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#25644705   2015/03/11 Save this To Up

T(3): targeted proteomics of DNA-binding proteins.

A technique that allows the inclusion of a specific DNA to enrich and direct proteomic identification of transcription factors (TFs) while providing a route for high-throughput screening on a single platform would be valuable in investigations of gene expression and regulation. Polyvinylpyrrolidone binds DNA avidly while binding negligible amounts of protein. This observation is used in a proof-of-concept method to enrich for TFs by combining nuclear extract with a specific DNA sequence and immobilizing the DNA-protein complex on a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) plate. Any unbound proteins are washed away and further processed for analysis in a MALDI-TOF/TOF (tandem time-of-flight) mass spectrometer. Enrichment on a PVP-coated plate gives the unique advantage of purification, enzymatic digestion, and analysis on a single platform. The method is termed T(3) because it combines Targeted purification on a Target plate with Targeted proteomics. Validation was achieved in model experiments with a chimeric fusion protein, green fluorescent protein-CAAT enhancer binding protein (GFP-C/EBP), with an oligonucleotide containing the CAAT sequence. Both domains were identified with an expectation value of less than 10(-15) and more than 15% sequence coverage. The same oligonucleotide mixed with HEK293 cell nuclear extract allowed the unambiguous identification of native human C/EBP alpha with 24.3% sequence coverage.

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E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded Anti Galectin(Gal 3) Huma DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein-7 (DB Carboxyfluorescein diacet

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#23856623   2013/08/26 Save this To Up

Nuclear Respiratory Factor 2β (NRF-2β) recruits NRF-2α to the nucleus by binding to importin-α:β via an unusual monopartite-type nuclear localization signal.

Nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2) is a mammalian transcription factor composed of two distinct and unrelated proteins: NRF-2α, which binds to DNA through its Ets domain, and NRF-2β, which contains the transcription activation domain. The activity of NRF-2 in neurons is regulated by nuclear localization; however, the mechanism by which NRF-2 is imported into the nucleus remains unknown. By using in vitro nuclear import assays and immuno-cytofluorescence, we dissect the nuclear import pathways of NRF-2. We show that both NRF-2α and NRF-2β contain intrinsic nuclear localization signals (NLSs): the Ets domain within NRF-2α and the NLS within NRF-2β (amino acids 311/321: EEPPAKRQCIE) that is recognized by importin-α:β. When NRF-2α and NRF-2β form a complex, the nuclear import of NRF-2αβ becomes strictly dependent on the NLS within NRF-2β. Therefore, the nuclear import mechanism of NRF-2 is unique among Ets factors. The NRF-2β NLS contains only two lysine/arginine residues, unlike other known importin-α:β-dependent NLSs. Using ELISA-based binding assays, we show that it is bound by importin-α in almost the same manner and with similar affinity to that of the classical monopartite NLSs, such as c-myc and SV40 T-antigen NLSs. However, the part of the tryptophan array of importin-α that is essential for the recognition of classical monopartite NLSs by generating apolar pockets for the P3 and the P5 lysine/arginine side chains is not required for the recognition of the NRF-2β NLS. We conclude that the NRF-2β NLS is an unusual but is, nevertheless, a bona fide monopartite-type NLS.

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Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Mouse Factor X total anti Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Mouse Anti-C. botulinum T Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P29 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P30 (SA Signal Transduction Anti

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#23620276   2013/05/20 Save this To Up

Codon optimisation to improve expression of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-specific membrane-associated antigen by Lactobacillus salivarius.

