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#28921455   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Construction of an HRP-streptavidin bound antigen and its application in an ELISA for porcine circovirus 2 antibodies.

A fusion protein SBP-Cap∆41, consisting of Cap∆41 (without 41 amino acids at the N-terminus) protein of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and a streptavidin binding peptide (SBP), was constructed. This fusion protein binds to HRP-labeled streptavidin (HRP-SA) through high affinity between SBP and SA, forming an HRP-streptavidin bound antigen (Hsb-Ag) with both immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity, which can be used in a double-antigen sandwich ELISA for detection of PCV2 antibodies. Comparison of the characteristics of the HSb-Cap∆41 and chemical conjugates of the recombinant Cap∆41 protein showed that the HSb-Cap∆41 based double-antigen sandwich ELISA (HBDS-ELISA) had higher specificity and sensitivity. Use of the HBDS-ELISA detected PCV2-IgG in 9 injected pigs as early as 10 days p.i., 3 days earlier than both a double-antigen sandwich ELISA (DS-ELISA) based on a chemically conjugated antigen, and a commercial indirect ELISA kit.

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#27150295   2016/09/19 Save this To Up

Validation of Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum immunoglobulin G content and composition in the sow.

Colostrum is an essential source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for neonate piglets. However, colostrum IgG content and nutritional composition can vary considerably among sows due to age, parity, feeding regime and immunological background. Currently, there is no practical way to obtain information about colostrum IgG concentration at herd level. We evaluated sows' colostrum IgG content on-farm using a Brix refractometer and its performance was compared with that of an IgG ELISA. In addition, nutritional compositions of the colostrum samples were analyzed using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Colostrum samples (5 to 6 ml) (n=153) were obtained within 0 to 3 h of farrowing. However, to obtain a 24 h IgG profile for 11 sows, colostrum samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 24 h after farrowing. A 0.3 ml of freshly drawn colostrum sample was used for the on-farm measurement of Brix percentages using a digital refractometer shortly after collection. The remaining fractions of the samples were frozen and submitted to laboratory analysis for total IgG, using a commercially available pig IgG ELISA kit. For nutritional composition analysis, a 35 ml colostrum sample (n=34) was obtained immediately after birth of first piglet from the first three pairs of frontal teats. Colostrum concentrations of IgG averaged 52.03±30.70 mg/ml (mean±SEM) at 0 to 3 h after farrowing. Concentration of IgG decreased on average by 50% during the 1st day of lactation (P30%. Colostrum IgG concentration is highly variable among sows, Brix measurement of a sows' fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum.

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#25447729   2014/12/16 Save this To Up

Evidence of hepatitis E infection in swine and humans in the East Region of Romania.

Swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered to be a new zoonotic agent due to its close genomic resemblance to the human HEV. The aim of this study was to determine human HEV seroprevalence in eastern Romania and to characterize circulating swine HEV sequences.

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#25066030   2014/10/14 Save this To Up

Use of serological and mucosal immune responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens P97R1, P46 and P36 in the diagnosis of infection.

Currently available ELISAs used to diagnose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs have high specificity but low sensitivity. To develop more sensitive assays, the kinetics of specific serum IgG and respiratory mucosal sIgA responses against three M. hyopneumoniae antigens, namely, P97R1 (an adhesin protein), P46 (a membrane protein), and P36 (a cytosolic protein), were characterised over 133 days following experimental infection. Immunoglobulin G against the three proteins remained at high concentrations from 28 to 133 days post-infection (dpi), although IgG against P97R1 was detected earlier and was more reactive than the other two antigens under assessment. Mucosal sIgA appeared earlier than serum IgG but did not persist as long; sIgA concentrations against P97R1 were the highest. Seroconversion was detected 2 weeks earlier with the P97R1-based ELISA than with a commercially available ELISA. On analysis of serum samples from five pig farms that did not use a M. hyopneumoniae vaccine, the P97R1-based IgG ELISA demonstrated a 73.6% coincidence rate with the commercial kit. Moreover, this more specific P97R1-based ELISA detected more positive samples than the commercial kit (52.8% vs. 39.2%). It was concluded that the systemic immune response to M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs was delayed in onset but persistent whereas the mucosal response developed more rapidly but was less sustained. The P97R1 antigen was identified as a suitable serological marker for diagnosing M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs, particularly early stage infection.

