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           Search results for: NOTCH1 Blocking Peptide, Blocking Peptides   

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#28238274   2017/02/27 Save this To Up

Primary human monocytes differentiate into M2 macrophages and involve Notch-1 pathway.

The current study investigates whether inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling pathway in primary human monocytes enhances M2 macrophage differentiation. We generated a primary human monocyte cell culture model to understand the effect of the Notch-1 signaling pathway. Monocytes were treated with Notch-1 inhibitors DAPT or siRNA. Our data show that there was a significant increase in the M1 macrophage population demonstrated by iNOS marker in the primary human monocytes treated with apoptotic-conditioned medium (ACM). Next, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as TNF-α, increased in ACM media (p < 0.05). Furthermore, M1 macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced following DAPT or siRNA treatment. Comparatively, there was a significant increase in M2 macrophages, as demonstrated by an increase in CD206 and arginase-1 positive cells treated with DAPT or siRNA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant increase in the associated anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed with respect to control groups (p < 0.05). We conclude that blocking the Notch-1 pathway with DAPT or siRNA attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhances M2 macrophage differentiation, and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines in primary human monocytes. As a result, Notch-1 pathway inhibition has potential therapeutic applications of inflammatory disease.

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#28027303   2016/12/27 Save this To Up

Olfactory Sensory Neurons Control Dendritic Complexity of Mitral Cells via Notch Signaling.

Mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb have a single primary dendrite extending into a single glomerulus, where they receive odor information from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Molecular mechanisms for controlling dendritic arbors of MCs, which dynamically change during development, are largely unknown. Here we found that MCs displayed more complex dendritic morphologies in mouse mutants of Maml1, a crucial gene in Notch signaling. Similar phenotypes were observed by conditionally misexpressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (dnMAML1) in MCs after their migration. Conversely, conditional misexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch reduced their dendritic complexity. Furthermore, the intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD1) was localized to nuclei of MCs. These findings suggest that Notch signaling at embryonic stages is involved in the dendritic complexity of MCs. After the embryonic misexpression of dnMAML1, many MCs aberrantly extended dendrites to more than one glomerulus at postnatal stages, suggesting that Notch signaling is essential for proper formation of olfactory circuits. Moreover, dendrites in cultured MCs were shortened by Jag1-expressing cells. Finally, blocking the activity of Notch ligands in OSNs led to an increase in dendritic complexity as well as a decrease in NICD1 signals in MCs. These results demonstrate that the dendritic complexity of MCs is controlled by their presynaptic partners, OSNs.

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#27875565   2016/11/22 Save this To Up

Inhibition of Notch Signaling Attenuates Schistosomiasis Hepatic Fibrosis via Blocking Macrophage M2 Polarization.

Macrophages play a key role in the pathogenesis of liver granuloma and fibrosis in schistosomiasis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully characterized. This study revealed that the macrophages infiltrating the liver tissues in a murine model of Schistosoma japonica infection exhibited M2 functional polarization, and Notch1/Jagged1 signaling was significantly upregulated in the M2 polarized macrophages in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the blockade of Notch signaling pathway by a γ-secretase inhibitor could reverse macrophage M2 polarization in vitro and alleviate liver granuloma and fibrosis in the murine model of schistosomiasis. These results implied that the Notch1/Jagged1 signaling-dependent M2 polarization of macrophages might play an important role in liver granuloma and fibrosis in schistosomiasis, and the inhibition of Notch1/Jagged1 signaling might provide a novel therapeutic approach to administrate patients with schistosomiasis.

