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#25451174   2015/01/20 Save this To Up

The immediate effect of HCM causing actin mutants E99K and A230V on actin-Tm-myosin interaction in thin-filament reconstituted myocardium.

Human cardiac actin mutants E99K and A230V were expressed with baculovirus/insect cells and used to reconstitute the thin-filament of bovine cardiac (BVC) muscle fibers, together with tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) purified from bovine ventricles. Effects of [Ca(2+)], [ATP], and [phosphate] on tension and its transients were studied at 25°C. In the absence of Tm/Tn, both mutants significantly decreased the tension of actin filament reconstituted fibers (WT: 0.75±0.06 T0, E99K: 0.58±0.04 T0, A230V: 0.58±0.03 T0), where T0 is active tension of native fibers (T0=26.9±1.1kPa, N=41), indicating diminished actin-myosin interactions. However, in the presence of Tm and Tn, WT, E99K, and A230V recovered tension (0.85±0.06 T0, 0.89±0.06 T0, and 0.85±0.05 T0, respectively), demonstrating the compensatory effect of Tm/Tn. Ca(2+) sensitivity (pCa50) increased (5.59±0.02, 5.80±0.03, 5.77±0.03, respectively) and cooperativity (nH) decreased (2.6±0.3, 1.87±0.21, 1.60±0.11, respectively). The kinetic constants of the cross-bridge cycle were deduced using sinusoidal analysis. E99K did not show any significant changes in any of the kinetic constants compared to those of WT. A230V caused a decrease in K1 (ATP association constant), k2 and k-2 (rate constants of the cross-bridge detachment step). The cross-bridge distribution was similar among WT, E99K, and A230V. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that the first step of HCM pathogenesis with E99K is increased pCa50 and decreased nH, which result in larger tension during partial activation to cause a diastolic problem. The effect on nH is more severe with A230V. In addition, A230V has a problem of decreased cross-bridge kinetics, which affects the normal functions of the cross-bridge cycle and may contribute to the first step of the HCM pathogenesis.

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#24793351   2014/07/28 Save this To Up

Using baculovirus/insect cell expressed recombinant actin to study the molecular pathogenesis of HCM caused by actin mutation A331P.

Recombinant WT human cardiac actin (WT actin) was expressed using the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, purified, and used to reconstitute the thin-filament of bovine cardiac muscle fibers, together with bovine cardiac tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn). Effects of [Ca(2+)], [ATP], [phosphate] and [ADP] on tension and tension transients were studied at 25°C by using sinusoidal analysis, and the results were compared with those of native fibers and fibers reconstituted with purified bovine cardiac actin (BVC actin). In actin filament reconstituted fibers (without Tm/Tn), those reconstituted with WT actin showed exactly the same active tension as those reconstituted with purified BVC actin (WT: 0.75±0.06 T0, N=11; BVC: 0.73±0.07 T0, N=12, where T0 is the tension of original fibers before extraction). After Tm/Tn reconstitution, fibers reconstituted with WT actin generated 0.85±0.06 T0 (N=11) compared to 0.98±0.04 T0 (N=12) recovered by those reconstituted with BVC actin. In the presence of Tm/Tn, WT actin reconstituted fibers showed exactly the same Ca(2+) sensitivity as those of the native fibers and BVC actin reconstituted fibers (pCa50: native fibers: 5.69±0.01, N=10; WT: 5.69±0.02, N=11; BVC: 5.68±0.02, N=12). Sinusoidal analysis showed that the cross-bridge kinetics were the same among native fibers, BVC actin reconstituted fibers and WT actin reconstituted fibers, followed by reconstitution of Tm/Tn. These results demonstrate that baculovirus/insect cell expressed actin has no significant differences from tissue purified actin and can be used for thin-filament reconstitution assays. One hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) causing actin mutant A331P actin was also expressed and studied similarly, and the results were compared to those of the WT actin. In the reconstituted fibers, A331P significantly decreased the tension both in the absence of Tm/Tn (0.55±0.03 T0, N=13) and in their presence (0.65±0.02 T0, N=13) compared to those of the WT (0.75±0.06 T0 and 0.85±0.06 T0, respectively, N=11). A331P also showed decreased pCa50 (5.57±0.03, N=13) compared to that of WT (5.69±0.02, N=11). The cross-bridge kinetics and its distribution were similar between WT and A331P actin reconstituted fibers, indicating that force/cross-bridge was decreased by A331P. In conclusion, A331P causes a weakened cross-bridge force, which leads to a decreased active tension, reduces left-ventricular ejection fraction, and eventually results in the HCM phenotype.

