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           Search results for: Native Adenovirus   

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#28821267   2017/08/19 Save this To Up

Small-size recombinant adenoviral hexon protein fragments for the production of virus-type specific antibodies.

Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting animals and humans. They are classified based on serology, or genome sequence information. These methods have limitations due to lengthy procedures or lack of infectivity data. Adenoviruses are easy to produce and amenable to genetic and biochemical modifications, which makes them a powerful tool for biological studies, and clinical gene-delivery and vaccine applications. Antibodies directed against adenoviral proteins are important diagnostic tools for virus identification in vivo and in vitro, and are used to elucidate infection mechanisms, often in combination with genomic sequencing and type specific information from hyper-variable regions of structural proteins.

1757 related Products with: Small-size recombinant adenoviral hexon protein fragments for the production of virus-type specific antibodies.

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#28792942   2017/08/09 Save this To Up

HIV-1-neutralizing antibody induced by simian adenovirus- and poxvirus MVA-vectored BG505 native-like envelope trimers.

Rabbits and monkeys immunized with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) native-like BG505 SOSIP.664 (BG505s) glycoprotein trimers are known to induce antibodies that can neutralize the autologous tier-2 virus. Here, we assessed the induction of HIV-1 trimer binding and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres when BG505s trimers were also delivered by non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus and non-replicating poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine vectors. First, we showed that approximately two-thirds and one-third of the trimers secreted from the ChAdOx1.BG505s (C) and MVA.BG505s (M) vaccine-infected cells, respectively, were cleaved and in a native-like conformation. Rabbits were immunized intramuscularly with these vaccine vectors and in some cases boosted with ISCOMATRIX™-adjuvanted BG505s protein trimer (P), using CCC, MMM, PPP, CPP, MPP and CMP vaccine regimens. We found that the peak trimer-binding antibody and tier-1A and autologous tier-2 nAb responses induced by the CC, CM, PPP, CPP, MPP and CMP regimens were comparable, although only PPP induced autologous tier-2 nAbs in all the immunized animals. Three animals developed weak heterologous tier-2 nAbs. These results demonstrate that ChAdOx1 and MVA vectors are useful delivery modalities for not only T-cell, but also antibody vaccine development.

1712 related Products with: HIV-1-neutralizing antibody induced by simian adenovirus- and poxvirus MVA-vectored BG505 native-like envelope trimers.

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#28749327   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

Novel adenoviruses detected in British mustelids, including a unique Aviadenovirus in the tissues of pine martens (Martes martes).

Several adenoviruses are known to cause severe disease in veterinary species. Recent evidence suggests that canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) persists in the tissues of healthy red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which may be a source of infection for susceptible species. It was hypothesized that mustelids native to the UK, including pine martens (Martes martes) and Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), may also be persistently infected with adenoviruses. Based on high-throughput sequencing and additional Sanger sequencing, a novel Aviadenovirus, tentatively named marten adenovirus type 1 (MAdV-1), was detected in pine marten tissues. The detection of an Aviadenovirus in mammalian tissue has not been reported previously. Two mastadenoviruses, tentatively designated marten adenovirus type 2 (MAdV-2) and lutrine adenovirus type 1 (LAdV-1), were also detected in tissues of pine martens and Eurasian otters, respectively. Apparently healthy free-ranging animals may be infected with uncharacterized adenoviruses with possible implications for translocation of wildlife.

1345 related Products with: Novel adenoviruses detected in British mustelids, including a unique Aviadenovirus in the tissues of pine martens (Martes martes).

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#28680301   2017/07/06 Save this To Up

Functional Characterization of Resting and Adenovirus-Induced Reactive Astrocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture.

Brain is a rich environment where neurons and glia interact with neighboring cells as well as extracellular matrix in three-dimensional (3D) space. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, reside in 3D space and extend highly branched processes that form microdomains and contact synapses. It has been suggested that astrocytes cultured in 3D might be maintained in a less reactive state as compared to those growing in a traditional, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. However, the functional characterization of the astrocytes in 3D culture has been lacking. Here we cocultured neurons and astrocytes in 3D and examined the morphological, molecular biological, and electrophysiological properties of the 3D-cultured hippocampal astrocytes. In our 3D neuron-astrocyte coculture, astrocytes showed a typical morphology of a small soma with many branches and exhibited a unique membrane property of passive conductance, more closely resembling their native in vivo counterparts. Moreover, we also induced reactive astrocytosis in culture by infecting with high-titer adenovirus to mimic pathophysiological conditions in vivo. Adenoviral infection induced morphological changes in astrocytes, increased passive conductance, and increased GABA content as well as tonic GABA release, which are characteristics of reactive gliosis. Together, our study presents a powerful in vitro model resembling both physiological and pathophysiological conditions in vivo, and thereby provides a versatile experimental tool for studying various neurological diseases that accompany reactive astrocytes.

