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Minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to investigate the effect of pH dependent FcRn affinity and the endothelial endocytosis on the pharmacokinetics of anti-VEGF humanized IgG1 antibody in cynomolgus monkey.

In this study, we developed a first minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model to investigate the complex interaction effects of endocytosis rate/FcRn binding affinity at both acidic/physiological pH on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the anti-VEGF IgG antibodies. The data used in this study were the PK of the native IgG and humanized anti-VEGF IgG antibodies with a wide range FcRn-binding at both acidic and physiological pH in the cynomolgus monkey. The basic structure of the developed mPBPK models consisted of plasma, tissue and lymph compartments. The tissue compartment was subdivided into vascular, endothelial and interstitial spaces. Non-equilibrium binding mechanism was used to describe the FcRn-IgG interaction in the endosome. The fittings in the final model with three pH systems in the endosome compartment showed a good fit based on the visualization of the fitted graphs and the coefficient of variations of the estimated parameters (CV < 50%). The quantitative endocytosis/FcRn binding affinity PK relationships was constructed using the final model to provide better understanding of complex interaction effects of endocytosis rate and FcRn binding on PK of anti-VEGF IgG antibodies. This result may serve as an important model-based drug discovery platform to guide the design and development of the future generation of anti-VEGF IgG or other therapeutic IgG antibodies. In addition, the mPBPK model developed in cynomolgus monkey was successfully used to predict the PK of the anti-VEGF IgG antibody (bevacizumab) in human subjects.

2503 related Products with: Minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to investigate the effect of pH dependent FcRn affinity and the endothelial endocytosis on the pharmacokinetics of anti-VEGF humanized IgG1 antibody in cynomolgus monkey.

FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal mouse multiple org Normal rat multiple organ Normal rat multiple organ Normal rat multiple organ TCP-1 theta antibody Sour

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HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis.

Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. Host-pathogen interactions involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the functional properties of HIV-1-specific IgG, more studies are needed on the functional attributes of HIV-1-specific IgA, specifically for vaccine-elicited IgA. Characterization of the functional properties of HIV-1 Env-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies from human vaccine clinical trials are critical toward understanding the capacity of the host immune response to block HIV-1 acquisition.

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Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti PIWIL1, Monoclonal A Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti Human AGO3, Monoclon Viral antibodies, anti-R Signal Transduction Anti Signal Transduction Anti Measles Virus Nucleoprote Viral antibodies: anti-H Anti AGE-3 Monoclonal Ant Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Proteins and Antibodies H

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Brain Shuttle Antibody for Alzheimer's Disease with Attenuated Peripheral Effector Function due to an Inverted Binding Mode.

Receptors show promise for the transport of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) across the blood-brain barrier. However, safety liabilities associated with peripheral receptor binding and Fc effector function have been reported. We present the Brain Shuttle-mAb (BS-mAb) technology, and we investigate the role of Fc effector function in vitro and in an Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-humanized mouse model. Strong first infusion reactions (FIRs) were observed for a conventional mAb against transferrin receptor (TfR) with a wild-type immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) Fc. Fc effector-dead constructs completely eliminated all FIRs. Remarkably, no FIR was observed for the BS-mAb construct with a native IgG1 Fc function. Using various BS-mAb constructs, we show that TfR binding through the C-terminal BS module attenuates Fc-FcγR interactions, primarily because of steric hindrance. Nevertheless, BS-mAbs maintain effector function activity when binding their brain target. Thus, mAbs with full effector function can be transported in a stealth mode in the periphery while fully active when engaged with their brain target.

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Apparent activation energies of protein-protein complex dissociation in the gas-phase determined by electrospray mass spectrometry.

We have developed a method to determine apparent activation energies of dissociation for ionized protein-protein complexes in the gas phase using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry following the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus quasi-equilibrium theory. Protein-protein complexes were formed in solution, transferred into the gas phase, and separated from excess free protein by ion mobility filtering. Afterwards, complex disassembly was initiated by collision-induced dissociation with step-wise increasing energies. Relative intensities of ion signals were used to calculate apparent activation energies of dissociation in the gas phase by applying linear free energy relations. The method was developed using streptavidin tetramers. Experimentally determined apparent gas-phase activation energies for dissociation ([Formula: see text]) of complexes consisting of Fc parts from immunoglobulins (IgG-Fc) and three closely related protein G' variants (IgG-Fc•protein G'e, IgG-Fc•protein G'f, and IgG-Fc•protein G'g) show the same order of stabilities as can be inferred from their in-solution binding constants. Differences in stabilities between the protein-protein complexes correspond to single amino acid residue exchanges in the IgG-binding regions of the protein G' variants. Graphical abstract Electrospray mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation delivers apparent activation energies and supramolecular bond force constants of protein-protein complexes in the gas phase.

