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           Search results for: Rabbit Anti-beta-Amyloid(1-28) Polyclonal Antibody, PE-Cy3 Conjugated   

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Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G.

Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal's immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab')2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab')2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab')2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab')2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab')2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits.

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Rabbit Anti-PDGF AB+BB Po Rabbit Anti-PDGF AB+BB Po S6 Ribosomal Protein (Pho PDK1 (Ab 241) Antibody Ho Raf1 (Ab 259) Antibody Ho GSK3á (Ab 21) Antibody H NFêB p65 (Ab 254) Antibo NFêB p65 (Ab 276) Antibo c Jun (Ab 239) Antibody H c Jun (Ab 243) Antibody H JunB (Ab 259) Antibody Ho JunD (Ab 255) Antibody Ho

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Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for immunoassay using iron oxide nanoparticles as probe.

With the help of iron oxide nanoparticles, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was applied to immunoassay. Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as the ESR probe in order to achieve an amplification of the signal resulting from the large amount of Fe3+ ion enclosed in each nanoparticle. Rabbit IgG was used as antigen to test this method. Polyclonal antibody of rabbit IgG was used as antibody to detect the antigen. Iron oxide nanoparticle with a diameter of either 10 or 30 nm was labeled to the antibody, and Fe3+ in the nanoparticle was probed for ESR signal. The sepharose beads were used as solid phase to which rabbit IgG was conjugated. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody was first added in the sample containing antigen, and the antigen-conjugated sepharose beads were then added into the sample. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody bound to the antigen on sepharose beads was separated from the sample by centrifugation and measured. We found that the detection ranges of the antigen obtained with nanoparticles of different sizes were different because the amount of antibody on nanoparticles of 10 nm was about one order of magnitude higher than that on nanoparticles of 30 nm. When 10 nm nanoparticle was used as probe, the upper limit of detection was 40.00 μg mL-1, and the analytical sensitivity was 1.81 μg mL-1. When 30 nm nanoparticle was used, the upper limit of detection was 3.00 μg mL-1, and the sensitivity was 0.014 and 0.13 μg mL-1 depending on the ratio of nanoparticle to antibody. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of procedure and ESR spectra.

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A diagnostic curiosity of isolated androstenedione elevation due to autoantibodies against horseradish peroxidase label of the immunoassay.

Two sisters with hirsutism presented with mild hirsutism and isolated, grossly elevated (>34.9nmol/L) serum concentrations of androstenedione measured by competitive, homogeneous immunoassay. The clinically discordant laboratory results prompted us to look for assay interference. In this immunoassay, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated androstenedione competes with endogenous androstenedione for binding with the solid-phase polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. After a wash step, the amount of signal generated by the bound HRP conjugate is inversely proportional to the androstenedione concentration. Alternative analysis by tandem mass spectrometry (a good first line option for troubleshooting) and repeating the competitive immunoassay after polyethylene glycol treatment returned androstenedione concentrations within reference limits. These findings suggested that the original result was spuriously elevated due to assay interference. Additionally, the patient samples were pre-incubated with heterophile blocking reagents, normal rabbit IgG antibodies and HRP-conjugated normal goat IgG antibodies, followed by repeat measurement using the immunoassay. Only samples pre-incubated with HRP-conjugate returned significantly lower androstenedione (9.5 and 12.5nmol/L, respectively), implying neutralisation of the interfering antibodies. Androstenedione remained grossly elevated in the other experiments. This deductive exercise showed that the interference is due to autoantibodies against the HRP label used in the immunoassay. Another immunoassay using HRP label (5α-dihydrotestosterone) also produced gross elevation that was normal by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Assay interferences, though not uncommon, are frequently overlooked. Laboratory results discordant with clinical features should prompt consideration of assay interference to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment. This is the first report of autoantibodies against the HRP label used in immunoassay.

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A synthetic peptide derived from domain III envelope glycoprotein of Dengue virus induces neutralizing antibody.

Dengue virus (DENV) is an arthropod-borne human pathogen that represents a severe public health threat in both endemic and non-endemic regions. So far, there is no licensed vaccine or specific drugs available for dengue fever. A fifteen-amino-acid-long peptide that includes the NGR motif was chemically synthesized and conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. A standard immunization protocol was followed for the production of polyclonal antibodies by immunizing rabbits against the synthetic peptide. The immune response elicited high-titer polyclonal antibodies with the reactivity of the anti-peptide antibody against both synthetic peptide and four serotypes of DENV confirmed by DOT-ELISA. Neutralizing activity of anti-peptide antibody was found to be cross-reactive and effective resulting in 60% reduction of infectivity at 1:200 dilution in all four serotypes of DENV. Our findings have the potential to further improve our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new insights into neutralizing antibodies and could also be used as a drug target.

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Defining the target and the effect of imatinib on the filarial c-Abl homologue.

Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites.

