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#26142361   2015/08/10 Save this To Up

Enzymatic synthesis of hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor.

Human urinary trypsin inhibitor is a proteoglycan that has a single low-sulfated chondroitin 4-sulfate chain at the seryl residue in position 10 of the core protein as a glycosaminoglycan moiety, and is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine based on the protease inhibitory activity of the core protein. However, the functions of the glycosaminoglycan moiety have not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, the glycosaminoglycan chains of a native urinary trypsin inhibitor were remodeled to hyaluronan chains, with no changes to the core protein, using transglycosylation as a reverse reaction of the hydrolysis of bovine testicular hyaluronidase, and the properties of the hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor were then analyzed. The trypsin inhibitory activitiy of the hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitor was similar to that of the native type; however, its inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis of hyaluronidase were not as strong as that of the native type. This result demonstrated that the native urinary trypsin inhibitor possessed hyaluronidase inhibitory activity on its chondroitin sulfate chain. The hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors obtained affinity to a hyaluronan-binding protein not exhibited by the native type. The interactions between the hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors and phosphatidylcholine (abundant in the outer layer of plasma membrane) were stronger than that of the native type. Hyaluronan hybrid urinary trypsin inhibitors may be useful for investigating the functions of the glycosaminoglycan chains of urinary trypsin inhibitors and hyaluronan, and our hybrid synthesizing method may be used widely in research for future medical applications.

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#23518410   2013/04/23 Save this To Up

Glomerular endothelial surface layer acts as a barrier against albumin filtration.

Glomerular endothelium is highly fenestrated, and its contribution to glomerular barrier function is the subject of debate. In recent years, a polysaccharide-rich endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been postulated to act as a filtration barrier for large molecules, such as albumin. To test this hypothesis, we disturbed the ESL in C57Bl/6 mice using long-term hyaluronidase infusion for 4 weeks and monitored albumin passage using immunolabeling and correlative light-electron microscopy that allows for complete and integral assessment of glomerular albumin passage. ESL ultrastructure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy using cupromeronic blue and by localization of ESL binding lectins using confocal microscopy. We demonstrate that glomerular fenestrae are filled with dense negatively charged polysaccharide structures that are largely removed in the presence of circulating hyaluronidase, leaving the polysaccharide surfaces of other glomerular cells intact. Both retention of native ferritin [corrected] in the glomerular basement membrane and systemic blood pressure were unaltered. Enzyme treatment, however, induced albumin passage across the endothelium in 90% of glomeruli, whereas this could not be observed in controls. Yet, there was no net albuminuria due to binding and uptake of filtered albumin by the podocytes and parietal epithelium. ESL structure and function completely recovered within 4 weeks on cessation of hyaluronidase infusion. Thus, the polyanionic ESL component, hyaluronan, is a key component of the glomerular endothelial protein permeability barrier.

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#19394422   2009/09/15 Save this To Up

The hyaluronan-protein complexes at low ionic strength: how the hyaluronidase activity is controlled by the bovine serum albumin.

Hyaluronan (HA) hydrolysis catalysed by hyaluronidase (HAase) is strongly inhibited when performed at low HAase over HA concentration ratio and under low ionic strength conditions. The reason is the ability of long HA chains to form electrostatic and non-catalytic complexes with HAase. For a given HA concentration, low HAase concentrations lead to very low hydrolysis rates because all the HAase molecules are sequestered by HA, whilst high HAase concentrations lead to high hydrolysis rates because the excess of HAase molecules remains free and active. At pH 4, non-catalytic proteins like bovine serum albumin (BSA) are able to compete with HAase to form electrostatic complexes with HA, liberating HAase which recovers its catalytic activity. The general scheme for the BSA-dependency is thus characterised by four domains delimited by three noticeable points corresponding to constant BSA over HA concentration ratios. The existence of HA-protein complexes explains the atypical kinetic behaviour of the HA / HAase system. We also show that HAase recovers the Michaelis-Menten type behaviour when the HA molecule complexed with BSA in a constant complexion state, i.e. with the same BSA over HA ratio, is considered for substrate. When the ternary HA / HAase / BSA system is concerned, the stoichiometries of the HA-HAase and HA-BSA complexes are close to 10 protein molecules per HA molecule for a native HA of 1 MDa molar mass. Finally, we show that the behaviour of the system is similar at pH 5.25, although the efficiency of BSA is less.

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#17612967   2007/07/06 Save this To Up

Primary culture of porcine nonpigmented ciliary epithelium.

Primary culture of nonpigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE) has proved difficult in the past. Here we report development of a method of growing and maintaining primary cultures of NPE from porcine eye. Studies were conducted to confirm that the cultured NPE expressed proteins characteristic of native NPE.

