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#29694984   // Save this To Up

Camel Milk Ameliorates 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Renal Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathways.

The clinical utility of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Camel milk (CM) has previously displayed beneficial effects in toxicant-induced nephropathies. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of CM to attenuate 5-FU-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

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#29693253   // Save this To Up

The versatile role of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment: A focus on PI3K/AKT pathway.

Despite significant advances in treatment modalities, millions of cancer-related deaths continue to occur annually, often as a consequence of developing resistance against the range of available chemotherapeutic drugs. Furthermore, available anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents show limited efficacy, often have severe side effects, and are expensive. Thus, the discovery of pharmacological agents that do not have these disadvantages is necessary. Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from turmeric (Curcumin longa L.), is one such agent that has been widely studied for its anti-inflammatory and/or anti-cancer effects. Curcumin exerts its anti-cancer effect by suppressing the initiation, progression, and metastasis of a variety of cancers and appears to inhibit carcinogenesis by affecting two main processes: angiogenesis and tumor growth. These anti-cancer effects are largely mediated via negative regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other oncogenic molecules. The PI3K/AKT pathway is commonly activated in cancer initiation and progression. Considered to be the key signaling pathway, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway therefore represents a key target for cancer therapeutics. In the current review, we focus upon curcumin's targeting of PI3K/AKT in different malignancies to effect inhibition of cancer development and progression.

2028 related Products with: The versatile role of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment: A focus on PI3K/AKT pathway.

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Downregulation of Lgr6 inhibits proliferation and invasion and increases apoptosis in human colorectal cancer.

The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of leucine‑rich repeat‑containing G‑protein coupled receptor 6 (Lgr6) in the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, and to investigate its possible mechanisms. The expression of Lgr6 in CRC tissues was observed by real time‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Then cell viability, apoptosis and cell invasion was measured by MTT, flow cytometry or Matrigel‑Transwell system, respectively in CRC cells after transfected with Lgr6 siRNA or Lgr6 vector. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis‑associated protein and PI3K/AKT signaling (phosphorylated‑PI3K, phosphorylated‑AKT, t‑PI3K, t‑AKT) were measured by real‑time PCR/or western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the level of Lgr6 was higher in CRC tissues than that in adjacent tissues, and Lgr6 overexpression increased CRC proliferation, and invasion of CRC cells in vitro. Notably, suppressing the expression of Lgr6 in CRC cells increased the expression of B‑cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein and caspase‑3, but decreased the expression of Bcl‑2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Lgr6 also had the ability to regulate the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/AKT signaling pathway. It was concluded that Lgr6 has a tumor‑promoting role in the development of CRC, and may serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for the disease.

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MicroRNA‑122 acts as tumor suppressor by targeting TRIM29 and blocking the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in the southern provinces of China and Southeast Asia. It has been reported that microRNA‑122 (miR‑122) and tripartite motif‑containing protein 29 (TRIM29) serve important roles in many types of tumor. The present study aimed to evaluate the expression of miR‑122 and TRIM29, and their clinical significance in NPC, and to examine the associated molecular mechanisms. It was observed that low expression of miR‑122 and high expression of TRIM29 led to a low overall survival rate in patients with NPC, which was associated with tumor‑node‑metastasis (TNM) stage and distant metastasis of NPC. Low expression of miR‑122 was correlated reciprocally with high expression of TRIM29 in NPC tissues, and the two were aggravated by radiation treatment in NPC cell lines. Through Cell Counting kit‑8 and Transwell assays, miR‑122 was demonstrated to be able to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells. Through reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analyses, the expression of metastasis‑associated genes, including E‑cadherin, metastatic tumor antigen 1, matrix metalloproteinase‑2 and metalloproteinase inhibitor 2 were demonstrated to be regulated by miR‑122 in NPC cells. Additionally, through a luciferase assay, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis, it was demonstrated that TRIM29 may be a direct target of miR‑122. In addition, it was noted that miR‑122 decreased the expression of phosphorylated (p) phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) and p‑RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT). Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR‑122 may exert its tumor suppressive role by targeting TRIM29 and inhibiting the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling. It was indicated that miR‑122 and TRIM29 may be developed as biomarkers of NPC, and possible molecular targets for the prevention of metastasis in patients with NPC.

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Propranolol as a potentially novel treatment of arteriovenous malformations.


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#29692779   // Save this To Up

RIP2 Is a Critical Regulator for NLRs Signaling and MHC Antigen Presentation but Not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways.

RIP2 is an adaptor protein which is essential for the activation of NF-κB and NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling. Although NOD-RIP2 axis conservatively existed in the teleost, the function of RIP2 was only reported in zebrafish, goldfish, and rainbow trout . Very little is known about the role and mechanisms of piscine NOD-RIP2 axis . Our previous study showed the protective role of zebrafish NOD1 in larval survival through CD44a-mediated activation of PI3K-Akt signaling. In this study, we examined whether RIP2 was required for larval survival with or without pathogen infection, and determined the signaling pathways modulated by RIP2. Based on our previous report and the present study, our data demonstrated that NOD1-RIP2 axis was important for larval survival in the early ontogenesis. Similar to NOD1, RIP2 deficiency significantly affected immune system processes. The significantly enriched pathways were mainly involved in immune system, such as "Antigen processing and presentation" and "NOD-like receptor signaling pathway" and so on. Furthermore, both transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that RIP2 was a critical regulator for expression of NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and those genes involved in MHC antigen presentation. Different from NOD1, the present study showed that NOD1, but not RIP2 deficiency significantly impaired protein levels of MAPK pathways. Although RIP2 deficiency also significantly impaired the expression of CD44a, the downstream signaling of CD44a-Lck-PI3K-Akt pathway remained unchanged. Collectively, our works highlight the similarity and discrepancy of NOD1 and RIP2 in the regulation of immune signaling pathways in the zebrafish early ontogenesis, and confirm the crucial role of RIP2 in NLRs signaling and MHC antigen presentation, but not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

