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#27515072   2016/08/12 Save this To Up

Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

Peptides (usually 10-20 amino acid residues in length) can be used as effectively as proteins in raising antibodies producing both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies routinely with titers higher than 20,000. Peptide antigens do not function as immunogens unless they are conjugated to proteins. Production of high quality antipeptide antibodies is dependent upon peptide sequence selection, the success of peptide synthesis, peptide-carrier protein conjugation, the humoral immune response in the host animal, the adjuvant used, the peptide dose administered, the injection method, and the purification of the antibody. Peptide sequence selection is probably the most critical step in the production of antipeptide antibodies. Although the process for designing peptide antigens is not exact, several guidelines and computational B-cell epitope prediction methods can help maximize the likelihood of producing antipeptide antibodies that recognize the protein. Antibodies raised by peptides have become essential tools in life science research. Virtually all phospho-specific antibodies are now produced using phosphopeptides as antigens. Typically, 5-20 mg of peptide is enough for antipeptide antibody production. It takes 3 months to produce a polyclonal antipeptide antibody in rabbits that yields ~100 mL of serum which corresponds to ~8-10 mg of the specific antibody after affinity purification using a peptide column.

2879 related Products with: Antibody Production with Synthetic Peptides.

ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi Natriuretic peptides B ( Custom Monoclonal Antibod Custom Polyclonal Antibod B-Phycoerythrin antibody 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su EZH2 KMT6 Control Peptid EZH2 KMT6 antibody Isoty EXOC7 antibody Host Goat Uroguanylin (1-8) antibo

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#26951975   2016/03/08 Save this To Up

A Novel Polyclonal Antiserum against Toxoplasma gondii Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 1.

The sodium hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), which functions in maintaining the ratio of Na(+) and H(+) ions, is widely distributed in cell plasma membranes. It plays a prominent role in pH balancing, cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. However, its exact subcellular location and biological functions in Toxoplasma gondii are largely unclear. In this study, we cloned the C-terminal sequence of T. gondii NHE1 (TgNHE1) incorporating the C-terminal peptide of NHE1 (C-NHE1) into the pGEX4T-1 expression plasmid. The peptide sequence was predicted to have good antigenicity based on the information obtained from an immune epitope database. After induction of heterologous gene expression with isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactoside, the recombinant C-NHE1 protein successfully expressed in a soluble form was purified by glutathione sepharose beads as an immunogen for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. The specificity of this antiserum was confirmed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The antiserum could reduce T. gondii invasion into host cells, indicated by the decreased TgNHE1 expression in T. gondii parasites that were pre-incubated with antiserum in the process of cell entry. Furthermore, the antiserum reduced the virulence of T. gondii parasites to host cells in vitro, possibly by blocking the release of Ca(2+). In this regard, this antiserum has potential to be a valuable tool for further studies of TgNHE1.

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Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P29 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P30 (SA di Sodium hydrogen phosph Rabbit Serum Against Huma Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 an Toxoplasma gondii GRA8, r Anti VGLUT-1 Rat, polyclo Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo TOXOPLASMA GONDII Culture

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#26949113   2016/04/08 Save this To Up

Prokaryotic expression of the chicken xanthine oxidase (XOD) subunit and its localization in liver and kidney.

Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is the members of the molybdenum hydroxylase flavoprotein family and it plays a vital role in the body's purine catabolism. In this study, we cloned the XOD 37kDa subunit protein by using RT-PCR and pMD-18-T clone vector based on the total RNA extracted from chicken liver. The cloning XOD subunit protein gene was ligated into the pET-32a to construct the recombinant plasmid pET-XOD. After the pET-XOD expression vector was transformed into host cells Rosetta (DE3), the recombinant XOD subunit proteins (54.8kDa) were successfully induced by isopropy1 β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG). Rabbit antiserums were produced by using the purification of the recombinant XOD subunit protein as antigen. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:102,400 determined by using ELISA. The result of Western blot demonstrated that the antiserum could specifically recognize the chicken liver XOD. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the XOD mainly presented in the cytoplasm of chicken hepatocytes and proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results indicated that the XOD subunit protein polyclonal antibody prepared by this method could be used for the further researches of the biological function of the XOD in the chicken.

