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           Search results for: Rabbit Anti-VEGFR3(mouse, rat) Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated   


#16183151   2005/12/02 Save this To Up

Folic acid reduces adhesion molecules VCAM-1 expession in aortic of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia.

To investigate effects of supplementation of folic acid on the expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 in the aortas of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Thirty male SD rats (200 +/- 20 g) were invided into 3 groups (n = 10 for each group): control group(Control), high Met group(Met) and Met plus Folate group(Met + Folate), fed. for 45 days. Plasma Hcy levels were higher with the high-methionine diet (140.68 +/- 36.87 micromol/L vs 6.47 +/- 1.10 micromol/L in control rats) an effect which was reduced by folate. Respectively, the aortic expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1 at protein and mRNA levels were higher in the Met groups than those in the control groups or the Met + Folate groups. A high methionine diet for 45 days was sufficient to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. Folate supplementation prevented elevation of Hcy levels in the blood, and reduced expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1. Hyperhomocysteinemia is now regarded as one of the important risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebralvascular disorders.[Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med 1998; 38(15):1042-50.] Several plausible mechanisms for Hcy-induecd atherosclerosis have been proposed. These include endothelial dysfunction, enhancement of oxidative stress, reduction in NO bioavailability, and augmentation of thrombus formation.[Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects . Am J Med 2001;110(7):536-42; Guba SC, Fonseca V, Fink LM. Hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999;25(3):291-309.] However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unclear. Recent reports have suggested a role for inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.[Gerard C, Rollins BJ. Chemokines and disease. Nat Immunol 2001;2(2):108-15.] Dysfunction of endothelial cells is the key process promoting inflammatory reactions. On injury, endothlial cells are capable of producing various cytokines that participate in inflammatory reactions in the arterial wall. Although results from in vitro studies suggest that Hcy, at pathophysiological concentrations, stimulates chemokine expression in vascular cells, it is unknown whether hyperhomocysteinemia can initiate similar changes, leading to enhanced momocyte adhesion/binding to the vascular endothelium in vivo.[Zeng X, Dai J, Remick DG, Wang X. Homocysteine mediated expression and secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in human monocytes. Circ Res 2003;93(4):311-20.] On the basis of the potential pathogenic role of chemokines in atherogenesis, the objective of the present study was to investigate that homocsteine may exert its effect in part though adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and that folic acid supplementation may downregulate these inflammatory responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (bred from animal centers of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Science and Technology University) aged 8 weeks were divided into 3 groups(n=10 for each group) and maintained for 45 days on the following diets before the experiments: (1) regular diet; (2) high-metheionine diet, consisting of regular diet plus 1.7% methionine; and (3) high-methionine plus folate -rich diet, consisting of regular diet plus 1.7% methionine and 0.006% folate.[Boisvert WA, Curtiss LK, Terkeltaub RA. Interleukin-8 and its receptor CXCR2 in atherosclerosis. Immunol Res 2000;21(2-3):129-d37.] Plasma and serum samples wee colleced and stored at -80 degrees C after 45 days until analysis. The plasma homocysteine concentration of rats in three groups were determined by high-pressue liquid chromatography. To detect the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules VCAM-1, the thoracic aorta was isolated and dived into segments. These segments were immersion-fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin overlight and then embedded in paraffin. Sequential 5 mum paraffin-embedded cross sections were prepared. Immunohistochemical analyisis was performed to detect vascular cell adhesion molecule(VCAM)-1, The fixed cryosections were immediately blcked in 10% horse serum and phosphate baffered saline(PBS) at room temperature for 30 min. Goat polyclonal andibodies against rat VCAM-1(Santa Cruz Biotechnology) were diluted 1:100 in PBS and incubated with the cryosections for 1 h of room temperature. After three washes, the sections were incubated with biotin-conjugated rabbit anti-goat immunoglobulins(Dako) at 1:250 dilution in PBS. After three washes, the samples were mounted in 90% glycerol-PBS. Photographs were taken by use of a light microscope at a mignification of x200.

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#15020090   2004/03/15 Save this To Up

Dual enhancement of triple immunofluorescence using two antibodies from the same species.

