Search results for: Mouse Anti-Marek Disease Virus Antibodies
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Characterization of Three Novel Linear Neutralizing B-Cell Epitopes in the Capsid Protein of Swine Hepatitis E Virus.Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver disease in humans and is thought to be a zoonotic infection with domestic animals being a reservoir including swine and rabbits. One of the proteins encoded by the virus is the capsid protein. This is likely the major immune-dominant protein and a target for vaccination. Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); three novel; 1E4, 2C7, 2G9, and one previously characterized (1B5), were evaluated for binding to the capsid protein from genotype 4 (swine) hepatitis E virus (HEV). The results indicated that DFCP, PSRPF, and EPTV peptides on the capsid protein comprised minimal amino acid sequence motifs recognized by 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, respectively. The data suggested that 2C7 and 2G9 epitopes were partially exposed on the surface of the capsid protein. Truncated genotype 4 swine HEV capsid protein (sp239, amino acids 368-606), can exist in multimeric forms. Pre-incubation of swine HEV with 2C7, 2G9, or 1B5 before addition to HepG2 cells partially blocked sp239 cell binding and inhibited swine HEV infection. The study indicated that 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 partially blocked swine HEV infection of rabbits better than 1E4 or normal mouse IgG. The cross reactivity of antibodies suggested that capsid epitopes recognized by 2C7 and 2G9 are common to HEV strains infecting most host species. Collectively, MAbs 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 were shown to recognize three novel linear neutralizing B-cell epitopes of genotype 4 HEV capsid protein. These results enhance understanding of HEV capsid protein structure to guide vaccine and anti-viral design. Genotype 3 and 4 HEVs are zoonotic viruses. Here, genotype 4 HEV was studied due to its prevalence in human populations and pig herds in China. To improve HEV disease diagnosis and prevention, a better understanding of antigenic structure and neutralizing epitopes of HEV capsid protein are needed. In this study, the locations of three novel linear B-cell recognition epitopes within genotype 4 swine HEV capsid protein were characterized. Moreover, the neutralizing abilities of three MAbs specific for this protein, 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5, were studied and Collectively, these findings reveal structural details of genotype 4 HEV capsid protein and should facilitate development of applications for design of vaccines and antiviral drugs for broader prevention, detection, and treatment of HEV infection of diverse human and animal hosts.
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Rearrangement of the Protein Phosphatase 1 Interactome During Heart Failure Progression.-Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease with a rising prevalence despite advances in treatment. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has long been implicated in HF pathogenesis but its exact role is both unclear and controversial. Most previous studies measured only the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) without investigating its diverse set of interactors, which confer localization and substrate specificity to the holoenzyme. In this study we define the PP1 interactome in cardiac tissue and test the hypothesis that this interactome becomes rearranged during HF progression at the level of specific PP1c interactors. -Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction and grouped based on ejection fraction (EF) into sham, hypertrophy, moderate HF (EF 30-40%), and severe HF (EF<30%). Cardiac lysates were subjected to affinity-purification using anti-PP1c antibodies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Ppp1r7 was knocked down in mouse cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) and siRNA, respectively. Calcium imaging was performed on isolated ventricular myocytes. -Seventy-one and 98 PP1c interactors were quantified from mouse cardiac and HeLa lysates, respectively, including many novel interactors and protein complexes. This represents the largest reproducible PP1 interactome dataset ever captured from any tissue, including both primary and secondary/tertiary interactors. Nine PP1c interactors with changes in their binding to PP1c were strongly associated with HF progression including two known (Ppp1r7, Ppp1r18) and 7 novel interactors. Within the entire cardiac PP1 interactome, Ppp1r7 had the highest binding to PP1c. Cardiac-specific knockdown in mice led to cardiac dysfunction and disruption of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. -PP1 is best studied at the level of its interactome, which undergoes significant rearrangement during HF progression. The nine key interactors that are associated with HF progression may represent potential targets in HF therapy. In particular, Ppp1r7 may play a central role in regulating the PP1 interactome by acting as a competitive molecular "sponge" of PP1c.