1594 related Products with: Functional Characterization of Resting and Adenovirus-Induced Reactive Astrocytes in Three-Dimensional Culture.

Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Human Epstein-Barr Virus Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus TGF beta induced factor 2 Incu Tissue(square vessel

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#28576729   2017/06/03 Save this To Up

Afferent synaptogenesis between ectopic hair-cell-like cells and neurites of spiral ganglion induced by Atoh1 in mammals in vitro.

Newly formed ectopic hair-cell-like cells (EHCLCs) induced by overexpression of atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) in vitro were found to possess features of endogenous hair cells (HCs) in previous reports and in the present study. However, limited information is available regarding whether EHCLCs and native spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) form afferent synapses, which are important for the restoration of hearing. In the current study, we focused on the afferent synaptogenesis between EHCLCs and SGN-derived dendrites. Cochlear explants of auditory epithelia with native SGNs retained were cultured in vitro, and human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors encoding Atoh1 were used to overexpress Atoh1 and induce EHCLCs. We observed that the neurites of the original SGNs extended toward the lesser epithelial ridge (LER) and innervated the EHCLCs. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the expression of presynaptic ribbon C-terminal-binding protein 2 (CtBP2) and postsynaptic density protein (PSD)-95 in the nerve endings of SGN-derived neurons adjacent to EHCLCs. PSD-95 was located directly opposite CtBP2-positive puncta in the terminals of branches of SGNs, demonstrating that the neurites of SGNs formed afferent-like synaptic connections with EHCLCs. However, the expression of glutamate receptor type 2 (GluR2) could not be detected in the terminals of branches of SGNs surrounding EHCLCs. In addition, we found that the presynaptic ribbon (CtBP2) formation in EHCLCs preceded neural innervation. Furthermore, CtBP2-positive puncta increased and then decreased in EHCLCs, similar to the changes observed in endogenous HCs in terms of their number and distribution. Our finding of the generation of cochlear afferent synapses between EHCLCs and original SGNs will lay the foundation for regenerative approaches to restoring hearing after hair cell loss.

1135 related Products with: Afferent synaptogenesis between ectopic hair-cell-like cells and neurites of spiral ganglion induced by Atoh1 in mammals in vitro.

Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Cultrex In Vitro Angiogen Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl

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#28427886   2017/04/21 Save this To Up

Identification of Excipients for Stabilizing Fiberless Adenovirus as Biopharmaceuticals.

Reducing the promiscuous tropism of native adenovirus by using fiberless adenovirus is advantageous toward its use as a gene therapy vector or vaccine component. The removal of the fiber protein on native adenovirus abrogates several undesirable interactions; however, this approach decreases the particle's physical stability. To create stable fiberless adenovirus for pharmaceutical use, the effects of temperature and pH on the particle's stability profile must be addressed. Our results indicate that the stability of fiberless adenovirus is increased when it is stored in mildly acidic conditions around pH 6. The stability of fiberless adenovirus can be further enhanced by using excipients. Excipient screening results indicate that the nonionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 and the amino acid glycine are potential stabilizers because of their ability to increase the thermal transition temperature of the virus particle and promote retention of biological activity after exposure to prolonged thermal stress. Our data indicate that the instability of fiberless adenovirus can be ameliorated by storing the virus in the appropriate environment, and it should be possible to further optimize the virus so that it can be used as a biopharmaceutical.

1728 related Products with: Identification of Excipients for Stabilizing Fiberless Adenovirus as Biopharmaceuticals.

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#28024457   2016/12/27 Save this To Up

Haemorrhagic enteritis of turkeys - current knowledge.

Haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an adenovirus associated with acute haemorrhagic gastro-intestinal disease of 6-11-week old turkeys predominantly hampers both humoral and cellular immunity. Affected birds are more prone to secondary complications (e.g. colibacillosis and clostridiosis) and failure to mount an effective vaccine-induced immune response. HEV belongs to the new genus Siadenovirus. Feco-oral transmission is the main route of entry of the virus and it mainly colonizes bursa, intestine and spleen. Both naturally occurring virulent and avirulent strains of HEVs are serologically indistinguishable. Recent findings revealed that ORF1, E3 and fib genes are the key factors affecting virulence. The adoption of suitable diagnostic tools, proper vaccination and biosecurity measures have restrained the occurrence of disease epidemics. For diagnostic purposes, the best source of HEV is either intestinal contents or samples from spleen. For rapid detection highly sensitive and specific tests such as quantitative real-time PCR based on Taq man probe has been designed. Avirulent strains of HEV or MSDV can be effectively used as live vaccines. Novel vaccines include recombinant hexon protein-based subunit vaccines or recombinant virus-vectored vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) expressing the native hexon of HEV. Notably, subunit vaccines and recombinant virus vectored vaccines altogether offer high protection against challenge or field viruses. Herein, we converse a comprehensive analysis of the HEV genetics, disease pathobiology, advancements in diagnosis and vaccination along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824

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#27957479   2016/12/13 Save this To Up

CXCL12 retargeting of an adenovirus vector to cancer cells using a bispecific adapter.