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DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Amplite™ Fluorimetric X Interferon-a Receptor Typ Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 cytochrome c oxidase subu Proteasome inhibitor PI31 alkaline phosphatase (liv cytochrome c oxidase subu

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#26075335   2015/09/03 Save this To Up

Characterization of Rabbit Antibodies Against the Immunogenic JC Polyomavirus Peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer.

JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV) is a widespread polyomavirus that usually resides latently in its host. As reactivation of the virus upon immune-modulating conditions holds serious risk, it is of importance to properly determine who is infected with this virus. Assessment of infection with JCPyV currently is based on the detection of antibodies against the major capsid protein VP1. However, specific antibodies against the peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer have been shown to hold potential as a novel serological marker for infection with JCPyV. We have immunized rabbits with this peptide and the resulting hyperimmune serum was further characterized by detailed epitope mapping. The results demonstrated that the rabbit immune response is polyclonal in nature, recognizing two different epitopes in the 15-mer peptide. The strongest epitope consisted of L173PALTSQEI181, while a second moderate epitope consisted of D171DLPALT177. While some of the essential amino acid residues are the same as the ones for human plasma samples (P174, L176), some others are different. L173, T177, and I181 are essential for the rabbit hyperimmune serum, but not for human plasma samples, while E180 was essential for the human plasma samples and not for the rabbit hyperimmune serum. In conclusion, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies with strong reactivity against JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer recognizing at least two different epitopes in this peptide.

1373 related Products with: Characterization of Rabbit Antibodies Against the Immunogenic JC Polyomavirus Peptide JCPyV_VP2_167-15mer.

Primary antibody GFR alp Rabbit Anti-Human NPY C-F Rabbit Anti-Peptide E Ant Rabbit Anti-Theophylline Rabbit Anti-Pig Gastrin I Rabbit Anti-C-peptide Ant Rabbit Anti-Natriuretic P Rabbit Anti-Natriuretic P Rabbit Anti-Human Natriur Rabbit Anti-Natriuretic P Rabbit Anti-Human Vasoact Rabbit Anti-Atrial Natriu

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#25758653   2015/05/07 Save this To Up

Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed.

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Mouse Anti-Trypanosoma cr Rabbit Anti-Human Apoptos Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Sterile filtered goat se Sterile filtered goat se Sterile filtered mouse s Sterile filtered rat ser ING1B antisense ING1B sense Interferon γ Calreticulin

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#25633439   2015/03/27 Save this To Up

Altering the motility of Trypanosoma cruzi with rabbit polyclonal anti-peptide antibodies reduces infection to susceptible mammalian cells.

Trypanosoma cruzi's trypomastigotes are highly active and their incessant motility seems to be important for mammalian host cell infection. The kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) is a protein expressed in all parasite stages, which induces a cellular and humoral immune response in the infected host, and is hypothesized to participate in the parasite's motility. An N-terminal peptide from KMP-11, termed K1 or TcTLE, induced polyclonal antibodies that inhibit parasitic invasion of Vero cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate the motility and infectivity of T. cruzi when exposed to polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies. Rabbits were immunized with TcTLE peptide along with FIS peptide as an immunomodulator. ELISA assay results showed that post-immunization sera contained high titers of polyclonal anti-TcTLE antibodies, which were also reactive against the native KMP-11 protein and live parasites as detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi were incubated with pre- or post-immunization sera, and infectivity to human astrocytes was assessed by Giemsa staining/light microscope and flow cytometry using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeled parasites. T. cruzi infection in astrocytes decreased approximately by 30% upon incubation with post-immunization sera compared with pre-immunization sera. Furthermore, trypomastigotes were recorded by video microscopy and the parasite's flagellar speed was calculated by tracking the flagella. Trypomastigotes exposed to post-immunization sera had qualitative alterations in motility and significantly slower flagella (45.5 µm/s), compared with those exposed to pre-immunization sera (69.2 µm/s). In summary, polyclonal anti-TcTLE serum significantly reduced the parasite's flagellar speed and cell infectivity. These findings support that KMP-11 could be important for parasite motility, and that by targeting its N-terminal peptide infectivity can be reduced.

