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#28635174   2017/06/21 Save this To Up

Flash Light Millisecond Self-Assembly of High χ Block Copolymers for Wafer-Scale Sub-10 nm Nanopatterning.

One of the fundamental challenges encountered in successful incorporation of directed self-assembly in sub-10 nm scale practical nanolithography is the process compatibility of block copolymers with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). Herein, reliable, fab-compatible, and ultrafast directed self-assembly of high-χ block copolymers is achieved with intense flash light. The instantaneous heating/quenching process over an extremely high temperature (over 600 °C) by flash light irradiation enables large grain growth of sub-10 nm scale self-assembled nanopatterns without thermal degradation or dewetting in a millisecond time scale. A rapid self-assembly mechanism for a highly ordered morphology is identified based on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the block copolymers with strong segregation. Furthermore, this novel self-assembly mechanism is combined with graphoepitaxy to demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast directed self-assembly of sub-10 nm nanopatterns over a large area. A chemically modified graphene film is used as a flexible and conformal light-absorbing layer. Subsequently, transparent and mechanically flexible nanolithography with a millisecond photothermal process is achieved leading the way for roll-to-roll processability.

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#28049434   2017/01/04 Save this To Up

Why does a cooled object feel heavier? Psychophysical investigations into the Weber's Phenomenon.

It has long been known that a concomitantly cooled stimulus is perceived as heavier than the same object at a neutral temperature-termed Weber's Phenomenon (WP). In the current study, we re-examined this phenomenon using well-controlled force and temperature stimuli to explore the complex interplay between thermal and tactile systems, and the peripheral substrates contributing to these interactions. A feedback-controlled apparatus was constructed using a mechanical stimulator attached to a 5- × 5-mm thermode. Force combinations of 0.5 and 1 N (superimposed on 1-N step) were applied to the ulnar territory of dorsal hand. One of the forces had a thermal component, being cooled from 32 to 28 °C at a rate of 2 °C/s with a 3-s static phase. The other stimulus was thermally neutral (32 °C). Participants were asked to report whether the first or the second stimulus was perceived heavier. These observations were obtained in the all-fibre-intact condition and following the preferential block of myelinated fibres by compression of ulnar nerve.

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#27993022   2016/12/20 Save this To Up

Electrospun Fibrous Mat with pH-Switchable Superwettability That Can Separate Layered Oil/Water Mixtures.

Oil/water separation has inspired much research interest because of the damages caused to our natural environment due to oily wastewater. As a leader of advanced separation materials, electrospun polymeric fibrous mats having the properties of special surface wettability, high specific surface area, and high porosity will be a good membrane material for the separation of oily wastewater. Herein, we first prepared pH-responsive polymer poly(dimethylsiloxane)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PDMS-b-P4VP) mat using electrospinning technology. The PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat with a thickness of around 250 μm exhibits good pH-switchable oil/water wettability and is able to effectively separate oil or water from layered oil/water mixtures by gravity driven through adjusting the pH value. Stemming from its porous structure and pH-switchable superwettability, the electrospun PDMS-b-P4VP fibrous mat achieved controllable separations with high fluxes of approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for oil (hexane) and 27 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water. In addition, extended studies on the polymer/silica nanoparticulate (silica NP) composite fibrous mats show that the addition of an inorganic component improves the thermal stability, pH-switchable wettability, and separation performance of the fibrous mats (approximately 9000 L h(-1) m(-2) for hexane and 32 000 L h(-1) m(-2) for water). It can be concluded from the results that both polymer fibrous mats and silica-filled composite fibrous mats are good candidates for on-demand layered oil/water mixture separation.

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#27933947   2016/12/09 Save this To Up

In Silico Discovery and Validation of Amide Based Small Molecule Targeting the Enzymatic Site of Shiga Toxin.

Shiga toxin (Stx), a category B biothreat agent, is a ribosome inactivating protein and toxic to human and animals. Here, we designed and synthesized small molecules that block the active site of the Stx A subunit. On the basis of binding energy, 20 molecules were selected for synthesis and evaluation. These molecules were primarily screened using fluorescence-based thermal shift assay and in vitro in Vero cells. Among 32 molecules (including 12 reported), six molecules offered protection with IC50 of 2.60-23.90 μM. 4-Nitro-N-[2-(2-phenylsulfanylethylamino)ethyl]benzamide hydrochloride is the most potent inhibitor with IC50 at 7.96 μM and selectivity index of 22.23 and is better than any known small molecule inhibitor of Stx. Preincubation with Stx offered full protection against Shiga toxin in mice. Surface plasmon resonance assay further confirmed that these molecules bind specifically to Stx A subunit. Further optimization is continued to identify a potential candidate which will be in vivo effective.

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#27623059   2016/09/27 Save this To Up

Formation and Properties of Vesicles from Cyclic Amphiphilic PS-PEO Block Copolymers.