Subunit and DNA-based vaccines against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) attempt to overcome inherent issues associated with whole-cell formulations. However, these vaccines can be hampered by poor expression of recombinant antigens from a number of disparate hosts. The high G+C content of MAP invariably leads to a codon bias throughout gene expression. To investigate if the codon bias affects recombinant MAP antigen expression, the open reading frame of a MAP-specific antigen MptD (MAP3733c) was codon optimised for expression against a Lactobacillus salivarius host. Of the total 209 codons which constitute MAP3733c, 172 were modified resulting in a reduced G+C content from 61% for the native gene to 32.7% for the modified form. Both genes were placed under the transcriptional control of the PnisA promoter; allowing controlled heterologous expression in L. salivarius. Expression was monitored using fluorescence microscopy and microplate fluorometry via GFP tags translationally fused to the C-termini of the two MptD genes. A > 37-fold increase in expression was observed for the codon-optimised MAP3733synth variant over the native gene. Due to the low cost and improved expression achieved, codon optimisation significantly improves the potential of L. salivarius as an oral vaccine stratagem against Johne's disease.

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Mouse Anti-Prostate Speci Epithelial Membrane Anti Epithelial Membrane Anti PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A Epithelial Membrane Anti PSA (Prostate Specific A PSA (Prostate Specific A HIV 2 gp36 envelope antig Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r

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#23028664   2012/10/02 Save this To Up

Production of Fibronectin Binding Protein A at the surface of Lactococcus lactis increases plasmid transfer in vitro and in vivo.

Lactococci are noninvasive lactic acid bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that Lactococcus lactis (LL) expressing the Fibronectin-Binding Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (LL-FnBPA+) showed higher internalization rates in vitro in Caco-2 cells than the native (wt) lactococci and were able to deliver a eukaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) expression plasmid in 1% of human Caco-2 cells. Here, using the bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), one of the major cow's milk allergen, and GFP we characterized the potential of LL-FnBPA+ as an in vivo DNA vaccine delivery vehicle. We first showed that the invasive strain LL-FnBPA+ carrying the plasmid pValac:BLG (LL-FnBPA+ BLG) was more invasive than LL-BLG and showed the same invasivity as LL-FnBPA+. Then we demonstrated that the Caco-2 cells, co-incubated with LL-FnBPA+ BLG produced up to 30 times more BLG than the Caco-2 cells co-incubated with the non invasive LL-BLG. Using two different gene reporters, BLG and GFP, and two different methods of detection, EIA and fluorescence microscopy, we showed in vivo that: i) in order to be effective, LL-FnBPA+ required a pre-coating with Fetal Calf Serum before oral administration; ii) plasmid transfer occurred in enterocytes without regard to the strains used (invasive or not); iii) the use of LL-FnBPA+ increased the number of mice producing BLG, but not the level of BLG produced. We thus confirmed the good potential of invasive recombinant lactic acid bacteria as DNA delivery vector in vivo.

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Rat intestinal fatty acid MAPK3 & ATF2 Protein Prot ATF4 & CREBBP Protein Pro ATF4 & FOS Protein Protei ATF4 & JUN Protein Protei Goat Anti-Human Vitamin D Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse HIV 1 intergase antigen.

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#20940301   2010/12/14 Save this To Up

Rod phosphodiesterase-6 PDE6A and PDE6B subunits are enzymatically equivalent.

Phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) is the key effector enzyme of the phototransduction cascade in rods and cones. The catalytic core of rod PDE6 is a unique heterodimer of PDE6A and PDE6B catalytic subunits. The functional significance of rod PDE6 heterodimerization and conserved differences between PDE6AB and cone PDE6C and the individual properties of PDE6A and PDE6B are unknown. To address these outstanding questions, we expressed chimeric homodimeric enzymes, enhanced GFP (EGFP)-PDE6C-A and EGFP-PDE6C-B, containing the PDE6A and PDE6B catalytic domains, respectively, in transgenic Xenopus laevis. Similar to EGFP-PDE6C, EGFP-PDE6C-A and EGFP-PDE6C-B were targeted to the rod outer segments and concentrated at the disc rims. PDE6C, PDE6C-A, and PDE6C-B were isolated following selective immunoprecipitation of the EGFP fusion proteins. All three enzymes, PDE6C, PDE6C-A, and PDE6C-B, hydrolyzed cGMP with similar K(m) (20-23 μM) and k(cat) (4200-5100 s(-1)) values. Likewise, the K(i) values for PDE6C, PDE6C-A, and PDE6C-B inhibition by the cone- and rod-specific PDE6 γ-subunits (Pγ) were comparable. Recombinant cone transducin-α (Gα(t2)) and native rod Gα(t1) fully and potently activated PDE6C, PDE6C-A, and PDE6C-B. In contrast, the half-maximal activation of bovine rod PDE6 required markedly higher concentrations of Gα(t2) or Gα(t1). Our results suggest that PDE6A and PDE6B are enzymatically equivalent. Furthermore, PDE6A and PDE6B are similar to PDE6C with respect to catalytic properties and the interaction with Pγ but differ in the interaction with transducin. This study significantly limits the range of mechanisms by which conserved differences between PDE6A, PDE6B, and PDE6C may contribute to remarkable differences in rod and cone physiology.

