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           Search results for: N-Acetyllactosamine 6,6’-Disulfate Disodium Salt DISCONTINUED C14H23NNa2O17S2 CAS: 321897-68-1   

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Analytical Interference by Contrast Agents in Biochemical Assays.

To provide a clinically relevant overview of the analytical interference by contrast agents (CA) in laboratory blood test measurements.

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Osmotolerance in Escherichia coli Is Improved by Activation of Copper Efflux Genes or Supplementation with Sulfur-Containing Amino Acids.

Improvement in the osmotolerance of Escherichia coli is essential for the production of high titers of various bioproducts. In this work, a cusS mutation that was identified in the previously constructed high-succinate-producing E. coli strain HX024 was investigated for its effect on osmotolerance. CusS is part of the two-component system CusSR that protects cells from Ag(I) and Cu(I) toxicity. Changing cusS from strain HX024 back to its original sequence led to a 24% decrease in cell mass and succinate titer under osmotic stress (12% glucose). When cultivated with a high initial glucose concentration (12%), introduction of the cusS mutation into parental strain Suc-T110 led to a 21% increase in cell mass and a 40% increase in succinate titer. When the medium was supplemented with 30 g/liter disodium succinate, the cusS mutation led to a 120% increase in cell mass and a 492% increase in succinate titer. Introducing the cusS mutation into the wild-type strain ATCC 8739 led to increases in cell mass of 87% with 20% glucose and 36% using 30 g/liter disodium succinate. The cusS mutation increased the expression of cusCFBA, and gene expression levels were found to be positively related to osmotolerance abilities. Because high osmotic stress has been associated with deleterious accumulation of Cu(I) in the periplasm, activation of CusCFBA may alleviate this effect by transporting Cu(I) out of the cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by supplementing sulfur-containing amino acids that can chelate Cu(I). Adding methionine or cysteine to the medium increased the osmotolerance of E. coli under anaerobic conditions.IMPORTANCE In this work, an activating Cus copper efflux system was found to increase the osmotolerance of E. coli In addition, new osmoprotectants were identified. Supplementation with methionine or cysteine led to an increase in osmotolerance of E. coli under anaerobic conditions. These new strategies for improving osmotolerance will be useful for improving the production of chemicals in industrial bioprocesses.

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Occupational contact dermatitis caused by sodium cocoamphopropionate in a liquid soap used in fast-food restaurants.


1013 related Products with: Occupational contact dermatitis caused by sodium cocoamphopropionate in a liquid soap used in fast-food restaurants.

Caspase-3 Inhibitor Z-DEV Caspase-3 Inhibitor Z-DEV Caspase-Family Inhibitor Caspase-Family Inhibitor Caspase-6 Inhibitor Z-VEI Caspase-6 Inhibitor Z-VEI Caspase-1 Inhibitor Z-YVA Caspase-1 Inhibitor Z-YVA Caspase-8 Inhibitor Z-IET Caspase-8 Inhibitor Z-IET Caspase-2 Inhibitor Z-VDV Caspase-2 Inhibitor Z-VDV

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Determination of norcantharidin in mouse tissues by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its tissue distribution study.

The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of norcantharidin (CAS NO: 5442-12-6) in mouse tissues and investigate its tissue distribution after intragastric administration of disodium norcantharidate solution. A highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated, using ribavirin (CAS NO: 36791-04-5) as the internal standard (IS). Norcantharidin and IS were extracted from 0.3 mL tissue homogenates using protein precipitation with acetone under acid condition. The analyte was separated on a C18 reverse phase column and analyzed by MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using ESI with positive ionization, m/z 169→123 for norcantharidin and m/z 267→135 for IS. The developed method was validated over a linear range of concentrations 0.01~5 μg·mL - 1 in liver, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, uterus and testis, 0.005~0.5 μg·mL - 1 in heart, spleen and brain, the correlation coefficients (r2) were between 0.9918 and 0.9976. The tissue distribution study result was as follows: The AUC0-t of norcantharidin in tissues was in the order as follows: small intestine, stomach, uterus, kidney, testis, liver, lung, spleen, heart, brain.

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Colorimetric filtrations of metal chelate precipitations for the quantitative determination of nickel(II) and lead(II).

A colorimetric filtration method has been developed for the highly selective and sensitive determination of Ni(2+) and Pb(2+) ions. Determinations of Ni(2+) and Pb(2+) follow the filtration using nioxime (1,2-cyclohexanedione dioxime) and rhodizonic acid disodium salt, respectively, as colorimetric reagents. Different from regular instrumentation techniques, the metal chelate precipitations are continuously pumped into a home-made flow cell at a constant flow rate, and filtered by a cellulose acetate/nitrate membrane. The color changes of the membrane are imaged using a conventional flatbed scanner, and digitized. The special selection of individual channels in the red, green, and blue channels of the images filters the influences of coexisting ions and provides a highly selective detection of Ni(2+) and Pb(2+) cations. The linear relationship between the colorimetric response of the chosen channel and Ni(2+) or Pb(2+) concentrations indicates a quantitative detection. The detection limit for Pb(2+) is 3 μM (almost half of the Chinese wastewater discharge standard concentration), and is well below the nM level (94 nM) for Ni(2+) (a quarter of the WHO drinking water safe-exposure standard for Ni(2+)). The determinations take five to ten minutes. No shelf life issue exists because the chelating indicators react with metal directly without any pre-immobilizations.

