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A Site of Vulnerability on the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface.

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab's extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

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HA (Influenza A Virus Hem Recombinant Hemagglutinin Mouse Anti-Influenza A He Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Mouse Anti-Influenza-A He Mouse Anti-Influenza-A He Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V Native Influenza A Virus Native Influenza A Virus Native Influenza A Virus

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Analysis of the efficacy of an adjuvant-based inactivated pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccine.

This paper describes a preclinical study analyzing the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Kazfluvac, an adjuvant-based inactivated pandemic influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccine. In this study, laboratory animals (ferrets and mice) were vaccinated by the intramuscular or intraperitoneal route at an interval of 14 days with two doses of the vaccine containing different concentrations of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein. HA protein without adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide and Merthiolate) was used as a control. As a negative control, we utilized PBS. We assessed the protective efficacy of the candidate vaccine by analyzing the response to challenge with the influenza virus strain A/chicken/Astana/6/05 (H5N1). Our experimental results revealed substantially reduced clinical disease and an increased antibody response, as determined by hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test and microneutralization assay (MNA). This study showed that the candidate vaccine is safe and elicits an antigen-dose-dependent serum antibody response. In summary, we determined the optimum antigen dose in a Kazfluvac adjuvant formulation required for induction of heightened immunogenicity and protective efficacy to mitigate H5N1 disease in experimental animals, suggesting its readiness for clinical studies in humans.

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Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Native Influenza A Virus Native Influenza A Virus Native Influenza A Virus HA (Influenza A Virus Hem Recombinant Hemagglutinin Mouse AntiInfluenza B Nuc Goat Anti-Influenza A Vir Goat Anti-Influenza A Vir Goat Anti-Influenza A Vir

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Development of a universal influenza vaccine using hemagglutinin stem protein produced from Pichia pastoris.

The development of a universal influenza vaccine has become a major effort to combat the high mutation rate of influenza. To explore the use of the highly conserved stem region of hemagglutinin (HA) as a universal vaccine, we produced HA-stem-based protein using yeast expression systems. The glycosylation effects on the immunogenicity and protection activities were investigated. The yield of the A/Brisbane/59/2007 HA stem produced from Pichia pastoris reached 100 mg/l. The immunogenicity of HA stem proteins in various glycoforms was further investigated and compared. All glycoforms of the HA stem protein can induce cross-reactive antibody responses, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediated protection as well as T-cell responses, with broad protection in mice. The monoglycosylated form of the A/Brisbane/59/2007 HA stem produced in yeast, together with the glycolipid C34 as the adjuvant, can elicit greater ADCC responses, better neutralizing activities against heterologous strains, and broader protection in mice.

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Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) HBV surface recombinant a HBV surface recombinant a Anti C Reactive Protein A anti GSK3 Beta IgG2a (mon anti HIV 2 gp36 IgG1 (mon anti HIV 1 p24 IgG1 (mono anti HIV 1 p55 17 IgG1 (m anti HIV 1 p17 IgG1 (mono anti HIV 1 gp41 IgG1 (mon

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Longevity of adenovirus vector immunity in mice and its implications for vaccine efficacy.

There is a high incidence of adenovirus (AdV) infection in humans due to the presence of more than 60 types of human adenoviruses (HAdVs). The majority of individuals are exposed to one or more HAdV types early in their lives, leading to the development of AdV type-specific neutralizing antibodies. Similarly, immunization or gene therapy with AdV vectors leads to immune responses to the AdV vector. This 'vector immunity' is a concern for AdV vector-based applications for vaccines or gene therapy, especially when the repeated administration of a vector is required. The objective of this investigation was to establish whether AdV neutralizing antibody titers decline sufficiently in a year to permit annual vaccination with the same AdV vector. Naïve or human adenoviral vector group C, type 5 (HAdV-C5)-primed mice were mock-inoculated (with PBS) or inoculated i.m. with 10 PFU of either HAd-GFP [HAdV-C5 vector expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP)] to mimic the conditions for the first inoculation with an AdV vector-based vaccine. At 1, 3, 6, and 10 months post-HAd-GFP inoculation, naïve- or HAdV-primed animals were vaccinated i.m. with 10 PFU of HAd-H5HA [HAdV-C5 vector expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 influenza virus]. There was a significant continual decrease in vector immunity titers with time, thereby leading to significant continual increases in the levels of HA-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, significant improvement in protection efficacy against challenge with an antigenically heterologous H5N1 virus was observed in HAdV-primed animals at 6 months and onwards. These results indicate that the annual immunization with the same AdV vector may be effective due to a significant decline in vector immunity.

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Nucleoside-modified mRNA immunization elicits influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk-specific antibodies.

