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#28820083   2017/08/18 Save this To Up

Threonine deficiency decreased intestinal immunity and aggravated inflammation associated with NF-κB and target of rapamycin signalling pathways in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99-21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.

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#28716954   2017/07/18 Save this To Up

Synaptically driven phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is differentially regulated at active synapses versus dendrites and cell bodies by MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways.

High-frequency stimulation of the medial perforant path triggers robust phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in activated dendritic domains and granule cell bodies. Here we dissect the signaling pathways responsible for synaptically driven rpS6 phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus using pharmacological agents to inhibit PI3-kinase/mTOR and MAPK/ERK-dependent kinases. Using phospho-specific antibodies for rpS6 at different sites (ser235/236 versus ser240/244), we show that delivery of the PI3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, decreased rpS6 phosphorylation throughout the somatodendritic compartment (granule cell layer, inner molecular layer, outer molecular layer), especially in granule cell bodies while sparing phosphorylation at activated synapses (middle molecular layer). In contrast, delivery of U0126, an MEK inhibitor, attenuated rpS6 phosphorylation specifically in the dendritic laminae leaving phosphorylation in the granule cell bodies intact. Delivery of the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, abolished activation of rpS6 phosphorylation in granule cell bodies and dendrites, whereas delivery of a selective S6K1 inhibitor, PF4708671, or RSK inhibitor, SL0101-1, attenuated rpS6 phosphorylation throughout the postsynaptic cell. These results reveal that MAPK/ERK-dependent signaling is predominately responsible for the selective induction of rpS6 phosphorylation at active synapses. In contrast, PI3-kinase/mTOR-dependent signaling induces rpS6 phosphorylation throughout the somatodendritic compartment but plays a minimal role at active synapses. Collectively, these results suggest a potential mechanism by which PI3-kinase/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways regulate translation at specific subcellular compartments in response to synaptic activity.

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#28489607   2017/05/10 Save this To Up

Trans-scirpusin A showed antitumor effects via autophagy activation and apoptosis induction of colorectal cancer cells.

Trans-Scirpusin A (TSA) is a resveratrol oligomer found in Borassus flabellifer L. We found that TSA inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer Her2/CT26 cells in vivo in mice. Although some cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were induced against the tumor-associated antigen Her2, TSA treatment did not significantly increase the level of Her2-specific CTL response compared to that with vehicle treatment. However, there was a significant increase in the level of TNF-α mRNA in tumor tissue and Her2-specific Ab (antibody) production. More importantly, we found that TSA overcomes the tumor-associated immunosuppressive microenvironment by reducing the number of CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We detected the induction of autophagy in TSA-treated Her2/CT26 cells, based on the increased level of the mammalian autophagy protein LC3 puncta, and increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Further, TSA induced 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) (T172) and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity as estimated by phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (p-p70S6K) levels, thereby suggesting that TSA-mediated AMPK activation and inhibition of mTORC1 pathway might be associated with autophagy induction. TSA also induced apoptosis of Her2/CT26 cells, as inferred by the increased sub-G1 mitotic phases in these cells, Annexin V/PI-double positive results, and TUNEL-positive cells. Finally, we found that the combined treatment of mice with docetaxel and TSA successfully inhibited tumor growth to a greater extent than docetaxel alone. Therefore, we propose the use of TSA for supplementary anticancer therapy to support anti-neoplastic drugs, such as docetaxel, by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells and resulting in the induction of neighborhood anti-cancer immunity.

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#28445155   2017/04/26 Save this To Up

Retinoblastoma cells activate the AKT pathway and are vulnerable to the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235.

Retinoblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the retina most often caused by inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor gene. We previously showed that Rb1 loss cooperates with either co-activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, or co-deleting Pten, to initiate retinoblastoma tumors in mice. The objectives of this study were to determine if the AKT pathway is activated in human retinoblastomas and the extent that anti-PI3K therapy induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells, alone or in combination with the DNA damaging drugs carboplatin and topotecan. Serial sections from human retinoblastoma tissue microarrays containing 27 tumors were stained with antibodies specific to p-AKT, Ki-67, forkhead box O1 (p-FOXO1), and ribosomal protein S6 (p-S6) using immunohistochemistry and each tumor sample scored for intensity. Human retinoblastoma tumors displayed significant correlation between p-AKT intensity with highly proliferative tumors (p = 0.008) that were also highly positive for p-FOXO1 (p = 0.002). Treatment with BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, reduced phosphorylation levels of the AKT targets p-FOXO and p-S6 and effectively induced apoptosis the Y79 and Weri-1 human retinoblastoma cell lines and in vivo in our retinoblastoma mouse model. Long-term treatment with BEZ235 in vivo using our retinoblastoma-bearing mice induced apoptosis but did not significantly extend the lifespan of the mice. We then co-administered BEZ235 with topotecan and carboplatin chemotherapeutics in vivo, which more effectively induced apoptosis of retinoblastoma, but not normal retinal cells than either treatment alone. Our study has increased the variety of potentially effective targeted treatments that can be considered for human retinoblastoma.

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#28431943   2017/04/22 Save this To Up

Expression and purification of p70ΔCT104 S6 K, a 72kDa c-terminal truncated p70S6 kinase-GST fusion protein in bacterial expression system.

The p70ΔCT104 S6K is a 421 amino acid residue long truncated form of p70S6 kinase, with 104 amino acids residues cleaved from the carboxyl terminal end of the original protein. The p70ΔCT104 S6K was cloned in E. coli DH5α and successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Western blot with rabbit polyclonal anti-GST antibody was used to follow the protein during expression and purification. The protein purification was achieved by affinity chromatography using Glutathione resin-agarose beads, followed by chromatography on a spin concentration column. The purified protein was confirmed by rabbit polyclonal anti-p70S6 kinase antibody. MALDI/MS Peptide mass fingerprinting confirmed identity of the expressed product.