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Viral Diversity of House Mice in New York City.The microbiome of wild (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera. A representative screen of 15 viruses by PCR confirmed the presence of 13 of these viruses in liver. We identified an uneven distribution of diversity, with several viruses being associated with specific locations. Higher mouse weight was associated with an increase in the number of viruses detected per mouse, after adjusting for site, sex, and length. We found neither genetic footprints to known human viral pathogens nor antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Mice carry a wide range of infectious agents with zoonotic potential. Their proximity to humans in the built environment is therefore a concern for public health. Laboratory mice are also the most common experimental model for investigating the pathobiology of infectious diseases. In this survey of mice trapped in multiple locations within New York City over a period of 1 year, we found a diverse collection of viruses that includes some previously not associated with house mice and others that appear to be novel. Although we found no known human pathogens, our findings provide insights into viral ecology and may yield models that have utility for clinical microbiology.
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Intranasal administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype vaccine-induced systemic immune response in chicken and mice.The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant.
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Construction and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus gp350 Antibody with Neutralizing Activity in Cell Culture.Acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in immunosuppressed transplant patients can give rise to a malignant B-cell proliferation known as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). The EBV major virion surface glycoprotein (gp)350 is a principal target of naturally occurring neutralizing antibodies and is viewed as the best target to prevent acute infection and PTLD in at-risk transplant recipients. We have constructed a humanized (hu) version of the murine anti-gp350 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 72a1. The hu72a1 IgG1 antibody displayed no significant anti-mouse activity, recognized both gp350 and its splice variant gp220 as well as a gp350 peptide that was shown to constitute the principal EBV gp350 neutralizing epitope when tested in immunoassays. Hu72a1 antibody blocked in vitro EBV infection of B cells at a level which equaled that of a mouse-human chimeric 72a1 antibody construct. This work provides a further structural and immunological understanding of the 72a1 antibody interaction with EBV gp350, and constitutes a launch point for future anti-EBV therapeutic antibodies designed to block EBV infection and prevent PTLD while eliminating the deleterious antigenic murine features of the original 72a1 antibody.
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Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against nucleoprotein for diagnosis of influenza A virus.Influenza, which is a highly contagious disease caused by the influenza A virus, continues to be a major health concern worldwide. Although the accurate and early diagnosis of influenza virus infection is important for controlling the spread of this disease and rapidly initiating anti-viral therapy, the current influenza diagnostic kits are limited by their low sensitivity. In this study, we developed several new influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and compared their sensitivity and specificity with those of commercially available anti-NP mAbs. Three mAbs, designated M24.11, M34.3 and M34.33, exhibited higher reactivities to recombinant NP proteins and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) viral lysates compared with the commercial mAbs, as assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. M34.3 and M34.33 showed higher reactivities with A/California/04/09 (pandemic H1N1) and A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2) viral lysates than the commercial mAbs. In contrast, M24.11 had marked reactivity with H3N2 but not with pandemic H1N1. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy showed that the three mAbs effectively detected the presence of influenza virus in lung tissues of mice infected with A/Puerto Rico/8/1934. These results indicate that the newly developed mAbs, M34.3 and M34.33, could be useful for the development of influenza diagnostics.
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Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice.Annual immunization against influenza virus is a large international public health effort. Accumulating evidence suggests that antibody mediated cross-reactive immunity against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) strongly correlates with long-lasting cross-protection against influenza virus strains that differ from the primary infection or vaccination strain. However, the optimal strategies for achieving highly cross-reactive antibodies to the influenza virus HA have not yet to be defined. In the current study, using Luminex-based mPlex-Flu assay, developed by our laboratory, to quantitatively measure influenza specific IgG antibody mediated cross-reactivity, we found that prime-boost-boost vaccination of ferrets with rHA proteins admixed with adjuvant elicited higher magnitude and broader cross-reactive antibody responses than that induced by actual influenza viral infection, and this cross-reactive response likely correlated with increased anti-stalk reactive antibodies. We observed a similar phenomenon in mice receiving three sequential vaccinations with rHA proteins from either A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) or A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) viruses admixed with Addavax, an MF59-like adjuvant. Using this same mouse vaccination model, we determined that Addavax plays a more significant role in the initial priming event than in subsequent boosts. We also characterized the generation of cross-reactive antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells (MBCs) when comparing vaccination to viral infection. We have also found that adjuvant plays a critical role in the generation of long-lived ASCs and MBCs cross-reactive to influenza viruses as a result of vaccination with rHA of influenza virus, and the observed increase in stalk-reactive antibodies likely contributes to this IgG mediated broad cross-reactivity.