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#24934984   2014/06/28 Save this To Up

Detection of serum antibodies to hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs in Italy using a recombinant swine HEV capsid protein.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in both humans and animals, particularly pigs, worldwide. Several evidences, including human infection following consumption of raw contaminated meat, suggest a zoonotic transmission of HEV. In Italy, large circulation of genotype 3 HEV has been reported in swine, and recent studies have confirmed the involvement of this genotype in autochthonous human cases.

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#24421718   2014/01/14 Save this To Up

Development of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect anti-IgG against swine hepatitis E virus.

Swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is widespread throughout pigs in both developing and industrialized countries. This virus is an important zoonotic agent and a public concern worldwide. Infected pigs are asymptomatic, so diagnosing swine HEV relies on detection of the virus or antibodies against the virus. However, several obstacles need to be overcome for effective and practical serological diagnosis. In this study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used a purified recombinant capsid protein of swine HEV. The potential clinical use of this assay was evaluated by comparing it with a commercial kit (Genelabs Technologies, Diagnostics, Singapore). Results of the ELISA were highly correlated with those of the commercial kit with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 95%. ROC (receiving operator characteristic) analysis of the ELISA data produced a value of 0.987 (95% CI, 0.977~0.998, p < 0.01). The cut-off value for the ELISA was also determined using negative pig sera. In summary, the HEV-specific ELISA developed in the present study appears to be both practical and economical.

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Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Human anti hepatitis A vi Mouse Anti-Insulin-Like G anti Adenovirus E11 IgG2a Amplite™ Fluorimetric G Amplite™ Fluorimetric G Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Rabbit Anti-Polyprotein(H Rabbit Anti-polyprotein[C

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#24393634   2014/01/20 Save this To Up

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) surveillance using pre-weaning oral fluid samples detects circulation of wild-type PRRSV.

Oral fluid samples collected from litters of piglets (n=600) one day prior to weaning were evaluated as a method to surveil for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections in four sow herds of approximately 12,500 sow each. Serum samples from the litters' dam (n=600) were included for comparison. All four herds were endemically infected with PRRSV and all sows had been vaccinated ≥ 2 times with PRRSV modified-live virus vaccines. After all specimens had been collected, samples were randomized and assayed by PRRSV real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and four PRRSV antibody ELISA assays (IgM, IgA, IgG, and Commercial Kit). All sow serum samples were negative by PRRSV RT-qPCR, but 9 of 600 oral fluid samples tested positive at two laboratories. Open reading frame 5 (ORF5) sequencing of 2 of the 9 positive oral fluid samples identified wild-type viruses as the source of the infection. A comparison of antibody responses in RT-qPCR positive vs. negative oral fluid samples showed significantly higher IgG S/P ratios in RT-qPCR-positive oral fluid samples (mean S/P 3.46 vs. 2.36; p=0.02). Likewise, sow serum samples from RT-qPCR-positive litter oral fluid samples showed significantly higher serum IgG (mean S/P 1.73 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) and Commercial Kit (mean S/P 1.97 vs. 0.98; p<0.001) S/P ratios. Overall, the study showed that pre-weaning litter oral fluid samples could provide an efficient and sensitive approach to surveil for PRRSV in infected, vaccinated, or presumed-negative pig breeding herds.

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#24365243   2014/01/27 Save this To Up

A new multi-host species indirect ELISA using protein A/G conjugate for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies with comparison to ELISA-IgG, agglutination assay and Western blot.

