40 agonist antibody, CP-870,893. CP-870,893 is a fully human, IgG2 antibody that selectively interacts with CD40 at a site distinct from its ligand-binding region with a KD of 0.4 nM. It enhances the expression of MHC class II, CD54, CD86, and CD23 on human B cells in vitro. CP-870,893 also enhances dendritic cell activity as evidenced by cytokine secretion (IL-12, IL-23, IL-8), the upregulation of CD86 and CD83, and the ability to prime T cells to secrete IFNγ. In SCID-beige mice, a single parenteral injection of CP-870,893 was therapeutically effective against several CD40(pos) human tumors (B-cell lymphoma, breast, colon, and prostate) indicating direct effects on tumor cell survival and/or growth. When mice were co-implanted with human T cells and dendritic cells, the activity of CP-870,893 against CD40(pos) tumors increased, and efficacy was also observed against CD40(neg) and CD40(low) tumors demonstrating the ability of CP-870,893 to enhance anti-tumor immune function in vivo. These studies suggest that CP-870,893 has the potential to be efficacious against a wide range of tumor types through both direct and immune-mediated effects.

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#20664577   2010/10/19 Save this To Up

TLR4/MyD88-induced CD11b+Gr-1 int F4/80+ non-migratory myeloid cells suppress Th2 effector function in the lung.

In humans, environmental exposure to a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protects from allergic asthma, the immunological underpinnings of which are not well understood. In mice, exposure to a high LPS dose blunted house dust mite-induced airway eosinophilia and T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokine production. Although adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced allergic airway inflammation in control mice, they were unable to do so in LPS-exposed mice. LPS promoted the development of a CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) lung-resident cell resembling myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent manner that suppressed lung dendritic cell (DC)-mediated reactivation of primed Th2 cells. LPS effects switched from suppressive to stimulatory in MyD88(-/-) mice. Suppression of Th2 effector function was reversed by anti-interleukin-10 (IL-10) or inhibition of arginase 1. Lineage(neg) bone marrow progenitor cells could be induced by LPS to develop into CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+)cells both in vivo and in vitro that when adoptively transferred suppressed allergen-induced airway inflammation in recipient mice. These data suggest that CD11b(+)Gr1(int)F4/80(+) cells contribute to the protective effects of LPS in allergic asthma by tempering Th2 effector function in the tissue.

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