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Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections.

Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins.

2685 related Products with: Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections.

Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea Human Urinary Trypsin Inh Human Urinary Trypsin Inh Human Urinary Trypsin Inh Beta Amyloid (42) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 40) ELISA Beta Amyloid (40) ELISA K Beta Amyloid (1 40) ELISA Neutrophil Elastase Inhib Interstitialoma of gastro Syringe pump can be contr

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Highly Selective Cleavage of Cytokines and Chemokines by the Human Mast Cell Chymase and Neutrophil Cathepsin G.

Human mast cell chymase (HC) and human neutrophil cathepsin G (hCG) show relatively similar cleavage specificities: they both have chymotryptic activity but can also cleave efficiently after leucine. Their relatively broad specificity suggests that they may cleave almost any substrate if present in high enough concentrations or for a sufficiently long time. A number of potential substrates have been identified for these enzymes and, recently, these enzymes have also been implicated in regulating cytokine activity by cleaving numerous cytokines and chemokines. To obtain a better understanding of their selectivity for various potential in vivo substrates, we analyzed the cleavage of a panel of 51 active recombinant cytokines and chemokines. Surprisingly, our results showed a high selectivity of HC; only 4 of 51 of these proteins were substantially cleaved. hCG cleaved a few additional proteins, although this occurred after adding almost equimolar amounts of enzyme to target. The explanation for this wide difference in activity against peptides or other linear substrates compared with native proteins is most likely related to the reduced accessibility of the enzymes to potential cleavage sites in folded proteins. In this article, we present evidence that sites not exposed on the surface of the protein are not cleaved by the enzyme. Interestingly, both enzymes readily cleaved IL-18 and IL-33, two IL-1-related alarmins, as well as the cytokine IL-15, which is important for T cell and NK cell homeostasis. Cleavage of the alarmins by HC and hCG suggests a function in regulating excessive inflammation.

1284 related Products with: Highly Selective Cleavage of Cytokines and Chemokines by the Human Mast Cell Chymase and Neutrophil Cathepsin G.

Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Cathepsin G, Human Neutro Rat Mast Cell Chymase ELI Mouse Anti-Human Mast Cel Mouse Anti-Human Mast Cel Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Astra Blue 6GLL, Stain fo Recombinant Human Androge Eosinophil - Mast Cell S

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Platelet-Specific Chemokines Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Acute Lung Injury.

Platelets and neutrophils contribute to the development of acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanism by which platelets make this contribution is incompletely understood. We investigated whether the two most abundant platelet chemokines, CXCL7, which induces neutrophil chemotaxis and activation, and CXCL4, which does neither, mediate ALI through complementary pathogenic pathways. To examine the role of platelet-derived chemokines in the pathogenesis of ALI using Cxcl7 and Cxcl4 knockout mice and mice that express human CXCL7 or CXCL4, we measured levels of chemokines in these mice. ALI was then induced by acid aspiration, and the severity of injury was evaluated by histology and by the presence of neutrophils and protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pulmonary vascular permeability was studied in vivo by measuring extravasation of fluorescently labeled dextran. Murine CXCL7, both recombinant and native protein released from platelets, can be N-terminally processed by cathepsin G to yield a biologically active CXCL7 fragment. Although Cxcl7 mice are protected from lung injury through the preservation of endothelial/epithelial barrier function combined with impaired neutrophils transmigration, Cxcl4 mice are protected through improved barrier function without affecting neutrophils transmigration to the airways. Sensitivity to ALI is restored by transgenic expression of CXCL7 or CXCL4. Platelet-derived CXCL7 and CXCL4 contribute to the pathogenesis of ALI through complementary effects on neutrophil chemotaxis and through activation and vascular permeability.

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A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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Role of renin-angiotensin system in activation of macrophages by modified lipoproteins.

Angiotensin II favors the development of atherosclerosis. Our goal was to determine if foam cell formation increases angiotensin II generation by the endogenous renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and if endogenously produced angiotensin II promotes lipid accumulation in macrophages. Differentiated THP-1 cells were treated with acetylated low-density lipoproteins (ac-LDL), native LDL (n-LDL), or no LDL. Expression of RAS genes was assessed and angiotensin I/II levels were quantified in media and cell lysate. Ac-LDL increased angiotensin I/II levels and the angiotensin II/I ratio in cells and media after foam cell formation. Renin mRNA or activity did not change, but renin blockade completely inhibited the increase in angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen mRNA but not protein level was increased. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and cathepsin G mRNA and activities were enhanced by ac-LDL. Inhibition of renin, ACE, or the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1-receptor) largely abolished cholesteryl ester formation in cells exposed to ac-LDL and decreased scavenger receptor A (SR-A) and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT-1) protein levels. Inhibition of renin or the AT1-receptor in cells treated with oxidized LDL also decreased SR-A and ACAT-1 protein and foam cell formation. ac-LDL also increased angiotensin II by human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas blockade of renin decreased cholesterol ester formation in these macrophages. These findings indicate that, during foam cell formation, angiotensin II generation by the endogenous RAS is stimulated and that endogenously generated angiotensin II is crucial for cholesterol ester accumulation in macrophages exposed to modified LDL.