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to FAPβ (Fibroblast Act to FAPβ (Fibroblast Act HIV 1 intergase antigen. Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Gro g Macrophage In Mouse Macrophage Inflamma Mouse Macrophage Inflamma Mouse Macrophage Inflamma

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A new approach for generating bispecific antibodies based on a common light chain format and the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G.

Bispecific antibodies combine two different antigen-binding sites in a single molecule, enabling more specific targeting, novel mechanisms of action, and higher clinical efficacies. Although they have the potential to outperform conventional monoclonal antibodies, many bispecific antibodies have issues regarding production, stability, and pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we describe a new approach for generating bispecific antibodies using a common light chain format and exploiting the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G We used iterative experimental validation and computational modeling to identify multiple Fc variant pairs that drive efficient heterodimerization of the antibody heavy chains. Accelerated stability studies enabled selection of one Fc variant pair dubbed "DEKK" consisting of substitutions L351D and L368E in one heavy chain combined with L351K and T366K in the other. Solving the crystal structure of the DEKK Fc region at a resolution of 2.3 Å enabled detailed analysis of the interactions inducing CH3 interface heterodimerization. Local shifts in the IgG backbone accommodate the introduction of lysine side chains that form stabilizing salt-bridge interactions with substituted and native residues in the opposite chain. Overall, the CH3 domain adapted to these shifts at the interface, yielding a stable Fc conformation very similar to that in wild-type IgG. Using the DEKK format, we generated the bispecific antibody MCLA-128, targeting human EGF receptors 2 and 3. MCLA-128 could be readily produced and purified at industrial scale with a standard mammalian cell culture platform and a routine purification protocol. Long-term accelerated stability assays confirmed that MCLA-128 is highly stable and has excellent biophysical characteristics.

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Selective Blockade of the Ubiquitous Checkpoint Receptor CD47 Is Enabled by Dual-Targeting Bispecific Antibodies.

CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed immune checkpoint receptor that is often upregulated in cancer. CD47 interacts with its counter-receptor SIRPα on macrophages and other myeloid cells to inhibit cancer cell phagocytosis and drive immune evasion. To overcome tolerability and "antigen sink" issues arising from widespread CD47 expression, we generated dual-targeting bispecific antibodies that selectively block the CD47-SIRPα interaction on malignant cells expressing a specific tumor-associated antigen; e.g., CD19 or mesothelin. These bispecific κλ bodies are fully human, native IgG1 molecules, combining tumor targeting and selective CD47 blockade with immune activating mechanisms mediated by the Fc portion of the antibody. CD47-neutralizing κλ bodies efficiently kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo but interact only weakly with healthy cells expressing physiological levels of CD47. Accordingly, a κλ body administered to non-human primates showed a typical IgG pharmacokinetic profile and was well tolerated. Importantly, κλ bodies preserve their tumoricidal capabilities in the presence of a CD47 antigen sink. Thus, dual-targeting κλ bodies allow for efficacious yet safe targeting of CD47 in cancer. Such a bispecific design could be applied to limit the extent of neutralization of other ubiquitously expressed therapeutic targets.

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Rabbit Anti-Dopamine D2 R Rabbit Anti-Dopamine D2 R CRC3 CD3 (bispecific) Cl HIV1 gp41 antibody, Monoc HIV1 integrase antibody, HIV2 p26 antibody, Monocl Measles Virus Nucleoprote HIV1 Nef antibody, Monocl HIV1 Nef antibody, Monocl CD4 antibody, Monoclonal CD4 antibody, Monoclonal HIV1 p24 antibody, Monocl

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Effector-attenuating Substitutions That Maintain Antibody Stability and Reduce Toxicity in Mice.

The antibody Fc region regulates antibody cytotoxic activities and serum half-life. In a therapeutic context, however, the cytotoxic effector function of an antibody is often not desirable and can create safety liabilities by activating native host immune defenses against cells expressing the receptor antigens. Several amino acid changes in the Fc region have been reported to silence or reduce the effector function of antibodies. These earlier studies focused primarily on the interaction of human antibodies with human Fc-γ receptors, and it remains largely unknown how such changes to Fc might translate to the context of a murine antibody. We demonstrate that the commonly used N297G (NG) and D265A, N297G (DANG) variants that are efficacious in attenuating effector function in primates retain potent complement activation capacity in mice, leading to safety liabilities in murine studies. In contrast, we found an L234A, L235A, P329G (LALA-PG) variant that eliminates complement binding and fixation as well as Fc-γ-dependent, antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxity in both murine IgG2a and human IgG1. These LALA-PG substitutions allow a more accurate translation of results generated with an "effectorless" antibody between mice and primates. Further, we show that both human and murine antibodies containing the LALA-PG variant have typical pharmacokinetics in rodents and retain thermostability, enabling efficient knobs-into-holes bispecific antibody production and a robust path to generating highly effector-attenuated bispecific antibodies for preclinical studies.

