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#26443823   2016/02/02 Save this To Up

Imaging rhodopsin degeneration in vivo in a new model of ocular ischemia in living mice.

Delivery of antibodies to monitor key biomarkers of retinopathy in vivo represents a significant challenge because living cells do not take up immunoglobulins to cellular antigens. We met this challenge by developing novel contrast agents for retinopathy, which we used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Biotinylated rabbit polyclonal to chick IgY (rIgPxcIgY) and phosphorylthioate-modified oligoDNA (sODN) with random sequence (bio-sODN-Ran) were conjugated with NeutrAvidin-activated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The resulting Ran-SPION-rIgPxcIgY carries chick polyclonal to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) as Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2, or to rhodopsin (Rho) as anti-Rho-SPION-Ran. We examined the uptake of Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 or SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 in normal C57black6 mice (n = 3 each, 40 μg/kg, i.c.v.); we found retention of Ran-SPION-rIgP/cIgY-MAP2 using molecular contrast-enhanced MRI in vivo and validated neuronal uptake using Cy5-goat IgPxcIgY ex vivo. Applying this novel method to monitor retinopathy in a bilateral carotid artery occlusion-induced ocular ischemia, we observed pericytes (at d 2, using Gd-nestin, by eyedrop solution), significant photoreceptor degeneration (at d 20, using anti-Rho-SPION-Ran, eyedrops, P = 0.03, Student's t test), and gliosis in Müller cells (at 6 mo, using SPION-glial fibrillary acidic protein administered by intraperitoneal injection) in surviving mice (n ≥ 5). Molecular contrast-enhanced MRI results were confirmed by optical and electron microscopy. We conclude that chimera and molecular contrast-enhanced MRI provide sufficient sensitivity for monitoring retinopathy and for theranostic applications.

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#15020090   2004/03/15 Save this To Up

Dual enhancement of triple immunofluorescence using two antibodies from the same species.

Triple immunofluorescence method with two mouse monoclonal antibodies and another rabbit polyclonal antibody was established with catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD) amplification on thick floating sections from the rat cerebellum. One of the monoclonal antibodies (anti-calbindin), diluted maximally, probed with anti-mouse IgG-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and amplified with Cy5-conjugated tyramide, immunolabeled cerebellar Purkinje cells and their arborization. Subsequently, a rabbit polyclonal IgG (anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP)), probed with anti-rabbit IgG-HRP, amplified with biotin-tyramide and visualized with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-streptavidin, immunolabeled Bergmann's glia. Another mouse monoclonal IgG (anti-SNAP25), probed with anti-mouse IgG-rhodamine without CARD amplification, selectively visualized synaptic sites, because the maximal dilution of the other monoclonal antibody (anti-calbindin) was below the detection threshold of this anti-mouse IgG-rhodamine. Separation of the two signals (calbindin and SNAP25), each detected through mouse monoclonal antibody, was then based on the difference of sensitivity either with or without CARD amplification. Triple immunofluorescence is possible when just one of the three primary antibodies is from different species. Intensification of two of the three signals provides further advantages to examine immunolocalization of multiple epitopes on histological sections.

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