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#28376174   2017/04/04 Save this To Up

Role of YAP1 as a Marker of Sensitivity to Dual AKT and P70S6K Inhibition in Ovarian and Uterine Malignancies.

The PI3K/AKT/P70S6K pathway is an attractive therapeutic target in ovarian and uterine malignancies because of its high rate of deregulation and key roles in tumor growth. Here, we examined the biological effects of MSC2363318A, which is a novel inhibitor of AKT1, AKT3, and P70S6K.

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#28338624   2017/03/24 Save this To Up

Nerve Growth Factor Signaling from Membrane Microdomains to the Nucleus: Differential Regulation by Caveolins.

Membrane microdomains or "lipid rafts" have emerged as essential functional modules of the cell, critical for the regulation of growth factor receptor-mediated responses. Herein we describe the dichotomy between caveolin-1 and caveolin-2, structural and regulatory components of microdomains, in modulating proliferation and differentiation. Caveolin-2 potentiates while caveolin-1 inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling and subsequent cell differentiation. Caveolin-2 does not appear to impair NGF receptor trafficking but elicits prolonged and stronger activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), Rsk2 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2), and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein). In contrast, caveolin-1 does not alter initiation of the NGF signaling pathway activation; rather, it acts, at least in part, by sequestering the cognate receptors, TrkA and p75(NTR), at the plasma membrane, together with the phosphorylated form of the downstream effector Rsk2, which ultimately prevents CREB phosphorylation. The non-phosphorylatable caveolin-1 serine 80 mutant (S80V), no longer inhibits TrkA trafficking or subsequent CREB phosphorylation. MC192, a monoclonal antibody towards p75(NTR) that does not block NGF binding, prevents exit of both NGF receptors (TrkA and p75(NTR)) from lipid rafts. The results presented herein underline the role of caveolin and receptor signaling complex interplay in the context of neuronal development and tumorigenesis.

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#28275136   2017/03/09 Save this To Up

Distinct and Overlapping Functions of TEC Kinase and BTK in B Cell Receptor Signaling.

The Tec tyrosine kinase is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic cells, and is a member of the Tec kinase family that also includes Btk. Although the role of Btk in B cells has been extensively studied, the role of Tec kinase in B cells remains largely unclear. It was previously shown that Tec kinase has the ability to partly compensate for loss of Btk activity in B cell differentiation, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we confirm that Tec kinase is not essential for normal B cell development when Btk is present, but we also found that Tec-deficient mature B cells showed increased activation, proliferation, and survival upon BCR stimulation, even in the presence of Btk. Whereas Tec deficiency did not affect phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ or Ca(2+) influx, it was associated with significantly increased activation of the intracellular Akt/S6 kinase signaling pathway upon BCR and CD40 stimulation. The increased S6 kinase phosphorylation in Tec-deficient B cells was dependent on Btk kinase activity, as ibrutinib treatment restored pS6 to wild-type levels, although Btk protein and phosphorylation levels were comparable to controls. In Tec-deficient mice in vivo, B cell responses to model Ags and humoral immunity upon influenza infection were enhanced. Moreover, aged mice lacking Tec kinase developed a mild autoimmune phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that in mature B cells, Tec and Btk may compete for activation of the Akt signaling pathway, whereby the activating capacity of Btk is limited by the presence of Tec kinase.

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#28197389   2017/02/15 Save this To Up

Adaptive resistance to anti-PD1 therapy by Tim-3 upregulation is mediated by the PI3K-Akt pathway in head and neck cancer.

Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors that are expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in tumor-bearing mice and humans. As anti-PD-1 single agent response rates are only <20% in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, it is important to understand how multiple inhibitory checkpoint receptors maintain suppressed cellular immunity. One such receptor, Tim-3, activates downstream proliferative pathways through Akt/S6, and is highly expressed in dysfunctional TIL. We observed that PD-1 and Tim-3 co-expression was associated with a more exhausted phenotype, with the highest PD-1 levels on TIL co-expressing Tim-3. Dampened Akt/S6 phosphorylation in these PD-1(+)Tim-3(+) TIL, when the PD-1 pathway was ligated, suggested that signaling cross-talk could lead to escape through Tim-3 expression. Indeed, PD-1 blockade of human HNSCC TIL led to further Tim-3 upregulation, supporting a circuit of compensatory signaling and potentially permitting escape from anti-PD-1 blockade in the tumor microenvironment. Also, in a murine HNC tumor model that is partially responsive to anti-PD-1 therapy, Tim-3 was upregulated in TIL from persistently growing tumors. Significant antitumor activity was observed after sequential addition of anti-Tim-3 mAb to overcome adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb. This increased Tim-3-mediated escape of exhausted TIL from PD-1 inhibition that was mediated by phospho-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt complex downstream of TCR signaling but not cytokine-mediated pathways. Taken together, we conclude that during PD-1 blockade, TIL upregulate Tim-3 in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, providing further support for dual targeting of these molecules for more effective cancer immunotherapy.

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#28192480   2017/02/13 Save this To Up

mTOR activity in AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Patients infected with HIV have a significantly increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphomas despite the widespread use of HAART. To investigate mTOR pathway activity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma AR-DLBCL, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the presence of the phosphorylated 70 ribosomal S6 protein-kinase (p70S6K), an extensively studied effector of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and the phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog (pPTEN), a negative regulator of mTORC1 pathway.

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