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           Search results for: Proteins: Mouse CD40 Ligand; CD40-Ligand   

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Identifying activated T cells in reconstituted RAG deficient mice using retrovirally transduced Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

Various methods have been used to identify activated T cells such as binding of MHC tetramers and expression of cell surface markers in addition to cytokine-based assays. In contrast to these published methods, we here describe a strategy to identify T cells that respond to any antigen and track the fate of these activated T cells. We constructed a retroviral double-reporter construct with enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) and a far-red fluorescent protein from Heteractis crispa (HcRed). LTR-driven EGFP expression was used to enrich and identify transduced cells, while HcRed expression is driven by the CD40Ligand (CD40L) promoter, which is inducible and enables the identification and cell fate tracing of T cells that have responded to infection/inflammation. Pax5 deficient pro-B cells that can give rise to different hematopoietic cells like T cells, were retrovirally transduced with this double-reporter cassette and were used to reconstitute the T cell pool in RAG1 deficient mice that lack T and B cells. By using flow cytometry and histology, we identified activated T cells that had developed from Pax5 deficient pro-B cells and responded to infection with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Microscopic examination of organ sections allowed visual identification of HcRed-expressing cells. To further characterize the immune response to a given stimuli, this strategy can be easily adapted to identify other cells of the hematopoietic system that respond to infection/inflammation. This can be achieved by using an inducible reporter, choosing the appropriate promoter, and reconstituting mice lacking cells of interest by injecting gene-modified Pax5 deficient pro-B cells.

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Differential promotion of hematopoietic chimerism and inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation by combinations of anti-CD40Ligand, anti-LFA-1, everolimus, and deoxyspergualin.

Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) engraftment for chimerism and transplantation tolerance may be promoted by combinations of costimulation blocking biologics and small molecular weight inhibitors. We showed previously in a mouse model that anti-CD40Ligand (anti-CD40L, CD154) combined with anti-LFA-1 or everolimus (40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin) resulted in stable chimerism in almost all BM recipients, whereas anti-LFA-1 plus everolimus conferred approximately 50% chimerism stability. Here, we investigated whether this lower incidence could be increased with deoxyspergualin (DSG) in place of or in addition to everolimus. However, DSG and everolimus were similarly synergistic with costimulation blockade for stable hematopoietic chimerism. This correlated with allospecific T cell depletion and inhibition of acute but not chronic skin allograft rejection. Different treatments were also compared for their inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation in vivo. While anti-CD40L did not impair T cell proliferation, anti-LFA-1 reduced both CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation, and combining anti-LFA-1 with everolimus or DSG had an additive inhibitory effect on CD4 T cell proliferation. Thus, despite their strong inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation, combinations of anti-LFA-1 with everolimus or DSG did not reach the unique potency of anti-CD40L-based combinations to support stable hematopoietic chimerism in this system.

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CD40ligand-expressing dendritic cells induce regression of hepatocellular carcinoma by activating innate and acquired immunity in vivo.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells able to prime T-cells against tumor-associated antigens (TAA), but their potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) regression is still limited. CD40/CD40L interaction is essential for DC activation and induction of antigen-specific T-cells. In this study, transduction of TAA-pulsed DC with a CD40L-encoding adenovirus (Ad-CD40L) was used to improve the immune response induced by DC toward HCC. Bone marrow-derived DC from C3H/HeNcrl mice were cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. On day 6, tumor-lysate pulsed DCs were infected with adenoviruses. HCCs were induced by inoculation of mice with Hepa129-cells subcutaneously. When tumor-volume was 100 to 400 mm(3), DCs were injected intratumorally, subcutaneously, or intravenously. Ad-CD40L transduction exerted CD40/CD40L interactions between DCs, increasing DC immunostimulation with up-regulation of CD80/CD86- and interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression. Intratumoral injection of CD40L-DC was superior to intravenous or subcutaneous treatments, yielding tumor elimination in almost 70% of mice. Moreover, all tumor-free animals were protected against hepatic tumor cell rechallenge. In a preventive setting, subcutaneous injection of CD40L-expressing DCs protected 50% of mice for more than 3 months toward tumor cell challenge. The induced immune response seemed to be dependent on cross-priming with Th1-lymphocytes in the lymph nodes, because transduced DCs were redetected in lymphoid tissues. In addition, immunohistochemistry of tumors indicated a significant tumor infiltration with CD4+, CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were tumor-specific, as shown in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot and T-cell proliferation assays.

