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#28542400   2017/05/25 Save this To Up

Intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and JAK1/STAT3 pathway are involved in the protective effect of propofol on BV2 microglia against hypoxia-induced inflammation and apoptosis.

Perioperative hypoxia may induce microglial inflammation and apoptosis, resulting in brain injury. The neuroprotective effect of propofol against hypoxia has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. In this study, we explored whether and how propofol could attenuate microglia BV2 cells from CoCl2-induced hypoxic injury.

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#28480396   2017/05/08 Save this To Up

IMMUNOSUPPRESIVE EFFECTS OF THE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM CAINITO LEAVES ON MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of the methanol extract (MeOH) from Chrysophyllum cainito leaves on the MΦs functions.

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#28347190   2017/03/28 Save this To Up

Anti-inflammatory activity of standardized dichloromethane extract of Salvia connivens on macrophages stimulated by LPS.

A previous study demonstrated that the chloroform extract of Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) has anti-inflammatory activity.

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#28217806   2017/02/20 Save this To Up

[Effects of salidroside on the secretion of inflammatory mediators induced by lipopolysaccharide in murine macrophage cell line J774.1].

To investigate the effect of salidroside (Sal) on the inflammatory activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774.1 and its possible mechanism, the cells were treated with PBS, LPS (0.5 µg/mL) or different doses of Sal (5, 25, 125 µg/mL) + LPS (0.5 µg/mL). CCK-8 colorimetric method was used to detect the cell activity. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the contents of TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-2 in the supernatant, and the content of NO in the supernatant was determined by nitrate reductase method. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of iNOS protein in cytoplasm and NF-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) protein in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and DNA binding activity of NF-κB/p65 was detected by using TransAMTM NF-κB/p65 activity assay kit. The results showed that the treatment with 0.5 µg/mL LPS and different doses of Sal (5, 25, 125 µg/mL) for 12 h had no effect on cell viability. Compared with LPS stimulation group, pretreatment with Sal significantly reduced the contents of TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-2 and NO in culture supernatant induced by LPS in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05), downregulated the expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein (P < 0.05), decreased the expression level of NF-κB/p65 protein in nucleus (P < 0.05) while accordingly increased that in cytoplasm (P < 0.05), and decreased DNA binding activity of NF-κB/p65 in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The results suggested that Sal pretreatment can reduce macrophage inflammatory activation induced by LPS, and the mechanism may be through the LPS/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the excessive expression and secretion of inflammatory mediators and cytokines.

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#28135711   2017/01/30 Save this To Up

Gelsolin Inhibits the Inflammatory Process Induced by LPS.

Endotoxemia is a life-threatening situation that signifies a key challenge in the field of intensive care medicine. Proinflammatory mediators produced by macrophages play a key role in endotoxemia. Gelsolin (GSN) is involved in the process of inflammation.

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#27820950   2016/11/07 Save this To Up

The Ingenious Interactions Between Macrophages and Functionally Plastic Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the interactions between macrophages (MPs) and RPE cells in coculture systems to investigate the functional plasticity of RPE cells.

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#27781339   2016/10/26 Save this To Up

Tumor necrosis factor alpha derived from classically activated "M1" macrophages reduces interstitial cell of Cajal numbers.

Delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and humans is associated with changes in macrophage phenotype and loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the gastric muscle layers. In diabetic mice, classically activated M1 macrophages are associated with delayed gastric emptying, whereas alternatively activated M2 macrophages are associated with normal gastric emptying. This study aimed to determine if secreted factors from M1 macrophages could injure mouse ICC in primary culture.

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#27761469   2016/10/20 Save this To Up

Effect of Alkaloids from Nelumbinis Plumula against Insulin Resistance of High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of total alkaloids from Nelumbinis Plumula (NPA) on insulin resistance (IR) of high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Rats were fed with HFD for 8 weeks to induce NAFLD. Then, the effect of NPA on ameliorating IR in HFD-induced NAFLD was evaluated. Fasting serum insulin was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for insulin following the manufacturer's protocol. Some inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined using ELISA kits to assess the inflammatory burden in rats. The results showed that HFD could induce a significant increase in blood glucose and IR in rats. However, rats treated with NPA (400 or 600 mg/kg) showed improved IR and reduction in serum inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Further investigation indicated that NPA could inhibit IR by restoring the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and suppressing the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. The present results supported the view that the pathogenesis of NAFLD was complex with inflammation, together with increasing serum glucose and IR. Also, JNK and IRS phosphorylation were suggested for their involvement in the modulating of IR during NAFLD progression. Therefore, NPA may serve as a potential natural remedy against IR in NAFLD.

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#27338335   2016/06/24 Save this To Up

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Melandrii Herba Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells and Mouse Primary Macrophages.

Melandrii Herba (MH) is a traditional Asian medicinal herb used to treat breast cancer, anuria, and diseases of lactation. However, its biological properties and molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanism of MH ethanol extract (MHE) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory response in macrophages. MHE cytotoxicity was determined using a cell counting kit (CCK) assay. The effects of MHE on the production of NO, inflammatory cytokines, and related proteins and mRNAs were determined using the Griess test, ELISA, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. In addition, intracellular signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, MAPK, and HO-1, were analyzed using Western blotting. Our results revealed that MHE treatment significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in macrophages, at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Furthermore, MHE treatment inhibited iNOS expression and induced HO-1 expression. Finally, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB and MAPK activation were significantly suppressed by MHE in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results indicate that MHE exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing inflammatory mediator production via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways inhibition and induction of HO-1 expression in macrophages. Therefore, our results suggest the potential value of MHE as an inflammatory therapeutic agent developed from a natural substance.

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#27189760   2016/06/20 Save this To Up

Function of Thymosin Beta-4 in Ethanol-Induced Microglial Activation.

Neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia may play a pivotal role in a variety of central nervous system (CNS) pathologic conditions, including ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of Tβ4 in ethanol-induced microglia activation.

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