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which can cause significant disease and losses in livestock and wild animals. It is increasingly recognized as an important foodborne pathogen in a broad range of food animals and products. Effective control strategies require rapid, reliable and cost-effective detection methods for large scale surveys and diagnostic applications in a broad range of warm-blooded animals. To overcome one or more of these shortcomings in the currently available detection methods for T. gondii infection a non-species-specific protein A/G conjugate was used in the development of an indirect ELISA (ELISA-A/G) for the detection of IgG antibodies in serum samples obtained from experimentally infected pigs. The performance of the assay was evaluated using serum samples from pigs, cats, mice and seals with known positive or negative status for T. gondii infection. Results of the ELISA-A/G obtained with pig serum samples were compared with those generated by traditional ELISA using host specific IgG conjugate (ELISA-IgG), modified agglutination test (MAT) and Western blot analysis (WB). Using protein A/G conjugate, comparative analysis of results from 77 samples obtained from T. gondii infected pigs showed excellent agreement between the ELISA-A/G and in-house ELISA-IgG (0.917 κ). Similar agreements were also observed when these samples were tested by a commercial ELISA kit (0.816 κ), MAT (0.816 κ) and WB (0.79 κ). A total of 86 serum samples obtained from cats, mice and seals experimentally infected with T. gondii and tested by the ELISA-A/G as well as MAT for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies yielded Kappa value of 1.0 for cats and mice and 0.79 for seals. These results show that the ELISA-A/G is a suitable method for serological detection of T. gondii infection in multiple host species and has the potential for testing samples from a broad range of domestic, wild, and aquatic mammalian host species. Simultaneous testing of samples from multiple host species on the same ELISA plate, and the use of multiple plates in a single run for large scale screening will enhance the cost effectiveness and speed of the test in the control and management of toxoplasmosis. This study also shows the effectiveness of the protein A/G conjugate in a modified WB assay for confirmation of T. gondii infection in mammalian hosts. Appropriate validation studies using field samples from various host species to validate the performance of ELISA-A/G is recommended prior to its application for diagnostic and surveillance programs.

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#24334082   2014/05/06 Save this To Up

Development of a novel immunoperoxidase monolayer assay for detection of swine Hepatitis E virus antibodies based on stable cell lines expressing the ORF3 protein.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains are classified into 4 genotypes by nucleotide sequencing. Genotypes 3 and 4 infect humans and animals via HEV-contaminated food or water. HEV RNA was detected by PCR and antibodies were detected by ELISA. Since human studies showed that HEV IgG antibodies in sera can persist for extended periods, diagnosis of HEV infection in swine or humans is mainly based on serological detection using commercial ELISA kits. However, there is no supplemental method to verify ELISA results. Hence, we developed a novel method used for mutual correction of these common processes. Here, a modified stable HepG2 cell line was transfected with pcDNA3.1-ORF3 to express the swine HEV ORF3 protein. Based on this cell line, a novel immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against HEV. The results show that this method has good specificity, sensitivity and repeatability. When used to investigate 141 porcine serum samples, the IPMA had a coincidence rate of 92.2% with a commercial ELISA kit. The established IPMA described herein is valuable as a supplemental method to ELISA and can differentiate infections by HEV and other viruses.

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#24238666   2013/11/28 Save this To Up

Age-related and regional differences in the prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibodies in pigs in Germany.

An increasing number of acute autochthonous human hepatitis E virus (HEV)-infections was noticed in Germany and other developed countries, most likely the result of a zoonotic virus transmission from pig, wild boar and deer. Currently there is still a lack of profound data concerning the actual prevalence of HEV-specific antibodies in domestic pig herds in Germany, in particular for regions with high pig density, and its age-dependency. 2273 domestic pig sera were collected in 2011 mainly from Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony from areas having a high pig density. Initially, 420 randomly selected pig sera were tested in three commercially available and in two in-house HEV-antibody ELISAs. 43.6% (183/420) to 65.5% (275/420) of the sera were demonstrated to be reactive against human pathogenic HEV genotypes 1 and/or 3. The majority of sera reacted only weakly or not at all with the rat HEV antigen with very few sera showing a stronger reactivity to this antigen compared to the genotype 3 antigen. The results of all three HEV-IgG tests, i.e. the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit, the ID Screen(®) Hepatitis E Indirect Multi-species ELISA kit and the genotype 3 in-house ELISA were in good accordance. Therefore, the remaining sera were tested using the PrioCHECK(®) HEV Ab porcine ELISA kit. Samples with a borderline result were finally determined by application of the conjugate-modified recomLine HEV IgG assay. A total of 1065 of the 2273 sera (46.9%) were found to be anti-HEV IgG-positive. While 38.4% (306/796) of fatteners (age between 3 and 9 months) exhibited HEV-specific antibodies, 51.4% (759/1477) of sows (age older than 9 months) exhibited anti-HEV antibodies (P<0.001). Fatteners kept in Southern Germany had a significantly higher HEV IgG prevalence compared to fatteners kept in the high pig density federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony but also in German federal states with a low pig density. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that a high percentage of domestic pigs in Germany have had contact with HEV. Seroprevalence depends on the pig's age and herd origin with the most significant regional variations for fatteners. The presence of anti-HEV-free herds may indicate that it is feasible to establish and sustain HEV-free pig herds. HEV seroprevalence still depends on the assay used for testing. This demonstrates an urgent need for test validation.

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