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Development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for dTMP-GH fusion protein by rational immunogen selection.

dTMP-GH is a chimeric protein containing a tandem dimer of thrombopoietin mimetic peptide (dTMP) fused to human growth hormone (hGH) prepared previously by our team. It shows significant bioactivity in promoting thrombocytopoiesis, but detection of intact dTMP-GH in plasma is still a challenge due to the presence of endogenous hGH. In this study, a rabbit polyclonal antibody with high affinity to dTMP was obtained with a BSA-conjugated immunogen composed of 20 amino acids sequence spanning two TMP and the linker. A monoclonal antibody termed as 3B2 was screened out by using immunizing mice with whole dTMP-GH, which was proved to simultaneously interact with rhGH, TMP-GH, and dTMP-GH, respectively. In this study, we developed a specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with two antibodies (one polyclonal and one HRP-conjugated monoclonal) to quantify dTMP-GH. The polyclonal antibody and HRP-conjugated monoclonal antibody 3B2 were applied as the capture antibody and detection antibody, respectively. A good correlation between ELISA and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay in the quantification of diluted dTMP-GH was observed (r2 = 0.996). Meanwhile, the standard curve of this ELISA method was found in a linear relationship between 0.2 and 10 ng/mL in the presence of rabbit plasma. In vivo experiments demonstrate that the newly developed method is effective to detect dTMP-GH in rabbits, which paves the way for further pharmacokinetic evaluation.

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Development of a tree shrew-specific interferon-gamma assay.

Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) are small squirrel-like mammals closely related to primates. Due to their susceptibility to several human viruses, tree shrews have been proposed as potential animal models for the study of human viral infections. However, there are no standardized assays currently available for the detection of tree shrew-specific interferon (IFN)-γ, a major cytokine secreted during the antiviral immune response. Herein, we developed a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of IFN-γ in tree shrew serum samples. Tree shrew-specific IFN-γ was expressed in Escherichia coli via fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST-TS-IFN-γ) to obtain recombinant IFN-γ. To generate anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibodies, mice were immunized with the GST-TS-IFN-γ recombinant fusion protein, and hybridoma cell lines were established. Similarly, anti-IFN-γ polyclonal antibodies were obtained from immunized rabbits, purified, and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Based on the results obtained from the antibody matching test, we optimized the monoclonal antibody (1:2000) and the HRP-conjugated polyclonal antibody (1:8000) as coating and detection antibodies, respectively. Titration curves were generated with recombinant IFN-γ to develop a sensitive sandwich ELISA; the lowest detection limit of the assay was 20 ng/ml. We also tested mitogen-stimulated tree shrew blood samples in this ELISA, and found significantly higher levels of IFN-γ in the stimulated versus the unstimulated samples. Most importantly, our ELISA system detected native IFN-γ in serum samples from 50 healthy tree shrews. We have thus developed a novel ELISA, and have demonstrated the first ELISA-based measurement of IFN-γ in tree shrew serum samples.

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Custom Immunoassay Develo Rat anti mouse Interferon Mouse Anti-Insulin-Like G Gamma Glutamyl Transferas Rat monoclonal anti mouse Hamster anti mouse Interf Peptoid Ligand Assay Deve Interferon-γ | Interfer Rapid Microplate Assay K Actin, Muscle Specific; Actin, Muscle Specific; PSA (Prostate Specific A

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Development and initial evaluation of a lateral flow dipstick test for antigen detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool sample.

Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml-1. Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml-1. The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.

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A highly specific competitive direct enzyme immunoassay for sterigmatocystin as a tool for rapid immunochemotaxonomic differentiation of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species.

A simplified method to produce specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies against sterigmatocystin (STC) was established, using a STC-glycolic acid-ether derivative (STC-GE) conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (immunogen). The competitive direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA) established for STC had a detection limit (20% binding inhibition) of 130 pg ml-1 . The test was highly specific for STC, with minor cross-reactivity with O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMSTC, 0·87%) and negligible reactivity with aflatoxins (<0·02%). STC-EIA was used in combination with a previously developed specific EIA for aflatoxins (<0·1% cross-reactivity with STC and OMSTC), to study the STC/aflatoxin production profiles of reference strains of Aspergillus species. This immunochemotaxonomic procedure was found to be a convenient tool to identify STC- or aflatoxin-producing strains.

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Immunochromatographic detection of the heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with cross-detection of cholera toxin.

Here, we report the development of an immunochromatographic test strip that can detect heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Five types of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-producing hybridomas were isolated: three mAbs were A subunit specific and two were B subunit specific. Four mAbs also cross-reacted with both LT proteins derived from swine and human E. coli strains, but only one mAb 57B9 additionally cross-reacted with cholera toxin. Thus, mAb 57B9 was used to form a gold colloid-conjugated antibody for the immunochromatographic test by combination with polyclonal anti-LT rabbit IgG. This test strip detected not only LT in the culture supernatant of LT gene-positive strains, but also cholera toxin in the culture supernatant of Vibrio cholerae. These results indicate that this test strip is suitable for the diagnosis of both enterotoxigenic E. coli and V. cholerae infection.

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