Ad vectors are promising delivery vehicles for cancer therapeutic interventions. However, their application is limited by promiscuous tissue tropism and hepatotoxicity. This limitation can be avoided by altering the native tropism of Ads so that they can be redirected to the target cells through alternate cellular receptors. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor belongs to a large superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors and is known to be upregulated in a wide variety of cancers, including breast cancer and melanoma. These receptors have been associated with cancer cell survival, progression, and metastasis. In the current study, an Ad to cancer cells overexpressing CXCR4 by using a bispecific adapter, sCAR-CXCL12, was retargeted. The sCAR-CXCL12 adapter contained the soluble ectodomain form of the native Ad5 receptor (sCAR), which was fused to a mature human chemokine ligand, CXCL12, through a short peptide linker. A dramatic increase in the infectivity of cancer cells using a targeted Ad vector compared with an untargeted vector was observed. Furthermore, sCAR-CXCL12 attenuated Ad infection of liver ex vivo and in vivo and enhanced Ad vector infection of xenograft tumors implanted in immunodeficient SCID-bg mice. Thus, the sCAR-CXCL12 adapter could be used to retarget Ad vectors to chemokine receptor-positive tumors.

2347 related Products with: CXCL12 retargeting of an adenovirus vector to cancer cells using a bispecific adapter.

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#27582272   2016/09/27 Save this To Up

Allograft biopsy findings in patients with small bowel transplantation.

In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of post-transplant complications including acute cellular rejection (ACR), infection, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in mucosal allograft biopsies in patients with small bowel transplant at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed pathology reports from 5675 small bowel allograft biopsies from 99 patients and analyzed the following: indications for biopsy, frequency and grade of ACR, the presence of infectious agents, results of workup for potential PTLD, results of C4d immunohistochemistry (IHC), features of chronic mucosal injury, and findings in concurrent native bowel biopsies. Findings from 42 allograft resection specimens were also correlated with prior biopsy findings. Indeterminate, mild, moderate, and severe ACR were seen in 276 (4.9%), 409 (7.2%), 100 (1.8%), and 207 (3.6%) of biopsies, respectively. Although ACR may show histologic overlap with mycophenolate mofetil toxicity, we found the analysis of concurrent native bowel biopsies to be helpful in this distinction. Adenovirus was the most common infectious agent seen (11%), and we routinely performed adenovirus IHC on biopsies. Eighteen patients (18%) developed PTLD, 83% of which were EBV associated, but only 28% of PTLD cases were diagnosed on mucosal allograft biopsies. C4d IHC did not correlate with the presence of donor-specific antibodies in limited cases.

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#27633665   2016/09/16 Save this To Up

Effect of HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic tail on adenovirus primed virus encoded virus-like particle immunizations.

The low number of envelope (Env) spikes presented on native HIV-1 particles is a major impediment for HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine development. We designed virus-like particle encoding adenoviral vectors utilizing SIVmac239 Gag as an anchor for full length and truncated HIV-1 M consensus Env. Truncated Env overexpressed VRC01 and 17b binding antigen on the surface of transduced cells while the full length Env vaccine presented more and similar amounts of antigen binding to the trimer conformation sensitive antibodies PGT151 and PGT145, respectively. The adenoviral vectors were used to prime Balb/c mice followed by sequential boosting with chimpanzee type 63, and chimpanzee type 3 adenoviral vectors encoding SIVmac239 Gag and full length consensus Env. Both vaccine regimens induced increasing titers of binding antibody responses after each immunization, and significant differences in immune responses between the two groups were observed after the final immunization. Full length Env priming skewed antibody responses towards gp41, while truncated Env priming induced responses primarily targeting gp120 containing and derived antigens. Importantly, no differences in neutralizing antibody responses were found between the different priming regimens as both induced high titered tier 1 neutralizing antibodies, but no tier 2 antibodies, possibly reflecting the similar presentation of trimer specific antibody epitopes. The described vaccine regimens provide insight into the effects of the HIV-1 Env cytoplasmic tail on epitope presentation and subsequent immune responses, which is relevant for the interpretation of current clinical trials that are using truncated Env as an immunogen. The regimens described here provide similar neutralization titers, and thus are useful for investigating the importance of specificity in non-neutralizing antibody mediated protection against viral challenge.

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