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#17546655   2007/09/19 Save this To Up

PRG4 exchange between the articular cartilage surface and synovial fluid.

The boundary lubrication function of articular cartilage is mediated in part by proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) molecules, found both in synovial fluid (SF) and bound to the articular cartilage surface. Currently the mechanism by which PRG4 binds to the articular surface is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effect of bathing fluid contents on PRG4 concentration at the articular surface ([PRG4](cart)), and (2) whether native PRG4 can be removed from the surface and subsequently repleted with PRG4 from synovial fluid. In one experiment, cylindrical cartilage disks were stored in solutions of various PRG4 concentrations, either in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or SF as the carrier fluid. In a separate experiment, cartilage disks were stored in solutions expected to remove native PRG4 from the articular surface and allow subsequent repletion with PRG4 from SF. [PRG4](cart) was independent of PRG4 concentration of the bathing fluid, and was similar for both carrier fluids. PRG4 was removed from cartilage by treatment with hyaluronidase, reduction/alkylation, and sodium dodecyl sulphate, and was repleted fully by subsequent bathing in SF. These results suggest that the articular surface is normally saturated with tightly bound PRG4, but this PRG4 can exchange with the PRG4 in SF under certain conditions. This finding suggests that all tissues surrounding the joint cavity that secrete PRG4 into the SF may help to maintain lubrication function at the articular surface.

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#16718670   2006/05/29 Save this To Up

Inhibitory effects of triterpenes and flavonoids on the enzymatic activity of hyaluronic acid-splitting enzymes.

The effect of triterpenes and flavonoids on the activity of several hyaluronic acid-splitting enzymes was investigated. Studies showed that the inhibitory effect of the triterpenes glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid is dependent on the source of hyaluronate lyase. Hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae (Hyal B) and recombinant hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae (rHyal B) demonstrated strongest inhibition. In contrast, hyaluronate lyases from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus (Hyal S), Streptococcus equisimilis (Hyal C) and hyaluronidase from bovine testis (Dase) showed only reduced inhibition action. A non-competitive dead end inhibition with Ki=3.1+/-1.8x10(-6) mol/mL and Kii=6.7+/-2.4x10(-6) mol/mL was found for glycyrrhizin on recombinant hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on Hyal B, rHyal B and Dase was determined depending on the number of hydroxyl groups and side chain substituents in the molecule. Flavonoids with many hydroxyl groups inhibited hyaluronate lyase stronger than those with only a few. Native hyaluronate lyase (Hyal B) showed a more extensive inhibition than the recombinant protein (rHyal B). Accordingly, the inhibition by triterpenes and flavonoids is presumably specific for each hyaluronic acid (HA)-splitting enzyme.

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#9219183   1997/09/22 Save this To Up

Can magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging follow proteoglycan depletion in articular cartilage?

In this study we determined the efficiency of magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI) to differentiate native and enzymatically degraded cartilage, using bovine sesamoid bones from the metacarpophalangeal joint as a model system. Gradual proteoglycan (PG) depletion was achieved by increasing incubation periods with testicular hyaluronidase. For native cartilage a Ms/Mo ratio of 0.303 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- SEM) was measured. Biochemically determined PG diminution up to 50% correlated strongly (r = 0.953) with changes in the Ms/Mo ratio. Further PG loss is not reflected in an equally drastic Ms/Mo increase, whereas subsequent treatment of PG-depleted cartilage samples with collagenase led to an additional rise in the Ms/Mo ratio. Proteoglycan depletion and the beginning destruction of the collagen structure were also assessed histochemically. Our study confirms that collagen contributes to the baseline MT effect observed in articular cartilage. However, the changes in the MT ratio in gradually PG-depleted cartilage with a largely intact collagen network indicate that PG contributes to the MT effect as well. Therefore MT-MRI might become a sensitive technique for the monitoring of subtle degradational changes in articular cartilage, the still inaccessible process in osteoarthritis.

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#7795888   1995/07/28 Save this To Up

Type VI collagen beaded microfibrils from bovine cornea depolymerize at acidic pH, and depolymerization and polymerization are not influenced by hyaluronan.

Type VI collagen beaded microfibrils were extracted from bovine cornea or pig cartilage by limited collagenase digestion. Depolymerization of the microfibril, without strong denaturing reagents linke guanidinium hydrochloride or urea under mild acidic conditions, led to single tetramers and multiples of two to three. However, hyaluronidase digestion in accordance with a published method (Kielty et al. J. Cell Biol. 118:979-990, 1992) was unsuccessful in depolymerizing type VI collagen microfibrils. Also, repolymerization into microfibrils by incubation with hyaluronan was not observed. We further found no binding of native type VI collagen microfibrils to a hyaluronan-Sepharose column. Although a recombinant fragment comprising alpha 3(VI) domains N9-N2 showed apparent binding to the column, electron microscopy did not give any indication of binding of either type VI collagen or fragment N9-N2 to hyaluronan. The present findings suggest that the role of hyaluronan in polymerization of type VI collagen has been overestimated in previous work.