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Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen 19 Hydroxy 4 androstene 3 4 tert Butylcalix(8)arene 4 Androstene 3,17 dione C Androgen Receptor (Ab-650

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#20066692   2010/02/15 Save this To Up

Microspheres of mixed proteins.

This paper describes the synthesis of mixed proteinaceous microspheres (MPMs) by the sonochemical method. The current fundamental research follows the research of Suslick and co-workers who have developed a method by which high-intensity ultrasound is used to make aqueous suspensions of proteinaceous microcapsules filled with water-insoluble liquids.1 By using high-intensity ultrasound, we have synthesized microspheres made of a few different proteins. The three proteins used in the current experiments are bovine serum albumin (BSA), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cyan fluorescent protein-glucose binding protein-yellow fluorescent fused protein (CFP-GBP-YFP). The two synthesized microspheres made of mixed proteins are BSA-GFP and BSA-(CFP-GBP-YFP). This paper presents the characterization of the sonochemically produced microspheres of mixed proteins. It also provides an estimate of the efficiency of the sonochemical process in converting the native proteins to microspheres.

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5(6) FAM [5 (and 6) Carbo 5(6) FAM, SE [5 (and 6) C Mouse Anti-RSV 33kDa & 19 Mouse Anti-VZV (mixed epi Proteins: Mouse CD40 Lig Proteins: Mouse CD40 Lig Proteins: Mouse Activin- CFDA [5 (and 6) Carboxyfl CFSE [5 (and 6) Carboxyfl CDCFDA [5 (and 6) Carboxy CDCFDA, SE [5 (and 6) Car 5(6) TAMRA, SE [5 (and 6)

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#18029347   2008/02/07 Save this To Up

Stoichiometry and absolute quantification of proteins with mass spectrometry using fluorescent and isotope-labeled concatenated peptide standards.

We have explored a general approach for the determination of absolute amounts and the relative stoichiometry of proteins in a mixture using fluorescence and mass spectrometry. We engineered a gene to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) with a synthetic fusion protein (GAB-GFP) in Escherichia coli to function as a spectroscopic standard for the quantification of an analogous stable isotope-labeled, non-fluorescent fusion protein (GAB*) and for the quantification and stoichiometric analysis of purified transducin, a heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Both GAB-GFP and GAB* contain concatenated sequences of specific proteotypic peptides that are derived from the alpha, beta, and gamma protein subunits of transducin and that are each flanked by spacer regions that maintain the native proteolytic properties for these peptide fragments. Spectroscopic quantification of GAB-GFP provided a molar scale for mass spectrometric ratios from tryptic peptides of GAB* and defined molar responses for mass spectrometric signal intensities from a purified transducin complex. The stoichiometry of transducin subunits alpha, beta, and gamma was measured to be 1:1.1:1.15 over a 5-fold range of labeled internal standard with a relative standard deviation of 9%. Fusing a unique genetically coded spectroscopic signal element with concatenated proteotypic peptides provides a powerful method to accurately quantify and determine the relative stoichiometry of multiple proteins present in complexes or mixtures that cannot be readily assessed using classical gravimetric, enzymatic, or antibody-based technologies.

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Recombinant Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Human CKMM peptide Protei MOG peptide Proteins MOG peptide Proteins Human PTH peptide (aa 1-3 Human PTH peptide (aa 1-3 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr

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#15208360   2004/06/21 Save this To Up

Effect of epsilon toxin-GFP on MDCK cells and renal tubules in vivo.

