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#28934025   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

TAMEC: a new analogue of cyclomyrsinol diterpenes decreases anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Objectives There is a significant prevalence of affective disorders including depression and anxiety in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), resulting in reduced quality of life. Since the current treatments are not generally effective, further studies are needed to find appropriate drugs to alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms in these patients. Methods The effects of a new analog of cyclomyrsinol diterpenes (TAMEC) isolated from Euphorbia sogdiana on the anxiety (open field and elevated plus maze test) and depressive-like behaviors (sucrose preference test and forced swim test) in EAE-induced C57BL/6 mice (EAE; a mouse model of MS) were investigated. Hippocampal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 levels were also measured by ELISA. Results The results indicated that TAMEC treatment reduced anxiety and depression-like behavior. This drug also decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL1β and increased IL-10 level in the hippocampus. Discussion Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the drug we used here can reduce anxiety and depression-like symptoms in EAE-induced mice. However, more studies are still needed to validate, expand, and generalize these data.

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#28933492   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

The hepatoprotective effect of the probiotic Clostridium butyricum against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in mice.

Previous studies have revealed that the probiotic Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) can attenuate cirrhosis in chronic non-alcoholic liver disease. However, the effects of C. butyricum on acute liver injury (ALI) remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms employed by C. butyricum in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced ALI murine model. Here, we evaluated the survival rate and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), anti-oxidants, cytokines and the gut microbiota to elucidate the potential mechanisms by which C. butyricum is hepatoprotective. Our results show that five days of prophylactic C. butyricum treatment significantly reduced mortality by 40% and decreased the CCl4-induced levels of ALT and AST in the serum of these mice. Additionally, prophylactic treatment with C. butyricum increased the activity of both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and substantially reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, which were deteriorated in the untreated ALI mice compared to normal control mice. Furthermore, C. butyricum up-regulated the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) content. CCl4-induced mice also exhibited considerable increases of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, the inflammatory responses of the liver induced by CCl4 were significantly alleviated by C. butyricum pretreatment. Additionally, we found that interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory mediator, was increased in the C. butyricum-pretreated group. Microbiota analysis in these mice revealed crosstalk between the gut microbial metabolites and ALI. The intestinal flora was changed by CCl4 administration and was shifted by the probiotic C. butyricum toward more beneficial bacteria, particularly the Clostridia orders, which are the known producers of the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative metabolite butyrate. In conclusion, we found that the intestinal flora changes after the intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. We also offer novel insights into the mechanism by which probiotic C. butyricum pretreatment alleviates the CCl4-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of the liver via the modulation of NRF2, NF-κB p65, IL-10 and the intestinal microbiota in mice.

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#28933476   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Piceatannol inhibits the IL-1β-induced inflammatory response in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and ameliorates osteoarthritis in mice by activating Nrf2.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex process, to which an inflammatory environment contributes markedly. Piceatannol exerts anti-inflammatory effects on several diseases. In the current study, we explored the protective effects of piceatannol on the progression of OA and investigated its molecular target. In vitro, piceatannol not only attenuated the over-production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines-such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-but also suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Piceatannol also decreased the expression of metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5), which mediate extracellular matrix degradation. Mechanistically, we found that piceatannol inhibited IL-1β-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by activating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway. Furthermore, piceatannol exerted protective effects in a mouse model of OA. Taken together, these findings indicate that piceatannol may be a potential therapeutic agent for OA.

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#28932225   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Expression and Function of the Cholinergic System in Immune Cells.

T and B cells express most cholinergic system components-e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase, and both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Using ChAT(BAC)-eGFP transgenic mice, ChAT expression has been confirmed in T and B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Moreover, T cell activation via T-cell receptor/CD3-mediated pathways upregulates ChAT mRNA expression and ACh synthesis, suggesting that this lymphocytic cholinergic system contributes to the regulation of immune function. Immune cells express all five mAChRs (M1-M5). Combined M1/M5 mAChR-deficient (M1/M5-KO) mice produce less antigen-specific antibody than wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, spleen cells in M1/M5-KO mice produce less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, suggesting M1/M5 mAChRs are involved in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and antibody production. Immune cells also frequently express the α2, α5, α6, α7, α9, and α10 nAChR subunits. α7 nAChR-deficient (α7-KO) mice produce more antigen-specific antibody than WT mice, and spleen cells from α7-KO mice produce more TNF-α and IL-6 than WT cells. This suggests that α7 nAChRs are involved in regulating cytokine production and thus modulate antibody production. Evidence also indicates that nicotine modulates immune responses by altering cytokine production and that α7 nAChR signaling contributes to immunomodulation through modification of T cell differentiation. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of both mAChRs and nAChRs in the regulation of immune function. The observation that vagus nerve stimulation protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock led to the notion of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex pathway, and the spleen is an essential component of this anti-inflammatory reflex. Because the spleen lacks direct vagus innervation, it has been postulated that ACh synthesized by a subset of CD4(+) T cells relays vagal nerve signals to α7 nAChRs on splenic macrophages, which downregulates TNF-α synthesis and release, thereby modulating inflammatory responses. However, because the spleen is innervated solely by the noradrenergic splenic nerve, confirmation of an anti-inflammatory reflex pathway involving the spleen requires several more hypotheses to be addressed. We will review and discuss these issues in the context of the cholinergic system in immune cells.

