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           Search results for: NVP-AEW-541 Mechanisms: IGF-1R inhibitor   

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#28991240   2017/10/09 Save this To Up

Polypharmacology-based ceritinib repurposing using integrated functional proteomics.

Targeted drugs are effective when they directly inhibit strong disease drivers, but only a small fraction of diseases feature defined actionable drivers. Alternatively, network-based approaches can uncover new therapeutic opportunities. Applying an integrated phenotypic screening, chemical and phosphoproteomics strategy, here we describe the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor ceritinib as having activity across several ALK-negative lung cancer cell lines and identify new targets and network-wide signaling effects. Combining pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference revealed a polypharmacology mechanism involving the noncanonical targets IGF1R, FAK1, RSK1 and RSK2. Mutating the downstream signaling hub YB1 protected cells from ceritinib. Consistent with YB1 signaling being known to cause taxol resistance, combination of ceritinib with paclitaxel displayed strong synergy, particularly in cells expressing high FAK autophosphorylation, which we show to be prevalent in lung cancer. Together, we present a systems chemical biology platform for elucidating multikinase inhibitor polypharmacology mechanisms, subsequent design of synergistic drug combinations, and identification of mechanistic biomarker candidates.

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#28751539   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Mechanisms of Resistance to NTRK Inhibitors and Therapeutic Strategies in NTRK1-Rearranged Cancers.

Neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 (NTRK1) gene rearrangement leads to constitutive activation of NTRK1, which induces high-transforming ability. NTRK-rearranged cancers have been identified in several cancer types, such as glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Although there are currently no clinically approved inhibitors that target NTRK1, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as entrectinib and LOXO-101, are in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to identify potential mechanisms of resistance to NTRK inhibitors and find potential therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance. We examined the sensitivity of TPM3-NTRK1-transformed Ba/F3 cells and TPM3-NTRK1-harboring KM12 cells to multiple NTRK inhibitors. Acquired NTRK inhibitor-resistant mutations were screened by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis with Ba/F3-TPM3-NTRK1 cells or by the establishment of NTRK-TKI-resistant cells from KM12 cells continuously treated with NTRK-TKIs. We identified multiple novel NTRK-TKI resistance mutations in the NTRK1 kinase domain, including G595R, and insulin growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF1R) bypass pathway-mediated resistance. After identifying the resistance mechanisms, we performed drug screening with small-molecule inhibitors to overcome the resistance. As a result, we found that ponatinib and nintedanib effectively inhibited the survival of TPM3-NTRK1-G667C but not G595R mutants, both of which showed resistance to entrectinib or larotrectinib (LOXO-101). Furthermore, cabozantinib with an IGF1R inhibitor such as OSI-906 could overcome bypass pathway-mediated resistance. We developed a comprehensive model of acquired resistance to NTRK inhibitors in cancer with NTRK1 rearrangement and identified cabozantinib as a therapeutic strategy to overcome the resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2130-43. ©2017 AACR.

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#28749535   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

Inhibition of histone deacetylases sensitizes EGF receptor-TK inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to erlotinib in vitro and in vivo.

Intrinsic and/or acquired resistance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) commonly occurs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we developed a combined therapy of histone deacetylase inhibition by a novel HDAC inhibitor, YF454A, with erlotinib to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance in NSCLC.

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#28708099   2017/07/14 Save this To Up

Role Played by Signalling Pathways in Overcoming BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma.

The discovery of the BRAF(V600E) mutation led to the development of vemurafenib (PLX4032), a selective BRAF inhibitor specific to the kinase, for the treatment of metastatic melanomas. However, initial success of the drug was dampened by the development of acquired resistance. Melanoma was shown to relapse in patients following treatment with vemurafenib which eventually led to patients' deaths. It has been proposed that mechanisms of resistance can be due to (1) reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway via secondary mutations, amplification or activation of target kinase(s), (2) the bypass of oncogenic pathway via activation of alternative signalling pathways, (3) other uncharacterized mechanisms. Studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) such as PDGFRβ, IGF1R, EGFR and c-Met were overexpressed in melanoma cells. Along with increased secretion of growth factors such as HGF and TGF-α, this will trigger intracellular signalling cascades. This review discusses the role MAPK and Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathways play in the mechanism of resistance of melanomas.

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#28619711   2017/06/16 Save this To Up

IGFBP7 Deletion Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Activation of IGF signaling is a major oncogenic event in diverse cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this setting, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein IGFBP7 inhibits IGF signaling by binding the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), functioning as a candidate tumor suppressor. IGFBP7 abrogates tumors by inhibiting angiogenesis and inducing cancer-specific senescence and apoptosis. Here, we report that Igfbp7-deficient mice exhibit constitutively active IGF signaling, presenting with proinflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironments and spontaneous liver and lung tumors occurring with increased incidence in carcinogen-treated subjects. Igfbp7 deletion increased proliferation and decreased senescence of hepatocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, effects that were blocked by treatment with IGF1 receptor inhibitor. Significant inhibition of genes regulating immune surveillance was observed in Igfbp7(-/-) murine livers, which was associated with a marked inhibition in antigen cross-presentation by Igfbp7(-/-) dendritic cells. Conversely, IGFBP7 overexpression inhibited growth of HCC cells in syngeneic immunocompetent mice. Depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes abolished this growth inhibition, identifying it as an immune-mediated response. Our findings define an immune component of the pleiotropic mechanisms through which IGFBP7 suppresses HCC. Furthermore, they offer a genetically based preclinical proof of concept for IGFBP7 as a therapeutic target for immune management of HCC. Cancer Res; 77(15); 4014-25. ©2017 AACR.

