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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveillance using pre-weaning oral fluid samples detects circulation of wild-type PRRSV.

Oral fluid samples collected from litters of piglets (n=600) one day prior to weaning were evaluated as a method to surveil for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections in four sow herds of approximately 12,500 sow each. Serum samples from the litters' dam (n=600) were included for comparison. All four herds were endemically infected with PRRSV and all sows had been vaccinated ≥ 2 times with PRRSV modified-live virus vaccines. After all specimens had been collected, samples were randomized and assayed by PRRSV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and four PRRSV antibody ELISA assays (IgM, IgA, IgG, and Commercial Kit). All sow serum samples were negative by PRRSV RT-qPCR, but 9 of 600 oral fluid samples tested positive at two laboratories. Open reading frame 5 (ORF5) sequencing of 2 of the 9 positive oral fluid samples identified wild-type viruses as the source of the infection. A comparison of antibody responses in RT-qPCR positive vs. negative oral fluid samples showed significantly higher IgG S/P ratios in RT-qPCR-positive oral fluid samples (mean S/P 3.46 vs. 2.36; p=0.02). Likewise, sow serum samples from RT-qPCR-positive litter oral fluid samples showed significantly higher serum IgG (mean S/P 1.73 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) and Commercial Kit (mean S/P 1.97 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) S/P ratios. Overall, the study showed that pre-weaning litter oral fluid samples could provide an efficient and sensitive approach to surveil for PRRSV in infected, vaccinated, or presumed-negative pig breeding herds.

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Development and validation of a SIgA-ELISA for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection.

An alternative indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody (SIgA-ELISA) was developed using an adhesin (P97R1) of M. hyopneumoniae produced in Escherichia coli. The SIgA-ELISA assay was validated by the comparison with a nested-PCR assay and a commercial M. hyopneumoniae antibody detection kit (IgG-ELISA). Two hundred and sixty nasal swab samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids or serum samples were prepared for SIgA-ELISA validation from a M. hyopneumoniae-free farm, a M. hyopneumoniae vaccinated farm and two M. hyopneumoniae contaminated farms. The results showed that the SIgA-ELISA assay could distinguish the M. hyopneumoniae infection from M. hyopneumoniae vaccinated pigs, which was impossible for the current commercial M. hyopneumoniae antibody detection kits. The diagnostic sensitivity (DSN), specificity (DSP) and accuracy of the SIgA-ELISA were 97.0%, 94.4% and 95.8%, respectively and were compared with nested-PCR on 260 field nasal swab samples. The results of repeatability tests revealed that the coefficients of variation of swab samples within and between runs were less than 10%. This SIgA-ELISA is a needle-free detection methodology for large-scale surveys of M. hyopneumoniae infection.

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