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#27800305   2016/11/01 Save this To Up

Notch Signaling Contributes to Liver Inflammation by Regulation of Interleukin-22-Producing Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

The mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) induced liver inflammation is not fully elucidated. Notch signaling augmented interleukin (IL)-22 secretion in CD4(+) T cells, and Notch-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated a proinflammatory role of IL-22 in HBV infection. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the role of Notch in development of IL-22-producing cells in HBV infection by inhibition of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT in both hydrodynamic induced HBV-infected mouse model and in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients with HBV infection. mRNA expressions of Notch1 and Notch2 were significantly increased in livers and CD4(+) T cells upon HBV infection. Inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo leaded to the reduction in NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells 22 (ILC22) and lymphoid tissue inducer 4 (LTi4) cells in the liver. This process was accompanied by downregulating the expressions of IL-22 and related proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver, as well as blocking the recruitment of antigen-non-specific inflammatory cells into the liver and subsequent liver injury, but did not affect HBV antigens production and IL-22 secretion in the serum. Furthermore, IL-22 production in HBV non-specific cultured CD4(+) T cells, but not HBV-specific CD4(+) T cells, was reduced in response to in vitro inhibition of Notch signaling. In conclusion, Notch siganling appears to be an important mediator of the liver inflammation by modulating hepatic ILC22. The potential proinflammatory effect of Notch-mediated ILC22 may be significant for the development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of hepatitis B.

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#27407072   2016/07/20 Save this To Up

Diabetes-Induced Jagged1 Overexpression in Endothelial Cells Causes Retinal Capillary Regression in a Murine Model of Diabetes Mellitus: Insights Into Diabetic Retinopathy.

Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for diabetes-induced microvasculopathy (DMV). Although Notch signaling was reported to be affected by glucose metabolism in endothelial cells during developmental angiogenesis, it has not been investigated in vascular remodeling of adult capillaries in relation to diabetes mellitus.

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#27206767   2016/06/18 Save this To Up

LFA-1/ICAM-1 Ligation in Human T Cells Promotes Th1 Polarization through a GSK3β Signaling-Dependent Notch Pathway.

In this study, we report that the integrin LFA-1 cross-linking with its ligand ICAM-1 in human PBMCs or CD4(+) T cells promotes Th1 polarization by upregulating IFN-γ secretion and T-bet expression. LFA-1 stimulation in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, or the T cell line HuT78 activates the Notch pathway by nuclear translocation of cleaved Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) and upregulation of target molecules Hey1 and Hes1. Blocking LFA-1 by a neutralizing Ab or specific inhibition of Notch1 by a γ-secretase inhibitor substantially inhibits LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated activation of Notch signaling. We further demonstrate that the Notch pathway activation is dependent on LFA-1/ICAM-1-induced inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is mediated via Akt and ERK. Furthermore, in silico analysis in combination with coimmunoprecipitation assays show an interaction between NICD and GSK3β. Thus, there exists a molecular cross-talk between LFA-1 and Notch1 through the Akt/ERK-GSK3β signaling axis that ultimately enhances T cell differentiation toward Th1. Although clinical use of LFA-1 antagonists is limited by toxicity related to immunosuppression, these findings support the concept that Notch inhibitors could be attractive for prevention or treatment of Th1-related immunologic disorders and have implications at the level of local inflammatory responses.

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#26967479   2016/03/12 Save this To Up

Synchronized Targeting of Notch and ERBB Signaling Suppresses Melanoma Tumor Growth through Inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3.

Despite significant advances in melanoma therapy, melanoma remains the deadliest form of skin cancer, with a 5-year survival rate of only 15%. Thus, novel treatments are required to address this disease. Notch and ERBB are evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades required for the maintenance of melanocyte precursors. We show that active Notch1 (Notch1(NIC)) and active (phosphorylated) ERBB3 and ERBB2 correlate significantly and are similarly expressed in both mutated and wild-type BRAF melanomas, suggesting these receptors are co-reactivated in melanoma to promote survival. Whereas blocking either pathway triggers modest effects, combining a ?-secretase inhibitor to block Notch activation and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to inhibit ERBB3/2 elicits synergistic effects, reducing cell viability by 90% and hampering melanoma tumor growth. Specific inhibition of Notch1 and ERBB3 mimics these results, suggesting these are the critical factors triggering melanoma tumor expansion. Notch and ERBB inhibition blunts AKT and NF?B signaling. Constitutive expression of NF?B partially rescues cell death. Blockade of both Notch and ERBB signaling inhibits the slow cycling JARID1B-positive cell population, which is critical for long-term maintenance of melanoma growth. We propose that blocking these pathways is an effective approach to treatment of melanoma patients regardless of whether they carry mutated or wild-type BRAF.