Currently available influenza virus vaccines have inadequate effectiveness and are reformulated annually due to viral antigenic drift. Thus, development of a vaccine that confers long-term protective immunity against antigenically distant influenza virus strains is urgently needed. The highly conserved influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk represents one of the potential targets of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines. Here, we evaluate a potent broadly protective influenza virus vaccine candidate that uses nucleoside-modified and purified mRNA encoding full-length influenza virus HA formulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). We demonstrate that immunization with HA mRNA-LNPs induces antibody responses against the HA stalk domain of influenza virus in mice, rabbits, and ferrets. The HA stalk-specific antibody response is associated with protection from homologous, heterologous, and heterosubtypic influenza virus infection in mice.

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A Bovine Adenoviral Vector-Based H5N1 Influenza -Vaccine Provides Enhanced Immunogenicity and Protection at a Significantly Low Dose.

Several human and nonhuman adenovirus (AdV) vectors including bovine AdV type 3 (BAdV-3) were developed as gene delivery vectors to supplement and/or elude human AdV (HAdV)-specific neutralizing antibodies (vector immunity). Here we evaluated the vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy of BAdV-3 vector (BAd-H5HA) expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of a H5N1 influenza virus in a dose escalation study in mice with the intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) route of inoculation in comparison with the HAdV type C5 (HAdV-C5) vector (HAd-H5HA) expressing HA of a H5N1 influenza virus. Dose-related increases in the immune responses were clearly noticeable. A single IM inoculation with BAd-H5HA resulted in enhanced cellular immune responses compared with that of HAd-H5HA and conferred complete protection following challenge with a heterologous H5N1 virus at the dose of 3 × 10 plaque-forming units (PFUs), whereas a significant amount of influenza virus was detected in the lungs of mice immunized with 1 × 10 PFUs of HAd-H5HA. Similarly, compared with that of HAd-H5HA, a single IN inoculation with BAd-H5HA produced significantly enhanced humoral (HA-specific immunoglobulin [IgG] and its subclasses, as well as HA-specific IgA) and cellular immune responses, and conferred complete protection following challenge with a heterologous H5N1 virus. Complete protection with BAd-H5HA was observed with the lowest vaccine dose (1 × 10 PFUs), but similar protection with HAd-H5HA was observed at the highest vaccine dose (1 × 10 PFUs). These results suggest that at least 30-fold dose sparing can be achieved with BAd-H5HA vector compared with HAd-H5HA vaccine vector.

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Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Rabbit Anti-ATP6IP2 Polyc Rabbit Anti-ATP6IP2 Polyc Bovine Androstenedione,AS Influenza A H5N1 (Avian F Goat Anti-Influenza A H5N Goat Anti-Influenza A H5N Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Influenza A H5N1 (Avian) Influenza A H5N1 (Avian)

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Mini-hemagglutinin vaccination induces cross-reactive antibodies in pre-exposed NHP that protect mice against lethal influenza challenge.

Seasonal vaccines are currently the most effective countermeasure against influenza. However, seasonal vaccines are only effective against strains closely related to the influenza strains contained in the vaccine. Recently a new hemagglutinin (HA) stem-based antigen, the so-called "mini-HA", has been shown to induce a cross-protective immune response in influenza-naive mice and non-human primates (NHP). However, prior exposure to influenza can have a profound effect on the immune response to subsequent influenza infection and the protective efficacy of vaccination. Here we show that mini-HA, compared to a trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV), elicits a broadened influenza-specific humoral immune response in NHP previously exposed to influenza. Serum transfer experiments showed that antibodies induced by both mini-HA and seasonal vaccine protected mice against lethal challenge with a H1N1 influenza strain heterologous to the H1 HA included in the TIV. However, antibodies elicited by mini-HA showed an additional benefit of protecting mice against lethal heterosubtypic H5N1 influenza challenge, associated with H5 HA-specific functional antibodies.

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Mouse Anti-Influenza A He Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Mouse Anti-Influenza-A HA

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Structural Basis for the Broad, Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of H5N1 Influenza Virus.

Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses causes severe disease and fatalities. We previously identified a potent and broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb), 13D4, against the H5N1 virus. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of 13D4 in complex with the hemagglutinin (HA) of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1). We show that heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) of 13D4 confers broad yet specific neutralization against H5N1, undergoing conformational rearrangement to bind to the receptor binding site (RBS). Further, we show that mutating four critical residues within the RBS-Trp153, Lys156, Lys193, and Leu194-disrupts the binding between 13D4 and HA. Viruses bearing Asn193 instead of Lys/Arg can evade 13D4 neutralization, indicating that Lys193 polymorphism might be, at least in part, involved in the antigenicity of recent H5 genotypes (such as H5N6 and H5N8) as distinguished from H5N1. BnAb 13D4 may offers a template for therapeutic RBS inhibitor design and serve as an indicator of antigenic change for current H5 viruses. Infection by highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus remains a threat to public health. Our broadly neutralizing antibody, 13D4, is capable of neutralizing all representative H5N1 viruses and protecting mice against lethal challenge. Structural analysis revealed that 13D4 uses heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) to fit the receptor binding site (RBS) via conformational rearrangement. Four conserved residues within the RBS are critical for the broad potency of 13D4. Importantly, polymorphism of Lys193 on the RBS may be associated with the antigenicity shift from H5N1 to other newly emerging viruses, such as H5N6 and H5N8. Our findings may pave the way for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus vaccine development and therapeutic RBS inhibitor design.