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#8276905   1994/02/04 Save this To Up

The dynamic structure of the pericellular matrix on living cells.

Although up to several microns thick, the pericellular matrix is an elusive structure due to its invisibility with phase contrast or DIC microscopy. This matrix, which is readily visualized by the exclusion of large particles such as fixed red blood cells is important in embryonic development and in maintenance of cartilage. While it is known that the pericellular matrix which surrounds chondrocytes and a variety of other cells consists primarily of proteoglycans and hyaluronan with the latter binding to cell surface receptors, the macromolecular organization is still speculative. The macromolecular organization previously could not be determined because of the collapse of the cell coat with conventional fixation and dehydration techniques. Until now, there has been no way to study the dynamic arrangement of hyaluronan with its aggregated proteoglycans on living cells. In this study, the arrangement and mobility of hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes were directly observed in the pericellular matrix of living cells isolated from bovine articular cartilage. The complexes were labeled with 30- to 40-nm colloidal gold conjugated to 5-D-4, an antibody to keratan sulfate, and visualized with video-enhanced light microscopy. From our observations of the motion of pericellular matrix macromolecules, we report that the chondrocyte pericellular matrix is a dynamic structure consisting of individual tethered molecular complexes which project outward from the cell surface. These complexes undergo restricted rotation or wobbling. When the cells were cultured with ascorbic acid, which promotes production of matrix components, the size of the cell coat and the position of the gold probes relative to the plasma membrane were not changed. However, the rapidity and extent of the tethered motion were reduced. Treatment with Streptomyces hyaluronidase removed the molecules that displayed the tethered motion. Addition of hyaluronan and aggrecan to hyaluronidase-treated cells yielded the same labeling pattern and tethered motion observed with native cell coats. To determine if aggrecan was responsible for the extended configuration of the complexes, only hyaluronan was added to the hyaluronidase-treated cells. The position and mobility of the hyaluronan was detected using biotinylated hyaluronan binding region (b-HABR) and gold streptavidin. The gold-labeled b-HABR was found only near the cell surface. Based on these observations, the hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes composing the cell coat are proposed to be extended in a brush-like configuration in an analogous manner to that previously described for high density, grafted polymers in good solvents.

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#1729132   1992/02/10 Save this To Up

Mammalian vitreous humor contains networks of hyaluronan molecules: electron microscopic analysis using the hyaluronan-binding region (G1) of aggrecan and link protein.

Vitreous humor from human, bovine, and chicken eyes was analyzed by rotary shadowing to characterize further the supramolecular organization of the gel-like matrix which forms this tissue. Extensive filamentous networks, distinct from collagen fibrils, were found in both human and bovine vitreous but not in chicken vitreous. The networks consisted of branching structures of various diameters, due to variable numbers of hyaluronan molecules being laterally associated with each other and apparently giving rise to a three-dimensional lattice. These networks could be decorated in a specific and regular manner by the hyaluronan-binding region called G1 purified from bovine nasal septum cartilage. The extent of decoration of hyaluronan was dependent on the relative concentration of G1. In the presence of an excess of G1 the networks were destabilized giving rise to individual unbranched hyaluronan chains of varying length that were saturated with G1. One or more globular proteins, as yet uncharacterized, were seen interacting with the hyaluronan networks, often at branch points. These proteins may serve to stabilize the three-dimensional structure of the matrix although highly ordered networks were also observed without globular proteins. Link protein, which also binds to hyaluronan, bound to the networks in a fashion clearly distinct from G1. Neither G1 nor link protein bound directly to human or bovine vitreous collagen fibrils. However, link protein did bind extensively to the glycosaminoglycan coat of chicken vitreous collagen fibrils described previously (D. W. Wright, and R. Mayne J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 100, 224-234, 1988), while G1 did not. Digestion of the chicken vitreous collagen fibrils with Streptomyces hyaluronidase did not result in the removal of the glycosaminoglycan coat of the collagen fibrils nor did it affect the binding of G1 or link protein to the fibrils, indicating that hyaluronan is not a component of this structure. These studies demonstrate that proteins with specific binding properties can be used as probes to investigate the structure of the native vitreous humor gel from several species and suggest that this method potentially can be used for structural studies of other connective tissue matrices.

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