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Insertion torque values and success rates for paramedian insertion of orthodontic mini-implants : A retrospective study.

Orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) are a reliable method to provide temporary orthodontic anchorage. We hypothesized that there is an optimal insertion torque (<10 Ncm) that can be used to ensure the success of self-drilling OMIs in the paramedian region.

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A Cloud-Ozone Data Product from Aura OMI and MLS Satellite Measurements.

Ozone within deep convective clouds is controlled by several factors involving photochemical reactions and transport. Gas-phase photochemical reactions and heterogeneous surface chemical reactions involving ice, water particles, and aerosols inside the clouds all contribute to the distribution and net production and loss of ozone. Ozone in clouds is also dependent on convective transport that carries low troposphere/boundary layer ozone and ozone precursors upward into the clouds. Characterizing ozone in thick clouds is an important step for quantifying relationships of ozone with tropospheric HO, OH production, and cloud microphysics/transport properties. Although measuring ozone in deep convective clouds from either aircraft or balloon ozonesondes is largely impossible due to extreme meteorological conditions associated with these clouds, it is possible to estimate ozone in thick clouds using backscattered solar UV radiation measured by satellite instruments. Our study combines Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite measurements to generate a new research product of monthly-mean ozone concentrations in deep convective clouds between 30°S to 30°N for October 2004 - April 2016. These measurements represent mean ozone concentration primarily in the upper levels of thick clouds and reveal key features of cloud ozone including: persistent low ozone concentrations in the tropical Pacific of ~10 ppbv or less; concentrations of up to 60 pphv or greater over landmass regions of South America, southern Africa, Australia, and India/east Asia; connections with tropical ENSO events; and intra-seasonal/Madden-Julian Oscillation variability. Analysis of OMI aerosol measurements suggests a cause and effect relation between boundary layer pollution and elevated ozone inside thick clouds over land-mass regions including southern Africa and India/east Asia.

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Effect of Mst1 on Endometriosis Apoptosis and Migration: Role of Drp1-Related Mitochondrial Fission and Parkin-Required Mitophagy.

Mitochondrial homeostasis is implicated in the development and progression of endometriosis through poorly defined mechanisms. Mst1 is the major growth suppressor related to cancer migration, apoptosis and proliferation. However, whether Mst1 is involved in endometriosis apoptosis and migration via regulating the mitochondrial function remains to be elucidated.

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A Semi-Empirical Approach to the Determination of Daily Erythemal Doses.

The maintenance of ground-based instruments to measure the incidence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the Sun demands strict and well-developed procedures. A piece of equipment can be out of service for a couple of weeks or months for calibration, repair, or even the improvement of the facilities where it has been set up. However, the replacement of an instrument in such circumstances can be logistically and financially prohibitive. On the other hand, the lack of data can jeopardize a long-term experiment. In this study, we introduce a semi-empirical approach to the determination of the theoretical daily erythemal dose (DED) for periods of instrumental absence in a tropical site. The approach is based on 5-years of ground-based measurements of daily erythemal dose (DED) linearly correlated with parameters of total ozone column (TOC) and reflectivity (R) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the cosine of solar zenith angle at noon (SZA). Seventeen months of missing ground-based data were replaced with DED, leading to a complete 5-year series of data. The lowest and the highest values of typical DED were 2411 ± 322 J/m(1σ) (winter) and 5263 ± 997 J/m(summer). The monthly integrated erythemal dose (mED) varied from 59 kJ/m(winter) to 162 kJ/m(summer). Both of them depended mainly on cos(SZA) and R. The 12-month integrated erythemal dose (12-ED) ranged from 1350 kJ/mto 1546 kJ/m, but it can depend significantly on other atmospheric parameter (maybe aerosols) not explicitly considered here. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Induction of apoptosis by pinostrobin in human cervical cancer cells: Possible mechanism of action.

Pinostrobin (PN) is a naturally occurring dietary bioflavonoid, found in various medicinal herbs/plants. Though anti-cancer potential of many such similar constituents has been demonstrated, critical biochemical targets and exact mechanism for their apoptosis-inducing actions have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate if PN induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (HeLa) of human origin. It is demonstrated that PN at increasing dose effectivity reduced the cell viability as well as GSH and NO2- levels. Condensed nuclei with fragmented chromatin and changes in mitochondrial matrix morphology clearly indicated the role of mitochondria in PN induced apoptosis. A marked reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production after PN treatment showed involvement of free radicals, which in turn further augment ROS levels. PN treatment resulted in DNA damage, which could have been triggered by an increase in ROS levels. Decrease in apoptotic cells in the presence of caspase 3 inhibitor in PN-treated cells suggested that PN induced apoptosis via caspase dependent pathways. Additionally, a significant increase in the expression of proteins of extrinsic (TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, FADD, Fas/TNFRSF6) and intrinsic pathway (Bad, Bax, HTRA2/Omi, SMAC/Diablo, cytochrome C, Pro-Caspase-3, Cleaved Caspase-3) was observed in the cells exposed to PN. Taken together, these observations suggest that PN efficiently induces apoptosis through ROS mediated extrinsic and intrinsic dependent signaling pathways, as well as ROS mediated mitochondrial damage in HeLa cells.

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Mental health literacy in family caregivers: A comparative analysis.