Triple immunofluorescence method with two mouse monoclonal antibodies and another rabbit polyclonal antibody was established with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) amplification on thick floating sections from the rat cerebellum. One of the monoclonal antibodies (anti-calbindin), diluted maximally, probed with anti-mouse IgG-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and amplified with Cy5-conjugated tyramide, immunolabeled cerebellar Purkinje cells and their arborization. Subsequently, a rabbit polyclonal IgG (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP)), probed with anti-rabbit IgG-HRP, amplified with biotin-tyramide and visualized with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-streptavidin, immunolabeled Bergmann's glia. Another mouse monoclonal IgG (anti-SNAP25), probed with anti-mouse IgG-rhodamine without CARD amplification, selectively visualized synaptic sites, because the maximal dilution of the other monoclonal antibody (anti-calbindin) was below the detection threshold of this anti-mouse IgG-rhodamine. Separation of the two signals (calbindin and SNAP25), each detected through mouse monoclonal antibody, was then based on the difference of sensitivity either with or without CARD amplification. Triple immunofluorescence is possible when just one of the three primary antibodies is from different species. Intensification of two of the three signals provides further advantages to examine immunolocalization of multiple epitopes on histological sections.

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#10727257   2000/05/09 Save this To Up

Development of time-resolved immunofluorometric assays for rat follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and application on sera of cycling rats.

The aim of this study was to develop time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMA) for measuring rat (r)FSH and rLH. The advantages of these IFMAs are higher sensitivity due to lower background values, higher specificity as only intact molecules of FSH and LH can be measured, and a very long shelf life of the nonradioactive biotin antigens compared with radiolabeled iodine antigens. For rFSH, IFMAs are lacking, while for rLH, if present, the resources for antibodies are scarce or the mouse monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs) against LHalpha are inactive with FSH. Thus specific antibodies need to be obtained. With the final TR-IFMAs, rFSH and rLH levels were assessed during the estrous cycle and compared with those obtained with the more classical RIAs and fluoroimmunoassays (FIAs). Two IFMAs for rFSH were developed with mMAbs against the recombinant human (rec h)FSHbeta subunit (FSH56A) attached to the wall and two different rabbit polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) against the alpha subunit of rec hFSH (R93-2705) or recombinant rat (rec r)LH (R95-2715) conjugated with biotin as signal antibody. With both IFMAs, rFSH holo-molecules can be measured. Rat FSH standards could be assessed between 0.02 and 10 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 and 0.24 ng/ml in buffer and serum, respectively. These detection limits in four IFMAs were 8- to 16-fold lower than those in RIAs and FIAs. This detection level allowed the measurement of FSH levels in serum of hypophysectomized (HYPEX) rats at 0.18 ng/ml. In serum of cycling rats, the FSH levels of the IFMA were 2-fold lower than those of the FIA, while in ovariectomized (OVX) rats the IFMA levels were comparable. A peak level of FSH was found during proestrus of Day 2 and gestation with both RIA and FIA, but with IFMAs at gestation only. An IFMA for rLH was set up with mMAb (hCG77A) reacting with rLHbeta as capture and rabbit PAb to rec rLHalpha (R95-2712) as signal antibody. Rat LH standard could be assessed between 0.001 and 10 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.012 and 0.1 ng/ml in buffer and serum, respectively, which was 8-fold lower than that in RIA/FIA. In serum of HYPEX rats, LH was undetectable (< 0.04 ng/ml), whereas a high background level of 2.5 ng/ml was measured in the FIA. In serum of cycling rats, only a very low LH level of 0.14 ng/ml was measured, which strongly deviated from the level of 3.46 ng/ml with an FIA. The load of LH in serum of OVX rats was 2.91 ng/ml, which was 12-fold lower than that for the FIA. The peak level of LH was detected on proestrus Day 2 with RIA, FIA, and IFMA. In conclusion, two IFMAs for rFSH and one for rLH have been developed with high sensitivity and specificity for intact gonadotropins. The LH pattern during the estrous cycle was comparable between IFMA, RIA, and FIA, although the overall level in the IFMA was much lower, as were HYPEX levels. The FSH pattern differed only on proestrus Day 2 in the IFMA from that of RIA/FIA, showing a peak level with RIA/FIA and a basal level with the IFMA. This implies that in RIA/FIA measurements, proteins other than intact FSH and LH interfere with the analysis at proestrus Day 2 for FSH and in HYPEX, cycling, and OVX rats for LH.

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