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#28931410   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Lentivirus-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) knock-down in the hippocampus alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice.

Recent evidence has suggested that peripheral inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in neuropsychiatric dysfunction in rodents. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been proposed to be a key mediator in a variety of behavioral dysfunction induced by LPS in mice. Thus, inhibition of IL-1β may have a therapeutic benefit in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the precise underlying mechanism of knock-down of IL-1β in repairing behavioral changes by LPS remains unclear.

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#28928666   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Colitis Is Effectively Ameliorated by (±)-8-Acetonyl-dihydrocoptisine via the XBP1-NF-κB Pathway.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a recurrent, chronic intestinal disease. Available treatments for UC are poor effective and/or cause severe adverse events. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) have been reported to play important roles in UC. Specifically, deletion or downregulation of XBP1 leads to spontaneous enteritis and results in imbalanced secretion of NF-κB and other proinflammatory cytokines. (±)-8-acetonyl-dihydrocoptisine, i.e., (±)-8-ADC, is a monomer semi-synthesized from coptisine. In vitro, (±)-8-ADC activated the transcriptional activity of XBP1, inhibited expression of NF-κB, and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IEC6 cells. Therefore, silencing XBP1 would reduce the inhibition effect of (±)-8-ADC on NF-κB expression and the cytokines secretion in vitro. In a dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mouse model, oral administration of (±)-8-ADC ameliorated weight loss and colon contracture, and decreased the average disease activity index score and pathological damage. Simultaneously, (±)-8-ADC also increased XBP1 expression, and decreased NF-κB expression and secretion of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in the colon. Therefore, (±)-8-ADC may ameliorate UC via the XBP1-NF-κB pathway and should be considered as a therapeutic candidate for UC.

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#28927419   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligand mRNA expression profiles differ between humans and mice during homeostasis and between various murine kidney injuries.

Several tumour necrosis factor (TNF) based therapeutics have already been approved for human use and several others are emerging. Therefore, we determined the mRNA expression levels of the TNF superfamily ligands (TNFSF) - e.g. TNF-α, lymphotoxin (LT)-α, LT-β, Fas-L (CD95-L), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), 4-1BBL, OX40-L (CD252) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in healthy human and mouse solid organs.

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#28925471   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Research on the function and mechanism of survivin in heart failure mice model.

To observe the role of survivin in the heart failure mice model and to study its mechanism.

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#28923390   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors: Conjugates of N-substituted indole and aminophenylmorpholin-3-one as anti-inflammatory agents.

The conjugates obtained by the combination of indole and aminophenyl morpholinone were screened for TNF-α and IL-6 inhibition in microglial cells. Compound 4 was found to be the most potent anti-inflammatory agent as it reduced LPS induced level of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by 71% and 53%, respectively. A significant decrease in NO and MMPs release from BV2 cells in culture pretreated with this compound as well as inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 was observed. 75% inhibition of acetic acid induced algesia in swiss albino mice was noticed in the presence of compound 4. Experimental data and molecular docking studies indicate that the compounds are targeting TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6.

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#28922365   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Isothiocyanate-enriched moringa seed extract alleviates ulcerative colitis symptoms in mice.

Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seed extract (MSE) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We investigated the effects of MSE enriched in moringa isothiocyanate-1 (MIC-1), its putative bioactive, on ulcerative colitis (UC) and its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant mechanism likely mediated through Nrf2-signaling pathway. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute (n = 8/group; 3% DSS for 5 d) and chronic (n = 6/group; cyclic rotations of 2.5% DSS/water for 30 d) UC was induced in mice that were assigned to 4 experimental groups: healthy control (water/vehicle), disease control (DSS/vehicle), MSE treatment (DSS/MSE), or 5-aminosalicyic acid (5-ASA) treatment (positive control; DSS/5-ASA). Following UC induction, water (vehicle), 150 mg/kg MSE, or 50 mg/kg 5-ASA were orally administered for 1 or 2 wks. Disease activity index (DAI), spleen/colon sizes, and colonic histopathology were measured. From colon and/or fecal samples, pro-inflammatory biomarkers, tight-junction proteins, and Nrf2-mediated enzymes were analyzed at protein and/or gene expression levels. Compared to disease control, MSE decreased DAI scores, and showed an increase in colon lengths and decrease in colon weight/length ratios in both UC models. MSE also reduced colonic inflammation/damage and histopathological scores (modestly) in acute UC. MSE decreased colonic secretions of pro-inflammatory keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in acute and chronic UC; reduced fecal lipocalin-2 in acute UC; downregulated gene expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in acute UC; upregulated expression of claudin-1 and ZO-1 in acute and chronic UC; and upregulated GSTP1, an Nrf2-mediated phase II detoxifying enzyme, in chronic UC. MSE was effective in mitigating UC symptoms and reducing UC-induced colonic pathologies, likely by suppressing pro-inflammatory biomarkers and increasing tight-junction proteins. This effect is consistent with Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory/antioxidant signaling pathway documented for other isothiocyanates similar to MIC-1. Therefore, MSE, enriched with MIC-1, may be useful in prevention and treatment of UC.

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