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Anti VGLUT-1 Rat, polyclo Viral antibodies, anti-H Anti RAGE (Receptor for A Anti PDX1 Polyclonal Anti Anti Galectin(Gal-3) Huma Polyclonal anti conjugate Rabbit Anti-Shiga-like to Rabbit Anti-CCAP Cardioac Rabbit Anti-CCAP Cardioac Rabbit Anti-CCAP Cardioac Rabbit Anti-CCAP Cardioac Rabbit Anti-CCAP Cardioac

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#24948392   2014/09/18 Save this To Up

Production of a neutralizing antibody against envelope protein of dengue virus type 2 using the linear array epitope technique.

Dengue virus (DENV; genus Flavivirus) contains a positive-stranded RNA genome. Binding of DENV to host cells is mediated through domain III of the viral envelope protein. Many therapeutic mAbs against domain III have been generated and characterized because of its high antigenicity. We have previously established a novel PCR method named the linear array epitope (LAE) technique for producing monoclone-like polyclonal antibodies. To prove this method could be utilized to produce antibody against epitopes with low antigenicity, a region of 10 aa (V365NIEAEPPFG374) from domain III of the envelope protein in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was selected to design the primers for the LAE technique. A DNA fragment encoding 10 directed repeats of these 10 aa for producing the tandem-repeated peptides was obtained and fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST)-containing vector. This fusion protein (GST-Den EIII10-His6) was purified from Escherichia coli and used as antigen for immunizing rabbits to obtain the polyclonal antibody. Furthermore, the EIII antibody could recognize envelope proteins either ectopically overexpressed or synthesized by DENV2 infection using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Most importantly, this antibody was also able to detect DENV2 virions by ELISA, and could block viral entry into BHK-21 cells as shown by immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, the LAE technique could be applied successfully for the production of antibodies against antigens with low antigenicity, and shows high potential to produce antibodies with good quality for academic research, diagnosis and even therapeutic applications in the future.

2480 related Products with: Production of a neutralizing antibody against envelope protein of dengue virus type 2 using the linear array epitope technique.

Polyclonal Antibody Excha MOUSE ANTI CANINE DISTEMP Dengue Type 1 antibody, M Dengue Type 2 antibody, M Dengue Type 3 antibody, M Dengue Type 4 antibody, M Feline Leukemia virus ant Feline Leukemia Virus p27 Feline Leukemia Virus gp7 Feline Leukemia Virus gp7 ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi ReadiLink™ mFluor™ Vi

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#24941746   2014/06/19 Save this To Up

[Immunological characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2628].

Antigen Rv2628 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with latent tuberculosis infection. In this study, Rv2628 was prokaryotic expressed and purified, its immunological characteristics was evaluated with macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and BALB/c mice. The results show that Rv2628 was mainly expressed in form of inclusion body confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and could react with rabbit anti-H37Rv polyclonal antibody detected by Western blotting assay, indicating that the protein had an effective immunoreactivity. The interactions between Rv2628 and macrophage cell line RAW264.7 confirmed that it could effectively induce cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, the relative expression level of IL-6 mRNA was higher than the control group in 1-12 h. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously immunized with Rv2628 protein, the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in the spleen cells was determined by Sandwich ELISA, in the Rv2628 immunized group, the level of IFN-gamma was significantly higher than that of IL-4 (P < 0.000 1). It indicated the protein induced Th1-tendency immune responses. At the same time, Rv2628(11-30) peptide used as coating antigen, the murine serum antibody titer detected by indirect-ELISA was 1:1 600, which demonstrated that Rv2628 could also induce humoral immune responses. In summary, Rv2628 could induce specific pro-inflammatory cytokines, affectively induce strongly Th1-tendency immune response and humoral response, it could be a potential target for developing subunit vaccine against TB. In addition, it laid foundation for probing the cross-talk between M. tb and host.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosi Rabbit Polyclonal to Myco Mycobacterium Tuberculosi MAP-2 antigen alpha Tubulin TUBA1A TUB Hepatitis B Core Antigen Hepatitis B Core Antigen Hepatitis B Core Antigen Hepatitis B Core Antigen Epithelial Membrane Anti Epithelial Membrane Anti CD30, Ki-1 Antigen; Clon