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#28433634   2017/04/23 Save this To Up

Dual sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI-II enhances sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via suppression of osteopontin and FAK/IGF-1R signalling.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Although 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the first choice treatment for advanced HCC, it exerts poor efficacy and is associated with acquired and intrinsic resistance. Sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 play tumour-promoting roles in different cancer types including HCC and thus represent promising pharmacological targets. In the present study, we have investigated for the first time the anticancer efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of combined administration of 5-FU and dual Sphk1/Sphk2 inhibitor SKI-II (4-[[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino]phenol) in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Here, we report that co-administration of 5-FU and SKI-II at low sub-toxic concentrations of 20 μM and 5 μM, respectively, synergistically inhibit cell proliferation, markedly reduce cell migration and the clonogenic survival, and increase apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells. Additional Western blot analyses have shown that possible mechanisms underlying enhanced sensitivity to 5-FU induced by dual Sphk 1/2 inhibition could include abrogation of FAK-regulated IGF-1R activity and down-regulation of osteopontin expression culminating in the inhibition of NF-κB activity and its downstream signalling mediated by sirtuin 1 and p38 MAPK. Our results clearly show that pharmacological blockade of both Sphk isoforms represents a promising strategy to boost the anti-tumour efficacy of 5-FU and provide a rationale for further in vivo studies into the possible use of SKI-II inhibitor as an adjunct to 5-FU treatment in HCC.

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IKK-ε Kinase Inhibitor I IKK-ε Kinase Inhibitor I BMS-754807 Mechanisms: IG OSI-906 Mechanisms: IGF-1 NVP-AEW-541 Mechanisms: I anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo Human Insulin-like Growth EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP-II Inhibitor Z-ASTD- EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD EMAP II Inhibitor Z ASTD Aurora Kinase B Inhibitor

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#28417283   2017/04/18 Save this To Up

Bis-anthracycline WP760 abrogates melanoma cell growth by transcription inhibition, p53 activation and IGF1R downregulation.

Anthracycline chemotherapeutics, e.g. doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are active against a broad spectrum of cancers. Their cytotoxicity is mainly attributed to DNA intercalation, interference with topoisomerase activity, and induction of double-stranded DNA breaks. Since modification of anthracyclines can profoundly affect their pharmacological properties we attempted to elucidate the mechanism of action, and identify possible molecular targets, of bis-anthracycline WP760 which previously demonstrated anti-melanoma activity at low nanomolar concentrations. We studied the effect of WP760 on several human melanoma cell lines derived from tumors in various development stages and having different genetic backgrounds. WP760 inhibited cell proliferation (IC50 = 1-99 nM), impaired clonogenic cell survival (100 nM), and inhibited spheroid growth (≥300 nM). WP760 did not induce double-stranded DNA breaks but strongly inhibited global transcription. Moreover, WP760 caused nucleolar stress and led to activation of the p53 pathway. PCR array analysis showed that WP760 suppressed transcription of ten genes (ABCC1, MTOR, IGF1R, EGFR, GRB2, PRKCA, PRKCE, HDAC4, TXNRD1, AKT1) associated with, inter alia, cytoprotective mechanisms initiated in cancer cells during chemotherapy. Furthermore, WP760 downregulated IGF1R and upregulated PLK2 expression in most of the tested melanoma cell lines. These results suggest that WP760 exerts anti-melanoma activity by targeting global transcription and activation of the p53 pathway and could become suitable as an effective therapeutic agent.

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#28260056   2017/03/05 Save this To Up

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor-mediated cell survival in hypoxia depends on the promotion of autophagy via suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

Hypoxia is widely accepted as a fundamental biological phenomenon, which is strongly associated with tissue damage and cell viability under stress conditions. Insulin-like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1) is known to protect tissues from multiple types of damage, and protect cells from apoptosis. Hypoxia is a regulatory factor of the IGF system, however the role of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF‑1R) in hypoxia‑induced apoptosis remains unclear. The present study investigated the potential mechanisms associated with IGF‑1R‑associated apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibiting disruption or overexpression of IGF‑1R (R‑ cells and R+ cells) were used to examine the level of apoptosis, autophagy, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The autophagy inhibitor 3‑methyladenine was used to assess the effect of autophagy on ROS production and apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. A potential downstream signaling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/threonine protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was identifiedby western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that hypoxia induced apoptosis, increased ROS production, and promoted autophagy in a time‑dependent manner relative to that observed under normoxia. R+ cells exhibited a lower percentage of apoptotic cells, lower ROS production, and higher levels of autophagy when compared to that of R- cells. In addition, inhibition of autophagy led to increased ROS production and a higher percentage of apoptotic cells in the two cell types. Furthermore, IGF‑1R is related with PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and enhanced autophagy-associated protein expression, which was verified following treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These results indicated that IGF‑1R may increase cell viability under hypoxic conditions by promoting autophagy and scavenging ROS production, which is closed with PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

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#28158425   2017/02/03 Save this To Up

Genome-wide interactions between FSH and insulin-like growth factors in the regulation of human granulosa cell differentiation.

Is the genome-wide response of human cumulus cells to FSH and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) comparable to the response observed in undifferentiated granulosa cells (GCs)?

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#28062706   2017/01/07 Save this To Up

Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities.

Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three pediatric tumor types, we identified Ewing sarcoma-specific interactions of a diverse set of targeted agents including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong synergistic propensity in Ewing sarcoma, revealing its targets in critical Ewing sarcoma signaling routes. Using a multilevel experimental approach including quantitative phosphoproteomics, we analyzed the molecular rationale behind the disease-specific synergistic effect of simultaneous application of PKC412 and IGF1R inhibitors. The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents. The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 88-101. ©2016 AACR.

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