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Neuraminidase-Inhibiting Antibody Titers Correlate with Protection from Heterologous Influenza Virus Strains of the Same Neuraminidase Subtype.

Immune responses induced by currently licensed inactivated influenza vaccines are mainly directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of influenza viruses. The resulting antigenic drift of HA requires frequent updating of the vaccine composition and annual revaccination. On the other hand, the levels of antibodies directed against the neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein, the second major influenza virus antigen, vary greatly. To investigate the potential of the more conserved NA protein for the induction of subtype-specific protection, vesicular stomatitis virus-based replicons expressing a panel of N1 proteins from prototypic seasonal and pandemic H1N1 strains and human H5N1 and H7N9 isolates were generated. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the replicon carrying the matched N1 protein resulted in robust humoral and cellular immune responses and protected against challenge with the homologous influenza virus with an efficacy similar to that of the matched HA protein, illustrating the potential of the NA protein as a vaccine antigen. The extent of protection after immunization with mismatched N1 proteins correlated with the level of cross-reactive neuraminidase-inhibiting antibody titers. Passive serum transfer experiments in mice confirmed that these functional antibodies determine subtype-specific cross-protection. Our findings illustrate the potential of NA-specific immunity for achieving broader protection against antigenic drift variants or newly emerging viruses carrying the same NA but a different HA subtype. Despite the availability of vaccines, annual influenza virus epidemics cause 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Currently licensed inactivated vaccines, which are standardized for the amount of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen, primarily induce strain-specific antibodies, whereas the immune response to the neuraminidase (NA) antigen, which is also present on the viral surface, is usually low. Using NA-expressing single-cycle vesicular stomatitis virus replicons, we show that the NA antigen conferred protection of mice and ferrets against not only the matched influenza virus strains but also viruses carrying NA proteins from other strains of the same subtype. The extent of protection correlated with the level of cross-reactive NA-inhibiting antibodies. This highlights the potential of the NA antigen for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. Such vaccines may also provide partial protection against newly emerging strains with the same NA but a different HA subtype.

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Rabbit Anti-Influenza A V Mouse Anti-Influenza B Vi Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N HA (Influenza A Virus Hem Monoclonal antibody Anti Measles Virus Nucleoprote Measles Virus nucleoprote Hepatitis C Virus antibod Feline Leukemia virus ant Feline Leukemia Virus p27 Feline Leukemia Virus gp7 Feline Leukemia Virus gp7

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Broadly Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies Elicited following Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Exposure Protect Mice against Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Challenge.

Broadly cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) that recognize conserved epitopes within the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain are of particular interest for their potential use as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against multiple influenza virus subtypes, including zoonotic virus strains. Here, we characterized four human HA stalk-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their binding breadth and affinity, neutralization capacity, and protective potential against an highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The monoclonal antibodies were isolated from individuals shortly following infection with (70-1F02 and 1009-3B05) or vaccination against (05-2G02 and 09-3A01) A(H1N1)pdm09. Three of the MAbs bound HAs from multiple strains of group 1 viruses, and one MAb, 05-2G02, bound to both group 1 and group 2 influenza A virus HAs. All four antibodies prophylactically protected mice against a lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) strain. Two MAbs, 70-1F02 and 09-3A01, were further tested for their therapeutic efficacy against the same strain and showed good efficacy in this setting as well. One MAb, 70-1F02, cocrystallized with H5 HA and showed heavy-chain-only interactions similar to those seen with the previously described CR6261 anti-stalk antibody. Finally, we show that antibodies that compete with these MAbs are prevalent in serum from an individual recently infected with the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The antibodies described here can be developed into broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics that could be used to combat infections by zoonotic or emerging pandemic influenza viruses. The rise in zoonotic infections of humans by emerging influenza viruses is a worldwide public health concern. The majority of recent zoonotic human influenza cases were caused by H7N9 and H5Nx viruses and were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, seasonal influenza viruses are estimated to cause up to 650,000 deaths annually worldwide. Currently available antiviral treatment options include only neuraminidase inhibitors, but some influenza viruses are naturally resistant to these drugs, and others quickly develop resistance-conferring mutations. Alternative therapeutics are urgently needed. Broadly protective antibodies that target the conserved "stalk" domain of the hemagglutinin represent potential potent antiviral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that can assist pandemic preparedness. Here, we describe four human monoclonal antibodies that target conserved regions of influenza HA and characterize their binding spectrum as well as their protective capacity in prophylactic and therapeutic settings against a lethal challenge with a zoonotic influenza virus.

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