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#27678524   2016/09/28 Save this To Up

A microtubule inhibitor, ABT-751, induces autophagy and delays apoptosis in Huh-7 cells.

The objective was to investigate the upstream mechanisms of apoptosis which were triggered by a novel anti-microtubule drug, ABT-751, in hepatocellular carcinoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Effects of ABT-751 were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric, alkaline comet, soft agar, immunoblotting, CytoID, green fluorescent protein-microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta detection, plasmid transfection, nuclear/cytosol fractionation, coimmunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, small-hairpin RNA interference and mitochondria/cytosol fractionation assays. Results showed that ABT-751 caused dysregulation of microtubule, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth and apoptosis in Huh-7 cells. ABT-751 also induced early autophagy via upregulation of nuclear TP53 and downregulation of the AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway. Through modulation of the expression levels of DNA damage checkpoint proteins and G2/M cell cycle regulators, ABT-751 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Subsequently, ABT-751 triggered apoptosis with marked downregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2, upregulation of mitochondrial BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 and BCL2 like 11 protein levels, and cleavages of caspase 8 (CASP8), CASP9, CASP3 and DNA fragmentation factor subunit alpha proteins. Suppression of ROS significantly decreased ABT-751-induced autophagic and apoptotic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy significantly increased the percentages of ABT-751-induced apoptotic cells. The autophagy induced by ABT-751 plays a protective role to postpone apoptosis by exerting adaptive responses following microtubule damage, ROS and/or impaired mitochondria.

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ABT-737 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 DPP IV Inhibitor, NVP DPP DPP IV Inhibitor, NVP DPP ABT-263 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 AEE-788 Mechanisms: Multi BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- ABT-199 Mechanisms: Bcl-2 Apoptosis antibody array Rabbit Anti-Human Apoptos anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl

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#27601169   2016/09/10 Save this To Up

Vitamin D receptor is a novel transcriptional regulator for Axin1.

Axin1 is a scaffold protein in the β-catenin destruction complex, which, if disrupted, contributes to pathogenesis of various human diseases, including colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have previously demonstrated that Salmonella infection promotes the degradation and plasma sequestration of Axin1, leading to bacterial invasiveness and inflammatory responses. Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) appear to be important regulators of IBD and colon cancer. Although VDR and Axin1 are all involved in intestinal inflammation, it remains unclear whether these processes are related or function independently. In the current study, we hypothesize that VDR is an important regulator for the maintenance of physiological level of Axin1.

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4-Amino-5-formylamino-3-i Rabbit Anti-ZHX2 Alpha fe Rabbit Anti-ZHX2 Alpha fe Mouse Anti DO11.10 T cell MOUSE ANTI CANINE DISTEMP Rabbit Anti-Dopamine D2 R Rabbit Anti-Dopamine D2 R 2,3 dinor 6 keto Prostag MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Growth Differentiation Fa Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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#27530925   2016/08/27 Save this To Up

RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription.

The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction assays showed that MSP58 directly interacts with RINT-1. Interestingly, microscopic studies revealed the co-localization of MSP58, RINT-1, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), a rRNA transcription factor, in the nucleolus. We showed that ectopic expression of MSP58 or RINT-1 resulted in decreased rRNA expression and rDNA promoter activity, whereas knockdown of MSP58 or RINT-1 by siRNA exerted the opposite effect. Coexpression of MSP58 and RINT-1 robustly decreased rRNA synthesis compared to overexpression of either protein alone, whereas depletion of RINT-1 from MSP58-transfected cells enhanced rRNA synthesis. We also found that MSP58, RINT-1, and the UBF were associated with the rDNA promoter using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Because aberrant ribosome biogenesis contributes to neoplastic transformation, our results revealed a novel protein complex involved in the regulation of rRNA gene expression, suggesting a role for MSP58 and RINT-1 in cancer development.

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Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly Chromatin Transcription P Goat Anti-Human Ribosomal Goat Anti-Human ribosomal Rabbit Anti-Human Bcl-2 I Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti Rat VGLUT 2, Rabbit Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Epidermal Growth Factor (

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#26351264   2015/11/02 Save this To Up

NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 Promotes Colonization and Metastasis Formation and Is a Prognostic Marker of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

Metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths and remains the most significant challenge to management of the disease. Metastases are established through a complex multistep process involving intracellular signaling pathways. To gain insight to proteins central to specific steps in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture and subcellular fractionation, the nuclear, cytosol, and mitochondria proteomes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS, identifying a number of proteins that exhibited altered expression in isogenic metastatic versus nonmetastatic cancer cell lines, including NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3), l-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), Niemann-pick c1 protein (NPC1), and nucleolar RNA helicase 2 (NRH2). The altered expression levels were validated at the protein and transcriptional levels, and analysis of breast cancer biopsies from two cohorts of patients demonstrated a significant correlation between high CYB5R3 expression and poor disease-free and overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (DFS: p = .02, OS: p = .04). CYB5R3 gene knock-down using siRNA in metastasizing cells led to significantly decreased tumor burden in lungs when injected intravenously in immunodeficient mice. The cellular effects of CYB5R3 knock-down showed signaling alterations associated with extravasation, TGFβ and HIFα pathways, and apoptosis. The decreased apoptosis of CYB5R3 knock-down metastatic cancer cell lines was confirmed in functional assays. Our study reveals a central role of CYB5R3 in extravasation/colonization of cancer cells and demonstrates the ability of our quantitative, comparative proteomic approach to identify key proteins of specific important biological processes that may also prove useful as potential biomarkers of clinical relevance. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001391.

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AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 5α-Androstan-3β-ol � ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β-

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#24562348   2014/08/26 Save this To Up

The amino terminus extension in the long dipeptidyl peptidase 9 isoform contains a nuclear localization signal targeting the active peptidase to the nucleus.

The intracellular prolyl peptidase DPP9 is implied to be involved in various cellular pathways including amino acid recycling, antigen maturation, cellular homeostasis, and viability. Interestingly, the major RNA transcript of DPP9 contains two possible translation initiation sites, which could potentially generate a longer (892 aa) and a shorter version (863 aa) of DPP9. Although the endogenous expression of the shorter DPP9 form has been previously verified, it is unknown whether the longer version is expressed, and what is its biological significance. By developing specific antibodies against the amino-terminal extension of the putative DPP9-long form, we demonstrate for the first time the endogenous expression of this longer isoform within cells. Furthermore, we show that DPP9-long represents a significant fraction of total DPP9 in cells, under steady-state conditions. Using biochemical cell fractionation assays in combination with immunofluorescence studies, we find the two isoforms localize to separate subcellular compartments. Whereas DPP9-short is present in the cytosol, DPP9-long localizes preferentially to the nucleus. This differential localization is attributed to a classical monopartite nuclear localization signal (K(K/R)X(K/R)) in the N-terminal extension of DPP9-long. Furthermore, we detect prolyl peptidase activity in nuclear fractions, which can be inhibited by specific DPP8/9 inhibitors. In conclusion, a considerable fraction of DPP9, which was previously considered as a purely cytosolic peptidase, localizes to the nucleus and is active there, raising the intriguing possibility that the longer DPP9 isoform may regulate the activity or stability of nuclear proteins, such as transcription factors.

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#19368702   2009/04/27 Save this To Up

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interaction with 3' ends of Japanese encephalitis virus RNA and colocalization with the viral NS5 protein.

Replication of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genome depends on host factors for successfully completing their life cycles; to do this, host factors have been recruited and/or relocated to the site of viral replication. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cellular metabolic protein, was found to colocalize with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5) in JEV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation further indicated that GAPDH remained relatively constant in the cytosol, while increasing at 12 to 24 hours postinfection (hpi) and decreasing at 36 hpi in the nuclear fraction of infected cells. In contrast, the redistribution patterns of GAPDH were not observed in the uninfected cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of GAPDH and JEV NS5 protein revealed no direct protein-protein interaction; instead, GAPDH binds to the 3' termini of plus- and minus-strand RNAs of JEV by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Accordingly, GAPDH binds to the minus strand more efficiently than to the plus strand of JEV RNAs. This study highlights the findings that infection of JEV changes subcellular localization of GAPDH suggesting that this metabolic enzyme may play a role in JEV replication.

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Recombinant Japanese Ence Recombinant Japanese Ence Viral antibodies, anti-H Recombinant Viral Antige Tick born encephalitis vi Recombinant Viral antige Viral antibodies, anti-R Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus Nu Recombinant Dengue Virus Recombinant Japanese Ence Recombinant Tick-Borne En Recombinant Tick-Borne En

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#18227062   2008/03/24 Save this To Up

Regulation of nuclear lamin polymerization by importin alpha.

