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           Search results for: Polyclonal Antibody Phospho-MERTK Immunogen: peptide Host: Rabbit   

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The Effect of Differentially Designed Fusion Proteins to Elicit Efficient Anti-human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Immune Responses.

The production of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) immunoassays requires specific antibodies against hTSH which is a cumbersome process. Therefore, producing specific polyclonal antibodies against engineered recombinant fusion hTSH antigens would be of great significance. The best immunogenic region of the hTSH was selected based on in silico analyses and equipped with two different fusions. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, verification, structural evaluation, and immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits. Ultimately, immunized serums were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization (specificity, sensitivity and cross reactivity). The desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. Structural analyses indicated that only the bigger antigen has showed changed 2 dimensional (2D) and 3D structural properties in comparison to the smaller antigen. The raised polyclonal antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum and negligible. The fusion which was solely composed of the tetanus toxin epitopes led to better protein folding and was capable of immunizing the host animals resulting into high titer antibody. Therefore, the minimal fusion sequences seem to be more effective in eliciting specific antibody responses.

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Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

Peptides (usually 10-20 amino acid residues in length) can be used as effectively as proteins in raising antibodies producing both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies routinely with titers higher than 20,000. Peptide antigens do not function as immunogens unless they are conjugated to proteins. Production of high quality antipeptide antibodies is dependent upon peptide sequence selection, the success of peptide synthesis, peptide-carrier protein conjugation, the humoral immune response in the host animal, the adjuvant used, the peptide dose administered, the injection method, and the purification of the antibody. Peptide sequence selection is probably the most critical step in the production of antipeptide antibodies. Although the process for designing peptide antigens is not exact, several guidelines and computational B-cell epitope prediction methods can help maximize the likelihood of producing antipeptide antibodies that recognize the protein. Antibodies raised by peptides have become essential tools in life science research. Virtually all phospho-specific antibodies are now produced using phosphopeptides as antigens. Typically, 5-20 mg of peptide is enough for antipeptide antibody production. It takes 3 months to produce a polyclonal antipeptide antibody in rabbits that yields ~100 mL of serum which corresponds to ~8-10 mg of the specific antibody after affinity purification using a peptide column.

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Serological detection of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in citrus, and identification by GeLC-MS/MS of a chaperone protein responding to cellular pathogens.

We describe experiments with antibodies against 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus used to detect the pathogen in infected plants. We used scFv selected to bind epitopes exposed on the surface of the bacterium in tissue prints, with secondary monoclonal antibodies directed at a FLAG epitope included at the carboxyl end of the scFv. Unexpectedly, the anti-FLAG secondary antibody produced positive results with CaLas diseased samples when the primary scFv were not used. The anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody (Mab) also identified plants infected with other vascular pathogens. We then identified a paralogous group of secreted chaperone proteins in the HSP-90 family that contained the amino acid sequence DDDDK identical to the carboxy-terminal sequence of the FLAG epitope. A rabbit polyclonal antibody against one of the same epitopes combined with a goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody produced very strong purple color in individual phloem cells, as expected for this pathogen. These results were entirely specific for CaLas-infected citrus. The simplicity, cost and ability to scale the tissue print assay makes this an attractive assay to complement PCR-based assays currently in use. The partial FLAG epitope may itself be useful as a molecular marker for the rapid screening of citrus plants for the presence of vascular pathogens.

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Subcellular localisation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) capsid subunit VP1 vis-á-vis host protein Hsp90.

The VP1 subunit of the picornavirus capsid is the major antigenic determinant and mediates host cell attachment and virus entry. To investigate the localisation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) VP1 during infection, a bioinformatics approach was used to predict a surface-exposed, linear epitope region of the protein for subsequent expression and purification. This region, comprising the N-terminal 112 amino acids of the protein, was then used for rabbit immunisation, and the resultant polyclonal antibodies were able to recognise full length VP1 in infected cell lysates by Western blot. Following optimisation, the antibodies were used to investigate the localisation of VP1 in relation to Hsp90 in infected cells by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. At 5h post infection, VP1 was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm with strong perinuclear staining but was absent from the nucleus of all cells analysed. Dual-label immunofluorescence using anti-TMEV VP1 and anti-Hsp90 antibodies indicated that the distribution of both proteins colocalised in the cytoplasm and perinuclear region of infected cells. This is the first report describing the localisation of TMEV VP1 in infected cells, and the antibodies produced provide a valuable tool for investigating the poorly understood mechanisms underlying the early steps of picornavirus assembly.

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A Novel Polyclonal Antiserum against Toxoplasma gondii Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1.

The sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), which functions in maintaining the ratio of Na(+) and H(+) ions, is widely distributed in cell plasma membranes. It plays a prominent role in pH balancing, cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. However, its exact subcellular location and biological functions in Toxoplasma gondii are largely unclear. In this study, we cloned the C-terminal sequence of T. gondii NHE1 (TgNHE1) incorporating the C-terminal peptide of NHE1 (C-NHE1) into the pGEX4T-1 expression plasmid. The peptide sequence was predicted to have good antigenicity based on the information obtained from an immune epitope database. After induction of heterologous gene expression with isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactoside, the recombinant C-NHE1 protein successfully expressed in a soluble form was purified by glutathione sepharose beads as an immunogen for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. The specificity of this antiserum was confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The antiserum could reduce T. gondii invasion into host cells, indicated by the decreased TgNHE1 expression in T. gondii parasites that were pre-incubated with antiserum in the process of cell entry. Furthermore, the antiserum reduced the virulence of T. gondii parasites to host cells in vitro, possibly by blocking the release of Ca(2+). In this regard, this antiserum has potential to be a valuable tool for further studies of TgNHE1.