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#26808411   2016/02/12 Save this To Up

MAGP2 controls Notch via interactions with RGD binding integrins: Identification of a novel ECM-integrin-Notch signaling axis.

Canonical Notch signaling involves Notch receptor activation via interaction with cell surface bound Notch ligand. Recent findings also indicate that Notch signaling may be modulated by cross-talk with other signaling mechanisms. The ECM protein MAGP2 was previously shown to regulate Notch in a cell type dependent manner, although the molecular details of this interaction have not been dissected. Here, we report that MAGP2 cell type specific control of Notch is independent of individual Notch receptor-ligand combinations but dependent on interaction with RGD binding integrins. Overexpressed MAGP2 was found to suppress transcriptional activity from the Notch responsive Hes1 promoter activity in endothelial cells, while overexpression of a RGD→RGE MAGP2 mutant increased Notch signaling in the same cell type. This effect was not unique to MAGP2 since the RGD domain of the ECM protein EGFL7 was also found to be an important modulator of Hes1 promoter activity. Independently of MAGP2 or EGFL7, inhibition of RGD-binding integrins with soluble RGD peptides also increased accumulation of active N1ICD fragments and Notch responsive promoter activity independently of changes in Notch1, Jag1, or Dll4 expression. Finally, β1 or β3 integrin blocking antibodies also enhanced Notch signaling. Collectively, these results answer the question of how MAGP2 controls cell type dependent Notch signaling, but more importantly uncover a new mechanism to understand how extracellular matrices and cellular environments impact Notch signaling.

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#26739060   2016/02/06 Save this To Up

MMGZ01, an anti-DLL4 monoclonal antibody, promotes nonfunctional vessels and inhibits breast tumor growth.

Increasing evidence suggests that DLL4 (Delta-like 4)-Notch signaling plays a critical role in cell fate determination and differentiation in tissues. Blocking DLL4-Notch signaling results in inhibition of tumor growth, which is associated with increased nonfunctional vessels and poor perfusion in the tumor. We successfully generated a human DLL4 monoclonal antibody MMGZ01 that binds specifically to DLL4 to disrupt the interaction between DLL4 and Notch1. MMGZ01 showed high affinity to DLL4 to inhibit the DLL4-mediated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) phenotype. Furthermore, MMGZ01 stimulated HUVEC vessel sprouting and tubule formation in vitro. In addition, MMGZ01 had a pronounced effect in promoting immature vessels and reduced breast cancer cell growth in vivo. Finally, MMGZ01 treatment inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells, induced tumor cell apoptosis, suppressed mammosphere formation, decreased CD44(+)/CD24(-) cell population, and reduced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings suggest that antagonism of the DLL4-Notch signaling pathway might provide a potential therapeutic approach for breast cancer treatment.

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#26465397   2015/10/15 Save this To Up

Notch signal strength controls cell fate in the haemogenic endothelium.

Acquisition of the arterial and haemogenic endothelium fates concurrently occur in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region prior to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation. The arterial programme depends on Dll4 and the haemogenic endothelium/HSC on Jag1-mediated Notch1 signalling. How Notch1 distinguishes and executes these different programmes in response to particular ligands is poorly understood. By using two Notch1 activation trap mouse models with different sensitivity, here we show that arterial endothelial cells and HSCs originate from distinct precursors, characterized by different Notch1 signal strengths. Microarray analysis on AGM subpopulations demonstrates that the Jag1 ligand stimulates low Notch strength, inhibits the endothelial programme and is permissive for HSC specification. In the absence of Jag1, endothelial cells experience high Dll4-induced Notch activity and select the endothelial programme, thus precluding HSC formation. Interference with the Dll4 signal by ligand-specific blocking antibodies is sufficient to inhibit the endothelial programme and favour specification of the haematopoietic lineage.

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