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#24352457   2014/02/12 Save this To Up

Mechanism of neutralization of herpes simplex virus by antibodies directed at the fusion domain of glycoprotein B.

Glycoprotein B (gB), the fusogen of herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a class III fusion protein with a trimeric ectodomain of known structure for the postfusion state. Seen by negative-staining electron microscopy, it presents as a rod with three lobes (base, middle, and crown). gB has four functional regions (FR), defined by the physical location of epitopes recognized by anti-gB neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Located in the base, FR1 contains two internal fusion loops (FLs) and is the site of gB-lipid interaction (the fusion domain). Many of the MAbs to FR1 are neutralizing, block cell-cell fusion, and prevent the association of gB with lipid, suggesting that these MAbs affect FL function. Here we characterize FR1 epitopes by using electron microscopy to visualize purified Fab-gB ectodomain complexes, thus confirming the locations of several epitopes and localizing those of MAbs DL16 and SS63. We also generated MAb-resistant viruses in order to localize the SS55 epitope precisely. Because none of the epitopes of our anti-FR1 MAbs mapped to the FLs, we hyperimmunized rabbits with FL1 or FL2 peptides to generate polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). While the anti-FL1 PAb failed to bind gB, the anti-FL2 PAb had neutralizing activity, implying that the FLs become exposed during virus entry. Unexpectedly, the anti-FL2 PAb (and the anti-FR1 MAbs) bound to liposome-associated gB, suggesting that their epitopes are accessible even when the FLs engage lipid. These studies provide possible mechanisms of action for HSV neutralization and insight into how gB FR1 contributes to viral fusion.

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Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex Mouse Anti-Herpes Simplex Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (H Recombinant Herpes Simple Recombinant Herpes Simple Recombinant Herpes Simple Mouse Anti-Feline Herpes Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Viral antibodies, anti-R

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#24194847   2013/11/06 Save this To Up

Transgenic rabbits that overexpress the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) generate higher quantities and improved qualities of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG).

Immune suppression with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) is a well-established therapeutic concept for preventing host rejection of transplanted organs and graft versus host disease. Increasing the efficiency of rATG production by reducing the number of animals would be highly beneficial to lower cost and to improve quality standards. We have developed transgenic (Tg) mice and rabbits that overexpress the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and have shown an augmented humoral immune response in these animals. To test whether our FcRn Tg rabbits produced rATG more efficiently, we immunized them and their New Zealand White controls with live Jurkat cells. By day 21 after immunization, Tg animals produced significantly, 1.5 times higher amount of total IgG compared to their wt littermates. Also, the binding efficiency of Tg sera to Jurkat cells and their complement-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly higher. The purified Tg IgG preparation contained 2.6 the amount of Jurkat specific IgG as the wt preparation analyzed by complement-mediated lysis, suggesting greater antigen-specific B cell activation in the Tg rabbits. To test this hypothesis, immunization with ovalbumin and human α1-antitrypsin was performed, resulting in significantly greater numbers of antigen-specific B-cells in the FcRn Tg rabbits as compared with wt controls. The shift towards significantly larger populations of antigen-specific B cells relative to the non-specific B cell pool is further corroborated by our previous findings in FcRn Tg mice. Consequently, our FcRn Tg rabbits have the potential to offer substantial qualitative and quantitative improvements for the production of rATG and other polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.

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Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen Rabbit anti Androgen Rece Anti-Androgen Receptor pr Anti Androgen Receptor pr Mouse anti IgG Fc antibod Mouse anti Human IgG anti Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph EIA for Quantitative Dete

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