The present study was undertaken to examine the current level of mental health literacy in family caregivers and to compare the changes over a 23-year period between 1993 and 2016. The current sample consisted of 60 family caregivers of patients with major mental illness from the in-patient and out-patient departments of NIMHANS, assessed on the Orientation towards Mental Illness Scale (OMI). This was compared with data of 80 family caregivers from previous study done in 1993. Family caregivers in the current study showed a significant positive trend on comparison with the previous study. However, area of abnormal behaviour shows a worsening of negative attitudes. Hopelessness and hypo-functioning, relating to the factor of after-effects of mental illness show no significant difference. While knowledge about mental illnesses can be improved by providing information, this does not automatically translate to integration of the mentally ill in society. Current initiatives need to be matched with specific and sustained efforts to reduce stigma associated with mental illness which have persisted unchanged.

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Modulatory upregulation of an insulin peptide gene by different pathogens in C. elegans.

When an animal is infected, its innate immune response needs to be tightly regulated across tissues and coordinated with other aspects of organismal physiology. Previous studies with Caenorhabditis elegans have demonstrated that insulin-like peptide genes are differentially expressed in response to different pathogens. They represent prime candidates for conveying signals between tissues upon infection. Here, we focused on one such gene, ins-11 and its potential role in mediating cross-tissue regulation of innate immune genes. While diverse bacterial intestinal infections can trigger the up-regulation of ins-11 in the intestine, we show that epidermal infection with the fungus Drechmeria coniospora triggers an upregulation of ins-11 in the epidermis. Using the Shigella virulence factor OpsF, a MAP kinase inhibitor, we found that in both cases, ins-11 expression is controlled cell autonomously by p38 MAPK, but via distinct transcription factors, STA-2/STAT in the epidermis and HLH-30/TFEB in the intestine. We established that ins-11, and the insulin signaling pathway more generally, are not involved in the regulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in the epidermis. The up-regulation of ins-11 in the epidermis does, however, affect intestinal gene expression in a complex manner, and has a deleterious effect on longevity. These results support a model in which insulin signaling, via ins-11, contributes to the coordination of the organismal response to infection, influencing the allocation of resources in an infected animal.

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Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry.

Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing of dairy slurry application relative to subsequent harvest affected intake and digestibility by sheep. Katahdin crossbred ewes (n = 18; 48 ± 5.3 kg) in mid-gestation were stratified by BW and allocated randomly in each of 2 periods to 1 of 6 treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of recommended (RM; 46.8%) or low (LM; 39.7%) moisture at baling after either no slurry application (NS), slurry application to stubble immediately after removal of the previous cutting (S0), or slurry application 14 d after removal of the previous cutting (S14). Silages were chopped through a commercial straw chopper, packed into plastic trash cans, and then offered to ewes within 4 d of chopping. Period 1 of the intake and digestion study consisted of a 14-d adaptation followed by a 7-d fecal collection period. Period 2 followed period 1 after a 4-d rest and consisted of an 11-d adaptation followed by 7 d of fecal collection. Ewes were housed individually in 1.4 × 4.3-m pens equipped with rubber mat flooring. Feces were swept from the floor twice daily, weighed, and dried at 50°C. Ewes had ad libitum access to water and were offered chopped silage for a minimum of 10% refusal (DM). Blood samples were collected immediately prior to feeding, and 4 and 8 h after feeding on the day prior to the end of each period. Organic matter intake (g/kg BW) and OM digestibility tended (P < 0.10) to be, and digestible OMI (g/kg BW) was reduced by slurry application. Lymphocytes (% of total white blood cells) were greater (P < 0.05) from LM vs. RM and from NS vs. S0 and S14. Red blood cell concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) from S14 vs. S0 and from S0 and S14 vs. NS. Serum urea N concentrations did not differ (P > 0.17) across treatments. Therefore, moisture concentration of alfalfa silage within the range used in this study may not affect voluntary intake or digestibility, but slurry application may have an effect on digestible OM intake. Also, moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and time of dairy slurry application may affect specific blood hemograms.

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Multi-sensor temporal assessment of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities over Pakistan.

Spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NOvertical column densities over Pakistan during the period 2002-2014 are discussed. Data products from three satellite instruments SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2 are used to prepare a database of tropospheric NOcolumn densities over Pakistan and temporal evolution is also determined. Plausible NOsources in Pakistan are also discussed. The results show a large NOgrowth over all provinces and the major cities of Pakistan except the megacity of Karachi. Decline in industrial activities due to energy crises, worsening law and order situation, terrorist attacks, and political instability was explored as the main factor for lower NOVCDs over Karachi City. The overall increase can be attributed to the anthropogenic emissions over the areas with high population, traffic density, and industrial activities. Source identification revealed that use of fossil fuels by various sectors including power generation, vehicles, and residential sectors along with agriculture fires are among significant sources of NOemissions in Pakistan. Existing emission inventories such as EDGARv4.2 and MACCity largely underestimate the true anthropogenic NOemissions in Pakistan. This study may provide vital information to policy makers and regulatory authorities in developing countries, including Pakistan, in order to devise effective air pollution abatement policies.

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Effect of Hip-Focused Injury Prevention Training for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Reduction in Female Basketball Players: A 12-Year Prospective Intervention Study.

Programs to prevent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female basketball players are scarce. Also, ACL injury prevention training that focuses on hip joint function has not been reported.

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