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Sulfonylcalix[4]arenetetrasulfonate as pre-column chelating reagent for selective determination of aluminum(III), iron(III), and titanium(IV) by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection.

Sulfonylcalix[4]arenetetrasulfonate (SO(2)CAS) has been examined as a pre-column chelating reagent for ultratrace determination of metal ions by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection. Metal ions were converted into the SO(2)CAS chelates in an acetic buffer solution (pH 4.7). The chelates were injected onto a n-octadecylsilanized silica-type Chromolithtrade mark Performance RP-18e column and were eluted using a methanol (50wt.%)-water eluent (pH 5.6) containing tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (7.0mmolkg(-1)), acetate buffer (5.0mmolkg(-1)), and disodium ethylendiamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate (0.10mmolkg(-1)). Under the conditions used, Al(III), Fe(III), and Ti(IV) were selectively detected among 21 kinds of metal ions [Al(III), Ba(II), Be(II), Ca(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Ga(III), Hf(IV), In(III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV), V(V), Zn(II), and Zr(IV)]. The detection limits on a 3sigma blank basis were 8.8nmoldm(-3) (0.24ngcm(-3)) for Al(III), 7.6nmoldm(-3) (0.42ngcm(-3)) for Fe(III), and 17nmoldm(-3) (0.80ngcm(-3)) for Ti(IV). The practical applicability of the proposed method was checked using river and tap water samples.

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Prevention of exercise-induced asthma by a fixed combination of disodium cromoglycate plus reproterol compared with montelukast in young patients.

The leukotriene inhibitor montelukast has been recommended against exercise-induced asthma (EIA), however, single-dose agents might be favourable in several aspects.

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[Comparative clinical study of two dexamethasone phosphate-containing ophthalmics].

For the drug application of the already known active ingredient dexamethasone dihydrogen phosphate disodium salt (CAS 2392-39-4) for ocular use clinical data on the efficacy and safety were required by the drug regulatory agency. The comparison of the pharmaceutical properties had already shown that no differences in clinical use had to be expected. The results of a double-blind, randomised, comparative clinical study on 210 patients prove that no differences between test and comparator product could be observed. This case shows that the demand for clinical trials to proof therapeutic equivalence should be done with a sense of proportion related to the specific situation.

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NTP toxicity studies of sodium dichromate dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) administered in drinking water to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and male BALB/c and am3-C57BL/6 mice.