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Osteocyte biology: its implications for osteoporosis.

Osteocyte viability may play a significant role in the maintenance and integrity of bone. Bone loss due to osteoporosis may be due in part to osteocyte cell death. We have identified a factor that will protect both osteoblasts and osteocytes from cell death due to agents known to be responsible for various forms of osteoporosis. Not only does estrogen preserve osteoblast and osteocyte viability, but so does a molecule called CD40Ligand. This molecule is expressed on activated T lymphocytes, human dendritic cells, and human vascular endothelial cells, whereas its receptor CD40 is expressed on normal epithelium, B cells, and dendritic cells. CD40Ligand protects osteoblasts and the MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells against apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids, tumor necrosis factor alpha or etoposide. As tumor necrosis factor a has been shown to be responsible for post-menopausal bone loss and glucocorticoids induce dramatic bone loss, this finding has important implications with regards to potential therapy for both post-menopausal and steroid-induced osteoporosis.

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Normal donor bone marrow is superior to Flt3 ligand-mobilized bone marrow in prolonging heart allograft survival when combined with anti-CD40L (CD154).

Flt3 ligand (FL) administration markedly increases bone marrow (BM) stem cells and immature dendritic cells. We investigated the influence of CD40-CD40Ligand (CD154) pathway blockade on antidonor immunity, cytokine production, microchimerism and heart graft survival in BALB/c (H2d) recipients of fully allogeneic C57BL/10 (H2b) FL-mobilized BM (FL-BM) or normal BM. Anti-CD40L mAb strongly suppressed anti-donor T-cell proliferative responses in recipients of either normal or FL-BM, but was less efficient in inhibiting antidonor cytolytic T-cell (CTL) activity, especially in recipients of FL-BM. Interestingly, CD40L blockade was more effective in recipients of multiple compared with single donor BM infusions. Anti-donor cytokine responses revealed complete impairment of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 production in recipients of normal BM and CD40L mAb. By contrast, and in agreement with the CTL data, mice given FL-BM retained ability to produce IFN-gamma CD40-CD40L blockade did not promote microchimerism, as evidenced by immunohistology and real time polymerase chain reaction. Nevertheless, anti-CD40L mAb enhanced heart allograft survival in recipients of FL-BM, but the effect was inferior to that achieved with normal BM. These data provide insight into the influence of growth factor-expanded donor BM and costimulation blockade on antidonor immune reactivity and transplant outcome. The comparatively poor outcome obtained using FL-BM plus anti-CD40L mAb in this model may be ascribed to the failure of effectively interdicting antidonor CTL activity.

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IL-12 secreting dendritic cells are required for optimum activation of human secondary lymphoid tissue T cells.

Successful immunization requires that mature dendritic cells (mDCs) prime T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue (LT). Previously, the authors have shown that LT T cell activation has an increased costimulatory threshold for a proliferative response as compared with peripheral blood (PB) T cells. Therefore, to optimize mDC immunogenicity, DC maturation was studied using LT T cells as responders. While mDCs obtained with soluble CD40Ligand (sCD40L) or a sCD40L/IFNgamma combination similarly expressed the CD83 and CCR7 molecules on their membrane, only the latter secreted IL-12. sCD40L/IFNgamma mDCs, as compared with sCD40L mDCs, enhanced allogeneic LT T cell proliferation, LT CD4+ cell IFNgamma production and LT CD8+ cell cytotoxicity. Enhancement could be predominantly ascribed to IL-12 secreted by sCD40L/IFNgamma mDCs and to additional costimulatory signals as shown remarkably in the IFNgamma response when IL-12 was neutralized. Therefore, in addition to their membrane phenotype, mDCs to be used in immunization protocols should be assessed for IL-12 secretion as a surrogate marker for an optimum costimulatory potential.

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