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Homogenizer for 24 sample Homogenizer for 8 samples Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Anti C Reactive Protein A Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon HIV1 integrase antibody, Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Androgen Receptor (Phosph

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Understanding the Genomic Structure of Copy-Number Variation of the Low-Affinity Fcγ Receptor Region Allows Confirmation of the Association of FCGR3B Deletion with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Fcγ receptors are a family of cell-surface receptors that are expressed by a host of different innate and adaptive immune cells, and mediate inflammatory responses by binding the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G. In humans, five low-affinity receptors are encoded by the genes FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR2C, FCGR3A, and FCGR3B, which are located in an 82.5-kb segmental tandem duplication on chromosome 1q23.3, which shows extensive copy-number variation (CNV). Deletions of FCGR3B have been suggested to increase the risk of inflammatory diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we identify the deletion breakpoints of FCGR3B deletion alleles in the UK population and endogamous native American population, and show that some but not all alleles are likely to be identical-by-descent. We also localize a duplication breakpoint, confirming that the mechanism of CNV generation is nonallelic homologous recombination, and identify several alleles with gene conversion events using fosmid sequencing data. We use information on the structure of the deletion alleles to distinguish FCGR3B deletions from FCGR3A deletions in whole-genome array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data. Reanalysis of published aCGH data using this approach supports association of FCGR3B deletion with increased risk of RA in a large cohort of 1,982 cases and 3,271 controls (odds ratio 1.61, P = 2.9×10 ).

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Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Theobromine CAS Number [8 Theophylline CAS Number [ BACTERIOLOGY BACTEROIDES TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Single Strand DNA Ligase,

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Fc fragments of immunoglobulin G are an inductor of regulatory rheumatoid factor and a promising therapeutic agent for rheumatic diseases.

We recently identified rheumatoid factor, the production of which neither predicts nor exacerbates experimental autoimmune disease, but the opposite, namely it is associated with autoimmune disease resistance and remission. We have named it regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF). The aim of this study was to determine whether rat Fc fragments and human Fc fragments are an antigen for regRF, and to determine the conditions for obtaining them. The presence of an antigenic determinant for regRF on IgG fragments was inferred from the fragments' ability to inhibit the agglutination caused by regRF and to induce regRF production in vivo. It was found that antigenic determinants for both human regRF and rat regRF are absent from native IgG and can be induced in the hinge region of Fc fragments of homologous IgG by papain digestion. The rat Fc fragments are susceptible to spontaneous reconfiguration, which results in loss of the antigenic determinants for regRF. Reconfiguration can be observed by SDS-PAGE. Immunization of arthritic rats with Fc fragments of rat IgG that carry antigenic determinants for rat regRF reduces the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis. The Fc fragments can be viewed as the basis for a therapeutic vaccine to suppress autoimmune responses.

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Influence of Secondary-Structure Folding on the Mutually Exclusive Folding Process of GL5/I27 Protein: Evidence from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Mutually exclusive folding proteins are a class of multidomain proteins in which the host domain remains folded while the guest domain is unfolded, and both domains achieve exchange of their folding status by a mutual exclusive folding (MEF) process. We carried out conventional and targeted molecular dynamics simulations for the mutually exclusive folding protein of GL5/I27 to address the MEF transition mechanisms. We constructed two starting models and two targeted models, i.e., the starting models GL5/I27-S and GL5/I27-ST in which the first model involves the host domain GL5 and the secondary-structure unfolded guest domain I27-S, while the second model involves the host domain GL5 and the secondary/tertiary-structure extending guest domain I27-ST, and the target models GL5-S/I27 and GL5-ST/I27 in which GL5-S and GL5-ST represent the secondary-structure unfolding and the secondary/tertiary-structure extending, respectively. We investigated four MEF transition processes from both starting models to both target models. Based on structural changes and the variations of the radius of gyration () and the fractions of native contacts (), the formation of the secondary structure of the I27-guest domain induces significant extending of the GL5-host domain; but the primary shrinking of the tertiary structure of the I27-guest domain causes insignificant extending of the GL5-host domain during the processes. The results indicate that only formation of the secondary structure in the I27-guest domain provides the main driving force for the mutually exclusive folding/unfolding between the I27-guest and GL5-host domains. A special structure as an intermediate with both host and guest domains being folded at the same time was found, which was suggested by the experiment. The analysis of hydrogen bonds and correlation motions supported the studied transition mechanism with the dynamical "tug-of-war" phenomenon.

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