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PP242 Counteracts Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation, Migration, Invasiveness and Stemness Properties by Inhibiting mTORC2/AKT.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor and is associated with poor prognosis due to its thorny localization, lack of efficacious therapies and complex biology. Among the numerous pathways driving GBM biology studied so far, PTEN/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a pivotal role, as it controls cell survival, proliferation and metabolism and is involved in stem cell maintenance. In front of recent and numerous evidences highlighting mTOR upregulation in GBM, all the strategies developed to inhibit this pathway have been substantially unsuccessful. Our study focused on mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) to understand its involvement in GBM cell growth, proliferation, migration and invasiveness. We utilized an model, characterized by various genetic alterations (i.e., GL15, U257, U87MG and U118MG cell lines) in order to achieve the clonal heterogeneity observed . Additionally, being the U87MG cell line endowed with glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), we also investigated the role of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in this specific cell population, which is responsible for GBM relapse. We provide further insights that explain the reasons for the failure of numerous clinical trials conducted to date targeting PI3K or mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) with rapamycin and its analogs. Additionally, we show that mTORC2 might represent a potential clinically valuable target for GBM treatment, as proliferation, migration and GSC maintenance appear to be mTORC2-dependent. In this context, we demonstrate that the novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor PP242 effectively targets both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation and counteracts cell proliferation via the induction of high autophagy levels, besides reducing cell migration, invasiveness and stemness properties.

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Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( T-cell proliferation grad TCCI T cell proliferation TCCI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCBI T cell proliferation TCBI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCPI T cell proliferation TCPI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad

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Human Cytomegalovirus Encodes a Novel FLT3 Receptor Ligand Necessary for Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation and Viral Reactivation.

The ability of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to reactivate from latent infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is intimately linked to cellular differentiation. HCMV encodes UL7 that our group has shown is secreted from infected cells and induces angiogenesis. In this study, we show that UL7 is a ligand for Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt-3R), a well-known critical factor in HPC differentiation. We observed that UL7 directly binds Flt-3R and induces downstream signaling cascades, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Importantly, we show that UL7 protein induces differentiation of both CD34 HPCs and CD14 monocytes. Last, we show that an HCMV mutant lacking UL7 fails to reactivate in CD34 HPCs as well as in humanized mice. These observations define the first virally encoded differentiation factor with significant implications not only for HCMV reactivation but also for alteration of the hematopoietic compartment in transplant patients. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) represent a critical reservoir of latent HCMV in the transplant population, thereby providing a source of virus for dissemination to visceral organs. HCMV reactivation has been linked to HPC/myeloid cellular differentiation; however, the mechanisms involved in these events are poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we show that a viral protein is a ligand for Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt-3R) and that the binding of HCMV UL7 to the Flt-3R triggers HPC and monocyte differentiation. Moreover, the loss of UL7 prevents viral reactivation in HPCs as well as in humanized mice. These observations define the first virally encoded differentiation factor with significant implications not only for HCMV reactivation but also for alteration of the hematopoietic compartment in transplant patients.

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The inhibitory NKR-P1B:Clr-b recognition axis facilitates detection of oncogenic transformation and cancer immunosurveillance.

Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules involved in "missing-self" recognition of cancer and virus-infected cells. Here we elucidate the role of MHC-I-independent NKR-P1B:Clr-b interactions in the detection of oncogenic transformation by NK cells. Ras oncogene overexpression was found to promote a real-time loss of Clr-b on mouse fibroblasts and leukemia cells, mediated in part via the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways. Ras-driven Clr-b downregulation occurred at the level of the Clrb (Clec2d) promoter, nascent Clr-b transcripts, and cell surface Clr-b protein, in turn promoting missing-self recognition via the NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor. Both Ras- and c-Myc-mediated Clr-b loss selectively augmented cytotoxicity of oncogene-transformed leukemia cells by NKR-P1B+ NK cells in vitro and enhanced rejection by WT mice in vivo. Interestingly, genetic ablation of either one (Clr-b+/-) or two Clr-b alleles (Clr-b-/-) enhanced survival of Eμ-cMyc transgenic mice in a primary lymphoma model despite preferential rejection of Clr-b-/- hematopoietic cells previously observed following adoptive transfer into naïve wild-type mice in vivo. Collectively, these findings suggest that the inhibitory NKR-P1B:Clr-b axis plays a beneficial role in innate detection of oncogenic transformation via NK cell-mediated cancer immune surveillance, in addition to a pathological role in the immune escape of primary lymphoma cells in Eμ-cMyc mice in vivo. These results provide a model for the human NKR-P1A:LLT1 system in cancer immunosurveillance in lymphoma patients and suggest it may represent a target for immune checkpoint therapy.

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CXCL9/10/11, a regulator of PD-L1 expression in gastric cancer.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immunosuppressor that plays an important role in cancer treatments. Although majority of the studies demonstrated that PD-L1 expression was regulated by cellular intrinsic and extrinsic controls, and IFN-γ was a key molecule of extrinsic control, other studies imply that other cytokines play important roles in PD-L1 expression. In this study, we investigated the regulation of PD-L1 by chemokine signaling pathway in gastric cancer (GC) cells.

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