Linear polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-polystyrene (PS-PEO-PS) block copolymers and corresponding cyclized PS-PEO counterparts with three different PS molecular weights were synthesized and self-assembled to investigate the effects arising from the topology. Linear PS5-PEO45-PS5 (L1) and cyclic PS10-PEO45 (C1) formed micelles. As previously reported for poly(n-butyl acrylate) and PEO block copolymers, the micelles from C1 showed more than 30 °C higher phase transition temperature (cloud point, Tc) than those from L1. Linear PS10-PEO45-PS10 (L2) and cyclic PS20-PEO45 (C2) resulted in the formation of a structure called large compound micelles. Self-assembly of linear PS40-PEO48-PS40 (L3) and cyclic PS86-PEO48 (C3) lead to the formation of vesicles. The vesicles were characterized by TEM, DLS, and SLS. Remarkably, the vesicles from L3 (Tc = 69, 59, and 48 °C in the presence of 1, 5, and 10 wt % of NaCl, respectively) were found to be somewhat more thermally stable than those from C3 (Tc = 62, 52, and 43 °C in the presence of 1, 5, and 10 wt % of NaCl, respectively). This trend of the thermal stability was counterintuitively opposed to the case of the micelles. Moreover, Tc of the vesicles was controlled by the ratio of L3 and C3.

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#27487878   2016/08/04 Save this To Up

Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part II. X-ray source design and prototype.

This paper summarizes the development of a high-power distributed x-ray source, or "multisource," designed for inverse-geometry computed tomography (CT) applications [see B. De Man et al., "Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part I. System concept and development," Med. Phys. 43, 4607-4616 (2016)]. The paper presents the evolution of the source architecture, component design (anode, emitter, beam optics, control electronics, high voltage insulator), and experimental validation.

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#27475542   2016/08/01 Save this To Up

Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems.

We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm(2) together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

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#27351974   2016/07/12 Save this To Up

Orthogonally Spin-Coated Bilayer Films for Photochemical Immobilization and Patterning of Sub-10-Nanometer Polymer Monolayers.

Versatile and spatiotemporally controlled methods for decorating surfaces with monolayers of attached polymers are broadly impactful to many technological applications. However, current materials are usually designed for very specific polymer/surface chemistries and, as a consequence, are not very broadly applicable and/or do not rapidly respond to high-resolution stimuli such as light. We describe here the use of a polymeric adhesion layer, poly(styrene sulfonyl azide-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSSMA), which is capable of immobilizing a 1-7 nm thick monolayer of preformed, inert polymers via photochemical grafting reactions. Solubility of PSSMA in very polar solvents enables processing alongside hydrophobic polymers or solutions and by extension orthogonal spin-coating deposition strategies. Therefore, these materials and processes are fully compatible with photolithographic tools and can take advantage of the immense manufacturing scalability they afford. For example, the thicknesses of covalently grafted poly(styrene) obtained after seconds of exposure are quantitatively equivalent to those obtained by physical adsorption after hours of thermal equilibration. Sequential polymer grafting steps using photomasks were used to pattern different regions of surface energy on the same substrate. These patterns spatially controlled the self-assembled domain orientation of a block copolymer possessing 21 nm half-periodicity, demonstrating hierarchical synergy with leading-edge nanopatterning approaches.

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#27302878   2016/08/24 Save this To Up

Spatial and Temporal Brain Responses to Noxious Heat Thermal Stimuli in Burning Mouth Syndrome.

Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic orofacial pain condition. Although the pathophysiology of BMS is not clearly understood, central and peripheral neuropathic mechanisms are thought to be involved. The authors compared brain response to noxious heat stimuli in 16 right-handed women with primary BMS and 15 sex- and age-matched right-handed healthy female controls. A thermal stimulus sequence of 32 °C to 40 °C to 32 °C to 49 °C was repeated 4 times in a cycle. Warm and noxious heat stimuli were delivered with a Peltier thermode placed on the right palm or right lower lip for 32 s each in a session. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained by recording echoplanar images with a block design. Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software was used to analyze the data. Patients and controls both reported feeling more pain during palm stimulation than during lip stimulation. Repetition of noxious heat stimulus on the lower lip but not on the palm induced habituation in brain activity in the cingulate cortex without reduction in pain perception. Multiple regression analysis revealed a correlation between perceived pain intensity and suppression of brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex when the repeated thermal sequence was applied at the lower lip. Furthermore, the response of the parahippocampal area differed in BMS patients and controls when the same repeated thermal sequence was applied at the palm. The authors' findings indicate that BMS patients show specific brain responses due to impaired function of the central and peripheral nervous systems (clinical trial registration: UMIN000015002).

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#27299984   2016/07/05 Save this To Up

Exploration of Doubly Thermal Phase Transition Process of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in Water.

Understanding of phase transition mechanism of thermoresponsive polymers is the basis for the rational design of smart materials with predictable properties. Linear ABC triblock terpolymer poly(di(ethylene glycol)ethyl ether acrylate)-b-poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The doubly thermal phase transition of PDEGA-b-PDMA-b-PVCL in aqueous solution was investigated by a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), turbidimetry, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The terpolymer self-assembles into micelles with PDEGA being the core-forming block during the first lower critical solution temperature (LCST) transition corresponding to PDEGA, which is followed by a second LCST transition corresponding to PVCL, resulting in the formation of micellar aggregates. The PDMA middle segment plays an important role as an isolation zone to prevent cooperative dehydration of the PDEGA and PVCL segments, and therefore, two independent LCST transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL were observed. Furthermore, FT-IR with perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) and two-dimensional spectroscopy (2DCOS) was applied to elucidate the two-step phase transition mechanism of this terpolymer. It was observed that the CH, ester carbonyl, and ether groups of PDEGA change prior to the CH and amide carbonyl groups of PVCL, further supporting that the two phase transitions corresponding to PDEGA and PVCL indeed occur without mutual interferences.

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