2936 related Products with: Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice.Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza B V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Influenza A V Recombinant Hemagglutinin Mouse Anti-Influenza A He Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H
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Monoclonal Antibody-Based Serological Detection Methods for Wheat Dwarf Virus.Wheat dwarf disease caused by wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is currently present in wheat growing regions in China and causes serious losses in wheat yield. To develop reliable and effective serological detection methods for WDV, the coat protein (CP) gene of WDV was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant CP protein was immunized to BALB/c mice, and four hybridoma cell lines (i.e. 18G10, 9G4, 23F4 and 22A10) secreting anti-WDV monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained through the hybridoma technique. Using the prepared MAbs, an antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) and a dot-ELISA were established for detecting WDV in wheat samples. The most sensitive ACP-ELISA based on MAb 23F4 or 22A10 was able to detect WDV in 1:163,840 (w/v, g/mL) diluted WDV-infected wheat plant crude extracts. The dot-ELISA based on MAb 23F4 was the most sensitive and able to detect the virus in 1:5,120 (w/v, g/mL) diluted wheat plant crude extracts. A total of 128 wheat samples were collected from wheat growing regions in the Shaanxi and Qinghai provinces, China, and were screened for the presence of WDV using two developed serological assays. Results from the survey showed that approximately 62% of the samples were infected with WDV. PCR followed by DNA sequencing and sequence alignment validated the results from the two serological assays. Therefore, we consider that these two serological detection methods can be significantly useful for the control of WDV in China.
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Individually addressable and dynamic DNA gates for multiplexed cell sorting.The ability to analyze and isolate cells based on the expression of specific surface markers has increased our understanding of cell biology and produced numerous applications for biomedicine. However, established cell-sorting platforms rely on labels that are limited in number due to biophysical constraints, such as overlapping emission spectra of fluorophores in FACS. Here, we establish a framework built on a system of orthogonal and extensible DNA gates for multiplexed cell sorting. These DNA gates label target cell populations by antibodies to allow magnetic bead isolation en masse and then selectively unlock by strand displacement to sort cells. We show that DNA gated sorting (DGS) is triggered to completion within minutes on the surface of cells and achieves target cell purity, viability, and yield equivalent to that of commercial magnetic sorting kits. We demonstrate multiplexed sorting of three distinct immune cell populations (CD8, CD4, and CD19) from mouse splenocytes to high purity and show that recovered CD8 T cells retain proliferative potential and target cell-killing activity. To broaden the utility of this platform, we implement a double positive sorting scheme using DNA gates on peptide-MHC tetramers to isolate antigen-specific CD8 T cells from mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). DGS can potentially be expanded with fewer biophysical constraints to large families of DNA gates for applications that require analysis of complex cell populations, such as host immune responses to disease.
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Influenza Infection in Humans Induces Broadly Cross-Reactive and Protective Neuraminidase-Reactive Antibodies.Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes. The antibodies robustly inhibit the enzymatic activity of NA, including oseltamivir-resistant variants, and provide robust prophylactic protection, including against avian H5N1 viruses, in vivo. When used therapeutically, NA-reactive antibodies protected mice from lethal influenza virus challenge even 48 hr post infection. These findings strongly suggest that influenza vaccines should be optimized to improve targeting of NA for durable and broad protection against divergent influenza strains.
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