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#19419244   2010/04/06 Save this To Up

Novel utilization of serum in tissue decellularization.

Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum-containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular beta-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization.

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#18242275   2008/02/04 Save this To Up

Functional and biomechanical evaluation of a completely recellularized stentless pulmonary bioprosthesis in sheep.

In a previous study we showed that recellularization of a stentless bioprosthetic valve is stimulated 1 month after implantation in the pulmonary position, when its matrix (acellular photo-oxidized bovine pericardium) was preseeded by intraperitoneal implantation during a 3-day period.

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#15351646   2004/09/07 Save this To Up

Conformational changes of troponin C within the thin filaments detected by neutron scattering.

Regulation of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction is associated with structural changes of the thin filament-based proteins, troponin consisting of three subunits (TnC, TnI, and TnT), tropomyosin, and actin, triggered by Ca2+-binding to TnC. Knowledge of in situ structures of these proteins is indispensable for elucidating the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+-sensitive regulation. Here, the in situ structure of TnC within the thin filaments was investigated with neutron scattering, combined with selective deuteration and the contrast matching technique. Deuterated TnC (dTnC) was first prepared, this dTnC was then reconstituted into the native thin filaments, and finally neutron scattering patterns of these reconstituted thin filaments containing dTnC were measured under the condition where non-deuterated components were rendered "invisible" to neutrons. The obtained scattering curves arising only from dTnC showed distinct difference in the absence and presence of Ca2+. These curves were analyzed by model calculations using the Monte Carlo method, in which inter-dTnC interference was explicitly taken into consideration. The model calculation showed that in situ radius of gyration of TnC was 23 A (99% confidence limits between 22 A and 23 A) and 24 A (99% confidence limits between 23 A and 25 A) in the absence and presence of Ca2+, respectively, indicating that TnC within the thin filaments assumes a conformation consistent with the extended dumbbell structure, which is different from the structures found in the crystals of various Tn complexes. Elongation of TnC by binding of Ca2+ was also suggested. Furthermore, the radial position of TnC within the thin filament was estimated to be 53 A (99% confidence limits between 49 A and 57 A) and 49 A (99% confidence limits between 44 A and 53 A) in the absence and presence of Ca2+, respectively, suggesting that this radial movement of TnC by 4A is associated with large conformational changes of the entire Tn molecule by binding of Ca2+.

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#14565714   2003/10/20 Save this To Up

Expression and function of the integrin alpha9beta1 in bovine aortic valve interstitial cells.

Aortic valve interstitial cells (VIC), the most prevalent valve leaflet cells, have not been well studied. However, recent interest in constructing tissue-engineered living heart valves has provided motivation to further an understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of VIC. Since cell-extracellular matrix interactions are critical for tissue morphogenesis, adhesive interactions and integrin function in VIC were investigated.

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#10747195   2000/06/02 Save this To Up

Regulation of force and unloaded sliding speed in single thin filaments: effects of regulatory proteins and calcium.

1. Measurements of the unloaded sliding speed of and isometric force exerted on single thin filaments in in vitro motility assays were made to evaluate the role of regulatory proteins in the control of unloaded thin filament sliding speed and isometric force production. 2. Regulated actin filaments were reconstituted from rabbit F-actin, native bovine cardiac tropomyosin (nTm), and either native bovine cardiac troponin (nTn), troponin containing a TnC mutant, CBMII, in which the sole regulatory site in cardiac TnC (site II) is inactivated (CBMII-Tn), or troponin containing a point mutation in TnT (I79N, where isoleucine at position 79 is replaced with asparagine) associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). 3. Addition of regulatory proteins to the thin filament increases both the unloaded sliding speed and the isometric force exerted by myosin heads on the thin filaments. 4. Variation of thin filament activation by varying [Ca2+] or the fraction of CBMII/TnC bound to the thin filament at pCa 5, had little effect on the unloaded filament sliding speed until the fraction of the thin filament containing calcium bound to TnC was less than 0.15. These results suggest that [Ca2+] primarily affects the number of attached and cycling crossbridges. 5. The presence of the FHC TnT mutant increased the thin filament sliding speed but reduced the isometric force that heavy meromyosin exerted on regulated thin filaments. These latter results, together with the increased sliding speed and isometric force seen in the presence of regulatory proteins, suggest that thin filament regulatory proteins exert significant allosteric effects on the interaction of crossbridges with the thin filament.