Epsilon toxin (epsilon-toxin), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, causes fatal enterotoxemia, also known as pulpy kidney disease, in livestock. Recombinant epsilon-toxin-green fluorescence protein (epsilon-toxin-GFP) and epsilon-prototoxin-GFP were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. MTT assays on MDCK cells confirmed that recombinant epsilon-toxin-GFP retained the cytotoxicity of the native toxin. Direct fluorescence analysis of MDCK cells revealed a homogeneous peripheral pattern that was temperature sensitive and susceptible to detergent. epsilon-Toxin-GFP and epsilon-prototoxin-GFP bound to endothelia in various organs of injected mice, especially the brain. However, fluorescence mainly accumulated in kidneys. Mice injected with epsilon-toxin-GFP showed severe kidney alterations, including hemorrhagic medullae and selective degeneration of distal tubules. Moreover, experiments on kidney cryoslices demonstrated specific binding to distal tubule cells of a range of species. We demonstrate with new recombinant fluorescence tools that epsilon-toxin binds in vivo to endothelial cells and renal tubules, where it has a strong cytotoxic effect. Our binding experiments indicate that an epsilon-toxin receptor is expressed on renal distal tubules of mammalian species, including human.

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GFP Expressing Human Inte MarkerGeneTM in vivo lacZ anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula GLP 1 ELISA Kit, Rat Gluc GLP 2 ELISA Kit, Rat Prog C Peptide ELISA Kit, Rat Glucagon ELISA KIT, Rat G Leptin ELISA Kit, Rat Lep

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#15110403   2004/04/27 Save this To Up

Improved immunogenicity of novel baculovirus-derived Theileria parva p67 subunit antigens.

East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle is caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva. The major sporozoite surface antigen of T. parva (p67) is an important candidate for inclusion in a subunit vaccine. Recently, we reported the expression and production of different parts of p67 as fusions to either GFP or to the baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoprotein in insect cells, which resulted in stable proteins recognized by a monoclonal specific for native p67. The immunogenicity of these fusion proteins was examined in out-bred mice and cattle. In mice, the full length p67 molecule without its signal peptide and transmembrane region, but fused to GFP (GFP:p67deltaSS) was the best immunogen followed by the C-terminus of p67 fused to GP64 (GP64:p67C). These two immunogens also provoked a high level of sero-conversion in cattle when formulated in a water-in-oil or saponin-derived adjuvant with only 100 microg of protein and a single booster. The vaccine-elicited antibodies efficiently inhibited the infectivity of T. parva sporozoites in in vitro neutralization assays. This study demonstrated that these new baculovirus-derived p67 vaccines were highly immunogenic, and that in combination with a suitable adjuvant, they have a clear potential to induce protective immunity in cattle.

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#14680960   2003/12/18 Save this To Up

The Nano-tag, a streptavidin-binding peptide for the purification and detection of recombinant proteins.

We present a new streptavidin-binding peptide for both the purification and the detection of recombinant proteins. The peptide possesses nanomolar-affinity for streptavidin and therefore was termed Nano-tag. The Nano-tag(15) is 15 amino acids long and binds to streptavidin with a dissociation constant of 4 nM and the Nano-tag(9) is a 9-mer peptide with a dissociation constant of 17 nM. We demonstrate the one-step purification of Nano-tagged proteins, namely bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and green fluorescent protein (GFP), from an in vitro translation system as well as from an Escherichia coli lysate. No significant influence of the Nano-tag(15) and of the conditions during affinity chromatography on maturation or activity of the proteins was observed whereas the Nano-tag(9) revealed a slight decline in the amount and activity of the synthesized proteins. The main advantage of the Nano-tag is the mild and specific elution with washing buffer plus biotin or related compounds, which enables the elution of the bound fusion protein from the streptavidin column in the native state. Additionally, the Nano-tag allowed the detection of recombinant proteins on Western blots by a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate.

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