Sodium dichromate dihydrate is one of a number of inorganic compounds containing hexavalent chromium (CR VI) found in drinking water supplies as a contaminant resulting from various industrial processes including electroplating operations, leather tanning, and textile manufacturing. Because of the lack of adequate experimental data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium ingested orally, and because hexavalent chromium has been found in human drinking water supplies, the California Congressional delegation and the California Environmental Protection Agency nominated hexavalent chromium to the NTP for study. In study 1, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to sodium dichromate dihydrate (greater than 99% pure) in drinking water for 3 months. In study 2, sodium dichromate dihydrate was administered in drinking water to male B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6 mice for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In study 1, groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/L for 3 months (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 10, 17, 32, or 60 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/kg body weight to rats and 9, 15, 26, 45, or 80 mg/kg to mice). On a molecular weight basis, these doses are equivalent to approximately 1.7, 3.5, 5.9, 11.2, and 20.9 mg hexavalent chromium/kg body weight per day to rats and 3.1, 5.2, 9.1, 15.7, and 27.9 mg/kg per day to mice. Additional groups of 10 rats per sex were exposed to the same concentrations of sodium dichromate dihydrate for 4 weeks. All rats and mice survived to the end of the study. Reduced body weights occurred in 500 and 1,000 mg/L male rats, 1,000 mg/L female rats, and in male and female mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 250 mg/L or greater and male and female mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater was generally less than that by the control groups, and decreases in urine volume and increases in urine specific gravity in rats were related to reduced water consumption. Exposure to sodium dichromate dihydrate caused a microcytic hypochromic anemia in rats and mice, but the severity was less in mice. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were decreased in rats. Increased bile acid concentrations in exposed groups of rats may have been due to altered hepatic function. The incidences of histiocytic cellular infiltration were generally significantly increased in the duodenum of rats and mice, the liver of female rats, and the mesenteric lymph node of mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater. Significantly increased nonneoplastic lesions (focal ulceration, regenerative epithelial hyperplasia, and squamous epithelial metaplasia) occurred in the glandular stomach of male and female rats exposed to 1,000 mg/L. Incidences of epithelial hyperplasia of the duodenum were significantly increased in all exposed groups of mice. In study 2, sodium dichromate dihydrate was administered in drinking water to groups of 10 male B6C3F1, 10 male BALB/c, and five male am3-C57BL/6 mice for 3 months at exposure concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg/L (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 8, 15, or 25 mg/kg sodium dichromate dihydrate or 2.8, 5.2, or 8.7 mg/kg chromium to B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6 mice). All mice in study 2 survived until study termination. Mean body weights of 125 and 250 mg/L B6C3F1 and BALB/c mice and all exposed groups of am3-C57BL/6 mice were less than those of the control groups. Mice exposed to 250 mg/L consumed less water than the control groups. Exposure concentration-related decreases in mean red cell volumes and mean red cell hemoglobin values were observed in all three mouse strains. Erythrocyte counts were increased in exposed B6C3F1 and BALB/c mice but not in am3-C57BL/6 mice. Changes in organ weights were generally consistent with reduced body weights in exposed groups in all mouse strains. No biologically significant differences in reproductive parameters were observed in any strain. Histiocytic cellular infiltration and epithelial hyperplasia of the duodenum occurred in most mice exposed to 125 or 250 mg/L, and the incidences of these lesions were increased in the 62.5 mg/L group compared to controls. Secretory depletion was present in the pancreas of most mice exposed to 125 or 250 mg/L. The incidences of glycogen depletion of the liver were significantly increased in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 125 or 250 mg/L and in all exposed groups of male am3-C57BL/6 mice. The incidence of histiocytic cellular infiltration in the mesenteric lymph node was significantly increased in the 250 mg/L group of male am3-C57BL/6 mice. Sodium dichromate dihydrate was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98 and in E. coli strain WP2 uvrA pKM101 with and without induced rat liver S9 enzymes. The results of four micronucleus tests conducted in the three strains of mice from studies 1 and 2 were mixed. In study 1, no significant increases were seen in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in peripheral blood samples from male or female B6C3F1 mice; there was a decrease in the percentage of polychromatic erythrocytes among total erythrocytes (an indication of bone marrow toxicity), but the changes were small and not well correlated with exposure concentrations. In study 2, a significant exposure concentration-related increase (P<0.001) in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was seen in am3-C57BL/6 male mice. An equivocal increase in micronucleated erythrocytes was noted in male B6C3F1 mice, based on a small increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes that did not reach statistical significance. No increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in male BALB/c mice. No significant effect of sodium dichromate dihydrate exposure on the percentage of polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in any of the three micronucleus tests conducted in study 2. In summary, administration of sodium dichromate dihydrate in the drinking water to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice resulted in focal ulceration, hyperplasia, and metaplasia in the glandular stomach at the limiting ridge in rats in the 1,000 mg/L group and evidence of increased histiocytic infiltration in the liver (female), duodenum of the small intestine, and/or pancreatic lymph nodes at concentrations as low as 62.5 mg/L, the lowest concentration studied. In addition, a microcytic, hypochromic anemia occurred at all exposure concentrations and was considered evidence of a toxic response resulting from absorption of Cr VI following oral ingestion in rats. A similar, but less severe, anemia was evident in mice receiving drinking water containing sodium dichromate dihydrate; histiocytic infiltration was noted in the duodenum of all three strains studied (B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6) at all concentrations employed, in the mesenteric lymph nodes at 125 mg/L or greater in the B6C3F1 strain, and at 250 mg/L in the am3-C57BL/6 strain. There was no consistent evidence of hepatocyte injury in mice in any of the strains tested. Variations in glycogen content were considered more likely related to diminished food intake than to the toxicity of sodium dichromate dihydrate. Synonyms: Chromic acid; dichromic acid; disodium salt, dihydrate; disodium dichromate dihydrate; chromium VI.

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19 Hydroxy 4 androstene 3 4 Androstene 3,17 dione C 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene Andrographolide CAS Numbe 1,4 Androstadiene 3,17 di Epiandrosterone (3 beta H (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2

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HPLC determination of omeprazole in human plasma using a monolithic column.

A rapid and sensitive HPLC method using a monolithic column has been developed for quantification of omeprazole (CAS 73590-58-6) in plasma. The method was specific and sensitive with a quantification limit of 10 ng/ml. Sample preparation involves simple, one-step extraction procedure and analytical recovery was complete. The separation was carried out in reversed-phase conditions using a Chromolith Performance (RP-18e, 100 x 4.6 mm) column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.01 mol/l disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer-acetonitrile (73:27 v/v) adjusted to pH 7.1. The wavelength was set at 302 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 20-1500 ng x ml(-1). The coefficients of variation for inter-day and intra-day assay were found to be less than 7%.

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