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#10423443   1999/09/02 Save this To Up

Tropomyosin positions in regulated thin filaments revealed by cryoelectron microscopy.

Past attempts to detect tropomyosin in electron micrograph images of frozen-hydrated troponin-regulated thin filaments under relaxing conditions have not been successful. This raised the possibility that tropomyosin may be disordered on filaments in the off-state, a possibility at odds with the steric blocking model of muscle regulation. By using cryoelectron microscopy and helical image reconstruction we have now resolved the location of tropomyosin in both relaxing and activating conditions. In the off-state, tropomyosin adopts a position on the outer domain of actin with a binding site virtually identical to that determined previously by negative staining, although at a radius of 3.8 nm, slightly higher than found in stained filaments. Molecular fitting to the atomic model of F-actin shows that tropomyosin is localized over sites on actin subdomain 1 required for myosin binding. Restricting access to these sites would inhibit the myosin-cross-bridge cycle, and hence contraction. Under high Ca(2+) activating conditions, tropomyosin moved azimuthally, away from its blocking position to the same site on the inner domain of actin previously determined by negative staining, also at 3.8 nm radius. These results provide strong support for operation of the steric mechanism of muscle regulation under near-native solution conditions and also validate the use of negative staining in investigations of muscle thin filament structure.

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#9148936   1997/06/19 Save this To Up

Cooperative effect of calcium binding to adjacent troponin molecules on the thin filament-myosin subfragment 1 MgATPase rate.

The myosin subfragment 1 (S1) MgATPase rate was measured using thin filaments with known extents of Ca2+ binding controlled by varying the ratio of native cardiac troponin versus an inhibitory troponin with a mutation in the sole regulatory Ca2+ binding site of troponin C. Fractional MgATPase activation was less than the fraction of troponins that bound Ca2+, implying a cooperative effect of bound Ca2+ on cross-bridge cycling. Addition of phalloidin did not alter cooperative effects between bound Ca2+ molecules in the presence or absence of myosin S1. When the myosin S1 concentration was raised sufficiently to introduce cooperative myosin-myosin effects, lower Ca2+ concentrations were needed to activate the MgATPase rate. MgATPase activation remained less than Ca2+ binding, implying a true, not just an apparent, increase in Ca2+ affinity. MgATPase activation by Ca2+ was more cooperative than could be explained by cooperativeness of overall Ca2+ binding, the discrepancy between Ca2+ binding and MgATPase activation, or interactions between myosins. The results suggest the thin filament-myosin S1 MgATPase cycle requires calcium binding to adjacent troponin molecules and that this binding is cooperatively promoted by a single cycling cross-bridge. This mechanism is a potential explanation for Ca2+-mediated regulation of cross-bridge kinetics in muscle fibers.

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#9032478   1997/03/13 Save this To Up

Utilization of troponin C as a model calcium-binding protein for mapping of the calmodulin-binding sites of caldesmon.

Troponin C, a structural analogue of calmodulin, was used for mapping the calmodulin-binding sites of caldesmon. The apparent Kd values for the formation of the caldesmon-calcium-binding-protein complex as determined by native gel electrophoresis were 0.5, 1.2 and 3.9 microM for calmodulin, rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C and bovine cardiac troponin C respectively. Troponin C induced a 4-6 nm blue shift of the Trp fluorescence of caldesmon without affecting the amplitude of fluorescence. In the presence of Ca2+, troponin C induced partial displacement of caldesmon from actin tropomyosin complexes. Addition of 5,5'-dithiobis(nitrobenzoic) acid to an equimolar complex of caldesmon and troponin C induced disulphide cross-linking between Cys-98 of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C and the single Cys residue of duck gizzard caldesmon, located in a position analogous to Cys-580 of the chicken gizzard protein. The cross-linked caldesmon-troponin C complex was ineffective in inhibiting actomyosin ATPase activity. It is concluded that Cys-580 of caldesmon can be located close to both the central helix of calcium-binding proteins and the C-terminal domain of actin. This may be important for the regulation of actomyosin ATPase activity by caldesmon.

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