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Bronchiolitis obliterans murine model induced by nitric acid aerosol inhalation: An economical and reproducible model.

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a highly debilitative and fatal syndrome associated with a series of severe lower airway disorders. The pathogenesis of BO is complicated and not entirely understood. An appropriate animal model of BO may aid research into its pathogenesis. Here, we establish a mouse model of BO to provide insight into this disease.

1291 related Products with: Bronchiolitis obliterans murine model induced by nitric acid aerosol inhalation: An economical and reproducible model.

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Polysaccharide of Hericium erinaceus attenuates colitis in C57BL/6 mice via regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation-related signaling pathways and modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease caused by a dysregulated immune with unknown etiology. Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a Chinese medicinal fungus, with the effect of prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we have tested the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharide of H. erinaceus (HECP, Mw: 86.67 kDa) in the model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Our data indicated that HECP could improve clinical symptoms and down-regulate key markers of oxidative stresses, including nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). HECP also suppressed the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and decreased the expression of related mRNA. Meanwhile, HECP blocked phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκB-α), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Protein kinase B (Akt) in DSS-treated mice. Moreover, HECP reversed DSS-induced gut dysbiosis and maintained intestinal barrier integrity. In conclusion, HECP ameliorates DSS-induced intestinal injury in mice, which suggests that HECP can serve as a protective dietary nutrient against IBD.

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Reducing myeloperoxidase activity decreases inflammation and increases cellular protection in ischemic stroke.

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-inflammatory enzyme abundantly secreted by activated myeloid cells after stroke. We show that when MPO activity is either blocked by the specific inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) in wildtype (WT) mice or congenitally absent (MPO), there was decreased cell loss, including degenerating neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the ischemic brains compared to vehicle-treated WT mice after stroke. MPO inhibition also reduced the number of activated myeloid cells after ischemia. MPO inhibition increased cytoprotective heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) by 70% and p-Akt by 60%, while decreased the apoptotic marker p53 level by 62%, compared to vehicle-treated mice after ischemia. Similarly, MPO inhibition increased the number of Hsp70/NeuN cells after stroke by 60%. Notably, MPO inhibition significantly improved neurological outcome compared with the vehicle-treated group after stroke. We further found longer treatment periods resulted in larger reduction of infarct size and greater neurobehavioral improvement from MPO inhibition, even when given days after stroke. Therefore, MPO inhibition with ABAH or MPO deficiency creates a protective environment that decreased inflammatory cell recruitment and increased expression of survival factors to improve functional outcome. MPO inhibition may represent a promising therapeutic target for stroke therapy, possibly even days after stroke has occurred.

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Effects of microRNA-292-5p on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α/-γ signaling pathway.

Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac damage following various pathological processes, such as free radical damage and cell apoptosis. This study aims to investigate whether microRNA-292-5p (miR-292-5p) protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α/-γ signaling pathway in myocardial IRI mice models. Mouse models of myocardial IRI were established. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were divided into different groups. The hemodynamic indexes, levels of related inflammatory factors and serum myocardial enzymes, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were detected. The 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was applied to determine infarct size. TUNEL staining was used to detect cardiomyocyte apoptosis. RT-qPCR and western blotting were performed to measure the related gene expressions. Compared with the model group and the T0070907 + miR-292-5p inhibitor, the miR-292-5p inhibitor group exhibited decreased incidence and duration time of ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, serum myocardial enzymes, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MDA, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, expressions of Bax and p53 in addition to increased SOD and GSH-Px activity, and increased expressions of Bcl-2, PPARα, PPARγ, PLIN5, AQP7, and PCK1. The T0070907 group exhibited opposite results compared to the miR-292-5p inhibitor group. The results indicate that miR-292-5p downregulation protects against myocardial IRI through activation of the PPAR-α/PPAR-γ signaling pathway.

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Mechanism of irreversible inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase by ilimaquinone.

Ilimaquinone (IQ), a marine sponge metabolite, has been considered as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases due to its broad range of biological activities. We show that IQ irreversibly inactivates Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) through covalent modification of the protein. Inactivation occurred with an apparent second-order rate constant of about 60 M s. Following reaction with IQ, LC-MS analyses of intact MtSK revealed covalent modification of MtSK by IQ, with the concomitant loss of a methoxy group, suggesting a Michael-addition mechanism. Evaluation of tryptic fragments of IQ-derivatized MtSK by MS/MS demonstrated that Ser and Thr residues were most frequently modified with lesser involvement of Lys and Tyr. In or near the MtSK active site, three residues of the P-loop (K15, S16, and T17) as well as S77, T111, and S44 showed evidence of IQ-dependent derivatization. Accordingly, inclusion of ATP in IQ reactions with MtSK partially protected the enzyme from inactivation and limited IQ-based derivatization of K15 and S16. Additionally, molecular docking models for MtSK-IQ were for IQ-derivatized S77 and T111. In the latter, ATP was observed to sterically clash with the IQ moiety. Out of three other enzymes evaluated, lactate dehydrogenase was derivatized and inactivated by IQ, but pyruvate kinase and catalase-peroxidase (KatG) were unaffected. Together, these data suggest that IQ is promiscuous (though not entirely indiscriminant) in its reactivity. As such, the potential of IQ as a lead in the development of antitubercular agents directed against MtSK or other targets is questionable.

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[Vaspin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in mice by inhibiting inflammation and protecting vascular endothelium via PI3K/Akt signal pathway].

To investigate the effects of Vaspin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in mice and explore the possible mechanism.

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Inhibition of Immune Complex Complement Activation and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation by Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1.