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High fidelity processing and activation of the human α-defensin HNP1 precursor by neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3.

The azurophilic granules of human neutrophils contain four α-defensins called human neutrophil peptides (HNPs 1-4). HNPs are tridisulfide-linked antimicrobial peptides involved in the intracellular killing of organisms phagocytosed by neutrophils. The peptides are produced as inactive precursors (proHNPs) which are processed to active microbicides by as yet unidentified convertases. ProHNP1 was expressed in E. coli and the affinity-purified propeptide isolated as two species, one containing mature HNP1 sequence with native disulfide linkages ("folded proHNP1") and the other containing non-native disulfide linked proHNP1 conformers (misfolded proHNP1). Native HNP1, liberated by CNBr treatment of folded proHNP1, was microbicidal against Staphylococcus aureus, but the peptide derived from misfolded proHNP1 was inactive. We hypothesized that neutrophil elastase (NE), proteinase 3 (PR3) or cathepsin G (CG), serine proteases that co-localize with HNPs in azurophil granules, are proHNP1 activating convertases. Folded proHNP1 was converted to mature HNP1 by both NE and PR3, but CG generated an HNP1 variant with an N-terminal dipeptide extension. NE and PR3 cleaved folded proHNP1 to produce a peptide indistinguishable from native HNP1 purified from neutrophils, and the microbicidal activities of in vitro derived and natural HNP1 peptides were equivalent. In contrast, misfolded proHNP1 conformers were degraded extensively under the same conditions. Thus, NE and PR3 possess proHNP1 convertase activity that requires the presence of the native HNP1 disulfide motif for high fidelity activation of the precursor in vitro.

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Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Human neutrophil peptide Elastase, Human Neutrophi Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen CAR,CAR,Constitutive acti Antibodies, Rabbit: Anti Human Neutrophil Elastase Recombinant Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph

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Masking of a cathepsin G cleavage site in vivo contributes to the proteolytic resistance of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.

The expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules is post-translationally regulated by endocytic protein turnover. Here, we identified the serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) as an MHC II-degrading protease by in vitro screening and examined its role in MHC II turnover in vivo. CatG, uniquely among endocytic proteases tested, initiated cleavage of detergent-solubilized native and recombinant soluble MHC II molecules. CatG cleaved human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR isolated from both HLA-DM-expressing and DM-null cells. Even following CatG cleavage, peptide binding was retained by pre-loaded, soluble recombinant HLA-DR. MHC II cleavage occurred on the loop between fx1 and fx2 of the membrane-proximal beta2 domain. All allelic variants of HLA-DR tested and murine I-A(g7) class II molecules were susceptible, whereas murine I-E(k) and HLA-DM were not, consistent with their altered sequence at the P1' position of the CatG cleavage site. CatG effects were reduced on HLA-DR molecules with DRB mutations in the region implicated in interaction with HLA-DM. In contrast, addition of CatG to intact B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) did not cause degradation of membrane-bound MHC II. Moreover, inhibition or genetic ablation of CatG in primary antigen-presenting cells did not cause accumulation of MHC II molecules. Thus, in vivo, the CatG cleavage site is sterically inaccessible or masked by associated molecules. A combination of intrinsic and context-dependent proteolytic resistance may allow peptide capture by MHC II molecules in harshly proteolytic endocytic compartments, as well as persistent antigen presentation in acute inflammatory settings with extracellular proteolysis.

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Heparin enhances serpin inhibition of the cysteine protease cathepsin L.