Nuclear lamins are integral components of the nuclear envelope and are important for the regulation of many aspects of nuclear function, including gene transcription and DNA replication. During interphase, the lamins form an intranuclear intermediate filament network that must be disassembled and reassembled when cells divide. Little is known about factors regulating this assembly/disassembly cycle. Using in vitro nuclear assembly and lamin assembly assays, we have identified a role for the nuclear transport factor importin alpha in the regulation of lamin assembly. Exogenous importin alpha inhibited nuclear lamin assembly in Xenopus interphase egg nuclear assembly assays. Fractionation of the egg extract used for nuclear assembly identified a high molecular weight complex containing the major egg lamin, XLB3, importin alpha, and importin beta. This complex could be dissociated by RanGTP or a competing nuclear localization sequence, indicating that lamin assembly is Ran- and importin alpha-dependent in the egg extract. We show that the addition of importin alpha to purified lamin B3 prevents the assembly of lamins in solution. Lamin assembly assays show that importin alpha prevents the self-association of lamins required to assemble lamin filaments into the typical paracrystals formed in vitro. These results suggest a role for importin alpha in regulating lamin assembly and possibly modulating the interactions of lamins with lamin-binding proteins.

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BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha Rabbit Anti-Laminin alpha

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#17072349   2007/04/19 Save this To Up

Nucleophosmin is a novel Bax chaperone that regulates apoptotic cell death.

The proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 family protein Bax is a key regulatory point in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the factors controlling the process of Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria have yet to be fully identified and characterized. We performed affinity chromatography using peptides corresponding to the mitochondrial-targeting region of Bax, which is normally sequestered within the inactive structure. The molecular chaperone nucleophosmin was identified as a novel Bax-binding protein by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and proximity assays confirmed the Bax-nucleophosmin protein-protein interaction and verified that nucleophosmin only bound to activated conformationally altered Bax. Confocal microscopy in a cell-based apoptosis model, demonstrated that nucleophosmin translocation from nucleolus to cytosol preceded Bax movement. Specific knockdown of nucleophosmin expression using RNAi attenuated apoptosis as measured by mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of the caspase cascade. In a mouse model of ischaemic stroke, subcellular fractionation studies verified that nucleophosmin translocation occurred within 3 h, at a time before Bax translocation but after Bax conformational changes have occurred. Thus, we have elucidated a novel molecular mechanism whereby Bax becomes activated and translocates to the mitochondria to orchestrate mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death, which opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

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Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in

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#16125124   2005/09/26 Save this To Up

Isolation and characterization of subcellular protein fractions from mouse heart.

In this study, we report different protocols used to obtain highly enriched and well-characterized protein fractions that could be used to determine the subcellular localization of proteins. Different protein fractions (total, cytosolic, total membrane, sarcolemmal, and nuclear) were isolated from mouse heart by a combination of either polytron homogenization or liquid nitrogen pulverization followed by density gradient centrifugation. Triton X-100 was used in specific fractions to help in the solubilization of proteins obtained with fractionation protocols. Following the isolation, enzymatic assays and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate the enrichment and/or cross-contamination of these protein fractions. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Na+/K+-ATPase, mitochondrial Ca2+-ATPase, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, glucose-regulated protein, and nucleoporin P62 were used as specific markers for the cytosol, sarcolemma, mitochondria, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus, respectively. The results show that we obtained enriched protein fractions with little to no cross-contamination. These purification protocols allow us to obtain different protein fractions that could be used in a wide variety of studies.

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anti FAS IgG1 (monoclonal S6 Ribosomal Protein (Pho Mouse Anti-RSV 33kDa & 19 Mouse Anti-SARS-Associate Mouse Anti-SARS-Associate Mouse Anti-Human Retinol MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD Proteins: Mouse CD40 Lig Proteins: Mouse CD40 Lig Proteins: Mouse Activin- Mouse Monocyte Chemotacti Mouse Monocyte Chemotacti

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#15836769   2005/04/19 Save this To Up

The GTP binding protein Obg homolog ObgE is involved in ribosome maturation.

Obg proteins belong to a subfamily of GTP binding proteins, which are highly conserved from bacteria to human. Mutations of obgE genes cause pleiotropic defects in various species but the function remained unclear. Here we examine the function of ObgE, the Obg homolog in Escherichia coli. The growth rate correlates with the amount of ObgE in cells. Co-fractionation experiments further suggest that ObgE binds to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits, but not to 70S ribosome. Pull-down assays suggest that ObgE associates with several specific ribosomal proteins of 30S and 50S subunits, as well as RNA helicase CsdA. Purified ObgE cosediments with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs in vitro in the presence of GTP. Finally, mutation of ObgE affects pre-16Sr-RNA processing, ribosomal protein levels, and ribosomal protein modification, thereby significantly reducing 70S ribosome levels. This evidence implicates that ObgE functions in ribosomal biogenesis, presumably through the binding to rRNAs and/or rRNA-ribosomal protein complexes, perhaps as an rRNA/ribosomal protein folding chaperone or scaffold protein.

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ribosome binding protein ribosome binding protein amyloid beta precursor pr Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant Influenza HA Native Influenza HA (A So Native Influenza HA (A So Native Influenza HA (A So zona pellucida binding pr Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In

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