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Prokaryotic expression of the chicken xanthine oxidase (XOD) subunit and its localization in liver and kidney.

Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is the members of the molybdenum hydroxylase flavoprotein family and it plays a vital role in the body's purine catabolism. In this study, we cloned the XOD 37kDa subunit protein by using RT-PCR and pMD-18-T clone vector based on the total RNA extracted from chicken liver. The cloning XOD subunit protein gene was ligated into the pET-32a to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-XOD. After the pET-XOD expression vector was transformed into host cells Rosetta (DE3), the recombinant XOD subunit proteins (54.8kDa) were successfully induced by isopropy1 β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Rabbit antiserums were produced by using the purification of the recombinant XOD subunit protein as antigen. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:102,400 determined by using ELISA. The result of Western blot demonstrated that the antiserum could specifically recognize the chicken liver XOD. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the XOD mainly presented in the cytoplasm of chicken hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results indicated that the XOD subunit protein polyclonal antibody prepared by this method could be used for the further researches of the biological function of the XOD in the chicken.

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Characterization of Rabbit Antibodies Against the Immunogenic JC Polyomavirus Peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer.

JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a widespread polyomavirus that usually resides latently in its host. As reactivation of the virus upon immune-modulating conditions holds serious risk, it is of importance to properly determine who is infected with this virus. Assessment of infection with JCPyV currently is based on the detection of antibodies against the major capsid protein VP1. However, specific antibodies against the peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer have been shown to hold potential as a novel serological marker for infection with JCPyV. We have immunized rabbits with this peptide and the resulting hyperimmune serum was further characterized by detailed epitope mapping. The results demonstrated that the rabbit immune response is polyclonal in nature, recognizing two different epitopes in the 15-mer peptide. The strongest epitope consisted of L173PALTSQEI181, while a second moderate epitope consisted of D171DLPALT177. While some of the essential amino acid residues are the same as the ones for human plasma samples (P174, L176), some others are different. L173, T177, and I181 are essential for the rabbit hyperimmune serum, but not for human plasma samples, while E180 was essential for the human plasma samples and not for the rabbit hyperimmune serum. In conclusion, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies with strong reactivity against JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer recognizing at least two different epitopes in this peptide.

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Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed.

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Altering the motility of Trypanosoma cruzi with rabbit polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies reduces infection to susceptible mammalian cells.

Trypanosoma cruzi's trypomastigotes are highly active and their incessant motility seems to be important for mammalian host cell infection. The kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) is a protein expressed in all parasite stages, which induces a cellular and humoral immune response in the infected host, and is hypothesized to participate in the parasite's motility. An N-terminal peptide from KMP-11, termed K1 or TcTLE, induced polyclonal antibodies that inhibit parasitic invasion of Vero cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate the motility and infectivity of T. cruzi when exposed to polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies. Rabbits were immunized with TcTLE peptide along with FIS peptide as an immunomodulator. ELISA assay results showed that post-immunization sera contained high titers of polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies, which were also reactive against the native KMP-11 protein and live parasites as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi were incubated with pre- or post-immunization sera, and infectivity to human astrocytes was assessed by Giemsa staining/light microscope and flow cytometry using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled parasites. T. cruzi infection in astrocytes decreased approximately by 30% upon incubation with post-immunization sera compared with pre-immunization sera. Furthermore, trypomastigotes were recorded by video microscopy and the parasite's flagellar speed was calculated by tracking the flagella. Trypomastigotes exposed to post-immunization sera had qualitative alterations in motility and significantly slower flagella (45.5 µm/s), compared with those exposed to pre-immunization sera (69.2 µm/s). In summary, polyclonal anti-TcTLE serum significantly reduced the parasite's flagellar speed and cell infectivity. These findings support that KMP-11 could be important for parasite motility, and that by targeting its N-terminal peptide infectivity can be reduced.

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Production of a neutralizing antibody against envelope protein of dengue virus type 2 using the linear array epitope technique.

Dengue virus (DENV; genus Flavivirus) contains a positive-stranded RNA genome. Binding of DENV to host cells is mediated through domain III of the viral envelope protein. Many therapeutic mAbs against domain III have been generated and characterized because of its high antigenicity. We have previously established a novel PCR method named the linear array epitope (LAE) technique for producing monoclone-like polyclonal antibodies. To prove this method could be utilized to produce antibody against epitopes with low antigenicity, a region of 10 aa (V365NIEAEPPFG374) from domain III of the envelope protein in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was selected to design the primers for the LAE technique. A DNA fragment encoding 10 directed repeats of these 10 aa for producing the tandem-repeated peptides was obtained and fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-containing vector. This fusion protein (GST-Den EIII10-His6) was purified from Escherichia coli and used as antigen for immunizing rabbits to obtain the polyclonal antibody. Furthermore, the EIII antibody could recognize envelope proteins either ectopically overexpressed or synthesized by DENV2 infection using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Most importantly, this antibody was also able to detect DENV2 virions by ELISA, and could block viral entry into BHK-21 cells as shown by immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, the LAE technique could be applied successfully for the production of antibodies against antigens with low antigenicity, and shows high potential to produce antibodies with good quality for academic research, diagnosis and even therapeutic applications in the future.

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