The glycosaminoglycan heparin is known to possess antimetastatic activity in experimental models and preclinical studies, but there is still uncertainty over its mechanism of action in this respect. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III, but a similar cofactor role has not been previously investigated for proteases linked to metastasis. The squamous cell carcinoma antigens (serpins B3 and B4) are tumor-associated proteins that can inhibit papain-like cysteine proteases, including cathepsins L, K, and S. In this study, we show that SCCA-1 (B3) and SCCA-2 (B4) can bind heparin as demonstrated by affinity chromatography, native PAGE gel shifts, and intrinsic fluorescence quenching. Binding was specific for heparin and heparan sulfate but not other glycosaminoglycans. The presence of heparin accelerated inhibition of cathepsin L by both serpins, and in the case of SCCA-1, heparin increased the second order inhibition rate constant from 5.4 x 10(5) to >10(8), indicating a rate enhancement of at least 180-fold. A templating mechanism was shown, consistent with ternary complex formation. Furthermore, SCCA-1 inhibition of cathepsin L-like proteolytic activity secreted from breast and melanoma cancer cell lines was significantly enhanced by heparin. This is the first example of glycosaminoglycan enhancement of B-clade serpin activity and the first report of heparin acting as a cofactor in serpin cross-class inhibition of cysteine proteases. Most importantly, this finding raises the possibility that the anticancer properties of heparin may be due, at least partly, to enhanced inhibition of prometastatic proteases.

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Alpha 2-macroglobulin capture allows detection of mast cell chymase in serum and creates a reservoir of angiotensin II-generating activity.

Human chymase is a highly efficient angiotensin II-generating serine peptidase expressed by mast cells. When secreted from degranulating cells, it can interact with a variety of circulating antipeptidases, but is mostly captured by alpha(2)-macroglobulin, which sequesters peptidases in a cage-like structure that precludes interactions with large protein substrates and inhibitors, like serpins. The present work shows that alpha(2)-macroglobulin-bound chymase remains accessible to small substrates, including angiotensin I, with activity in serum that is stable with prolonged incubation. We used alpha(2)-macroglobulin capture to develop a sensitive, microtiter plate-based assay for serum chymase, assisted by a novel substrate synthesized based on results of combinatorial screening of peptide substrates. The substrate has low background hydrolysis in serum and is chymase-selective, with minimal cleavage by the chymotryptic peptidases cathepsin G and chymotrypsin. The assay detects activity in chymase-spiked serum with a threshold of approximately 1 pM (30 pg/ml), and reveals native chymase activity in serum of most subjects with systemic mastocytosis. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin-bound chymase generates angiotensin II in chymase-spiked serum, and it appears in native serum as chymostatin-inhibited activity, which can exceed activity of captopril-sensitive angiotensin-converting enzyme. These findings suggest that chymase bound to alpha(2)-macroglobulin is active, that the complex is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-resistant reservoir of angiotensin II-generating activity, and that alpha(2)-macroglobulin capture may be exploited in assessing systemic release of secreted peptidases.

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In vitro activation of the rhesus macaque myeloid alpha-defensin precursor proRMAD-4 by neutrophil serine proteinases.

Alpha-defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides expressed mainly by cells of myeloid lineage or small intestinal Paneth cells. The peptides are converted from inactive 8.5-kDa precursors to membrane-disruptive forms by post-translational proteolytic events. Because rhesus myeloid pro-alpha-defensin-4 (proRMAD-4((20-94))) lacks bactericidal peptide activity in vitro, we tested whether neutrophil azurophil granule serine proteinases, human neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (P3) have in vitro convertase activity. Only NE cleaved proRMAD-4((20-94)) at the native RMAD-4 N terminus to produce fully processed, bactericidal RMAD-4((62-94)). The final CG cleavage product was RMAD-4((55-94)), and P3 produced both RMAD-4((55-94)) and RMAD-4(57-94). Nevertheless, NE, CG, and P3 digests of proRMAD4 and purified RMAD-4((62-94)), RMAD-4((55-94)), and RMAD-4(57-94) peptides had equivalent in vitro bactericidal activities. Bactericidal peptide activity assays of proRMAD-4((20-94)) variants containing complete charge-neutralizing D/E to N/Q or D/E to A substitutions showed that (DE/NQ)-proRMAD-4((20-94)) and (DE/A)-proRMAD-4((20-94)) were as active as mature RMAD-4((62-94)). Therefore, proregion Asp and Glu side chains inhibit the RMAD-4 component of full-length proRMAD-4((20-94)), perhaps by a combination of charge-neutralizing and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Although native RMAD-4((62-94)) resists NE, CG, and P3 proteolysis completely, RMAD-4((62-94)) variants with disulfide pairing disruptions or lacking disulfide bonds were degraded extensively, evidence that the disulfide array protects the alpha-defensin moiety from degradation by the myeloid converting enzymes. These in vitro analyses support the conclusion that rhesus macaque myeloid pro-alpha-defensins are converted to active forms by serine proteinases that co-localize in azurophil granules.

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