Two major aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis that have yet to be targeted therapeutically are immune complex-initiated complement activation and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation by neutrophils. Here, we report testing of peptide inhibitor of complement C1 (PIC1) in assays of immune complex-mediated complement activation in human sera and assays for NET formation by human neutrophils. The lead PIC1 derivative, PA-dPEG24, was able to dose-dependently inhibit complement activation initiated by multiple types of immune complexes (IC), including C1-anti-C1q IC, limiting the generation of pro-inflammatory complement effectors, including C5a and membrane attack complex (sC5b-9). In several instances, PA-dPEG24 achieved complete inhibition with complement effector levels equivalent to background. PA-dPEG24 was also able to dose-dependently inhibit NET formation by human neutrophils stimulated by PMA, MPO, or immune complex activated human sera. In several instances PA-dPEG24 achieved complete inhibition with NETosis with quantitation equivalent to background levels. These results suggest that PA-dPEG24 inhibition of NETs occurs by blocking the MPO pathway of NET formation. Together these results demonstrate that PA-dPEG24 can inhibit immune complex activation of the complement system and NET formation. This provides proof of concept that peptides can potentially be developed to inhibit these two important contributors to rheumatologic pathology that are currently untargeted by available therapies.

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Characterisation of peroxidasin activity in isolated extracellular matrix and direct detection of hypobromous acid formation.

Peroxidasin is a heme peroxidase that catalyses the oxidation of bromide by hydrogen peroxide to form an essential sulfilimine cross-link between methionine and hydroxylysine residues in collagen IV. We investigated cross-linking by peroxidasin embedded in extracellular matrix isolated from cultured epithelial cells and its sensitivity to alternative substrates and peroxidase inhibitors. Peroxidasin showed peroxidase activity as measured with hydrogen peroxide and Amplex red. Using a specific mass spectrometry assay that measures NADH bromohydrin, we showed definitively that the enzyme releases hypobromous acid (HOBr). Less than 1 μM of the added hydrogen peroxide was used by peroxidasin. The remainder was consumed by catalase activity that was associated with the matrix. Results from NADH bromohydrin measurements indicates that low micromolar HOBr generated by peroxidasin was sufficient for maximum sulfilimine cross-linking, whereas 100 μM reagent HOBr or taurine bromamine was less efficient. This implies selectivity for the enzymatic process. Physiological concentrations of thiocyanate and urate partially inhibited cross-link formation. 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a commonly used myeloperoxidase inhibitor, also inhibited peroxidasin, whereas acetaminophen and a 2-thioxanthine were much less effective. In conclusion, HOBr is produced by peroxidasin in the extracellular matrix. It appears to be directed at the site of collagen IV sulfilimine formation but the released HOBr may also undergo other reactions.

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The effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on HCl/Ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats.

This study evaluated ulceroprotective and antioxidant effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 against gastric damage in rats. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.25 μg/kg) or saline for 14 days. On day-15, the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg; subcutaneously), the inhibitor of sulfhydryl groups N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) or ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mg/kg; orally) was given prior to 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Animals were euthanized at 60 min post ulcerogenic challenge (0.3 M HCl and 60% ethanol (0.2 mL; orally). Stomach and blood were collected for biochemical and histological evaluations. HCl/Ethanol group revealed severely damaged mucous and glandular epithelium with diffuse hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration (microscopic score: 10.67 ± 0.67 and ulcer index: 33.13 ± 5.09). 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 decreased the extent of damage (microscopic score: 6.80 ± 0.02 and ulcer index: 19.00 ± 4.34; p < 0.05), and the elevations in gastric malondialdehyde level (p < 0.001), myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.001), nuclear factor-κB expression (p < 0.05), and apoptotic index (p < 0.05) following HCl/Ethanol challenge. Decreased gastric glutathione following HCl/Ethanol administration was restored by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (p < 0.01). These findings demonstrated protection of the gastric mucosa against HCl/Ethanol-induced injury by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 via attenuation of inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

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Epigallocatechingallate attenuates myocardial injury in a mouse model of heart failure through TGF‑β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

The present study aimed to assess the protective effect of epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) against myocardial injury in a mouse model of heart failure and to determine the mechanism underlying regulation of the transforming growth factor‑β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (TGF‑β1/Smad3) signaling pathway. Mouse models of heart failure were established. Alterations in ejection fraction, left ventricular internal diastolic diameter (LVIDd) and left ventricular internal systolic diameter (LVIDs) were measured by echocardiography. Pathological alterations of myocardial tissue were determined by hematoxylin and eosin, and Masson staining. The levels of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N‑terminal‑proBNP, interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were detected with ELISA. Expression of collagen I, collagen III were detected by western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1), Smad3, phosphorylated (p)‑Smad3, apoptosis regulator BAX (Bax), caspase‑3 and apoptosis regulator Bcl2 in mouse cardiac tissue were measured by western blotting. P‑smad3 and TGF‑β1 were measured by immunofluorescence staining. EGCG reversed the alterations in LVIDd and LVIDs induced by establishment of the model of heart failure, increased ejection fraction, inhibited myocardial fibrosis, attenuated the oxidative stress, inflammatory and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and lowered the expression levels of collagen I and collagen III. Following treatment with TGF‑β1 inhibitor, the protective effect of EGCG against heart failure was attenuated. The results of the present study demonstrated that EGCG can inhibit the progression and development of heart failure in mice through inhibition of myocardial fibrosis and reduction of ventricular collagen remodeling. This protective effect of EGCG is likely mediated through inhibition of TGF‑β1/smad3 signaling pathway.

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