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#28316975   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Role of Estrogens in the Size of Neuronal Somata of Paravaginal Ganglia in Ovariectomized Rabbits.

We aimed to determine the role of estrogens in modulating the size of neuronal somata of paravaginal ganglia. Rabbits were allocated into control (C), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX treated with estradiol benzoate (OVX + EB) groups to evaluate the neuronal soma area; total serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels; the percentage of immunoreactive (ir) neurons anti-aromatase, anti-estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ) and anti-androgen receptor (AR); the intensity of the immunostaining anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the GDNF family receptor alpha type 1 (GFRα1); and the number of satellite glial cells (SGCs) per neuron. There was a decrease in the neuronal soma size for the OVX group, which was associated with low T, high percentages of aromatase-ir and neuritic AR-ir neurons, and a strong immunostaining anti-GDNF and anti-GFRα1. The decrease in the neuronal soma size was prevented by the EB treatment that increased the E2 without affecting the T levels. Moreover, there was a high percentage of neuritic AR-ir neurons, a strong GDNF immunostaining in the SGC, and an increase in the SGCs per neuron. Present findings show that estrogens modulate the soma size of neurons of the paravaginal ganglia, likely involving the participation of the SGC.

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#27611647   2016/09/09 Save this To Up

Immunohistochemical Localization of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor in the Cyclic Gilt Ovary.

Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a specific membrane receptor on the granulosa and theca cells that bind to luteinizing hormone (LH), resulting in androgen and progesterone production. Hence, the regulation of LHR expression is necessary for follicle maturation, ovulation and corpus luteum formation. We examined the immunolocalization of LHR in cyclic gilt ovaries. The ovaries were obtained from 21 gilts aged 326.0 ± 38.7 days and weighing 154.6 ± 15.7 kg. The ovarian tissues were incubated with rabbit anti-LHR polyclonal antibody. The follicles were categorized as primordial, primary, preantral and antral follicles. Ovarian phase was categorized as either follicular or luteal phases. The immunolocalization of LHR was clearly expressed in primary, preantral and antral follicles. LHR immunostaining was detected in the cytoplasm of granulosa, theca interna and luteal cells. LHR immunostaining was evaluated using imaging software. LHR immunostaining in the theca interna cells in antral follicles was almost twice as intense as that in preantral follicles (65.4% versus 38.3%, P < 0.01). LHR immunostaining was higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase (58.6% versus 45.2%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the expression of LHR in the theca interna cells of antral follicles in the follicular phase was higher than in the luteal phase. The expression of LHR in all types of the follicles indicates that LHR may impact follicular development from the primary follicle stage onwards.

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#26073023   2015/08/10 Save this To Up

Pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel, highly potent and selective non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In the radioligand-binding assay, CS-3150 inhibited (3)H-aldosterone binding to mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 9.4nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 36 and 713nM, respectively. CS-3150 also showed at least 1000-fold higher selectivity for mineralocorticoid receptor over other steroid hormone receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor. In the reporter gene assay, CS-3150 inhibited aldosterone-induced transcriptional activation of human mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 3.7nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 66 and 970nM, respectively. CS-3150 had no agonistic effect on mineralocorticoid receptor and did not show any antagonistic or agonistic effect on glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor even at the high concentration of 5μM. In adrenalectomized rats, single oral administration of CS-3150 suppressed aldosterone-induced decrease in urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio, an index of in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and this suppressive effect was more potent and longer-lasting than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. Chronic treatment with CS-3150 inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-loading to rats, and this antihypertensive effect was more potent than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. These findings indicate that CS-3150 is a selective and highly potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with long-lasting oral activity. This agent could be useful for the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders.

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#25461902   2015/06/23 Save this To Up

Structural features of endocrine active chemicals--A comparison of in vivo and in vitro data.

Studies on reproductive toxicity need high numbers of test animals. Therefore, we investigated whether chemical structural features (SF) in combination with in vitro data on specific adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) may be used for predicting reproductive toxicity of untested chemicals. Using the OECD Toolbox and expert judgment, we identified 89 structure groups for 275 chemicals for which the results of prenatal developmental toxicity or multigeneration studies were present in the Fraunhofer database on Fertility and Developmental Toxicity in experimental animals (FeDTex) database. Likewise, we evaluated 220 chemicals which had been tested in reporter gene assays on endocrine ((anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic) properties in the CALUX(®) test battery. There was a large spread of effect levels for substances within the chemical structure groups for both, in vivo and in vitro results. The groups of highest concern (diphenyl derivatives, planar conjugated systems with fused rings, phenols and organophosphates) correlated quite well, however, between the in vivo and in vitro data on estrogenic activity. For the 56 chemicals represented in both databases, lowest effect doses in vivo correlated well with the estrogenic activity in vitro. These results suggest that a panel of assays covering relevant AOPs and data on metabolism and toxicokinetics may allow prediction of relative reproductive or development toxicity potency within the identified chemical structure groups.

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#23045189   2012/11/12 Save this To Up

Testosterone treatment improves metabolic syndrome-induced adipose tissue derangements.

We recently demonstrated that testosterone dosing ameliorated the metabolic profile and reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced rabbit model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the effects of HFD and in vivo testosterone dosing on VAT function and the adipogenic capacity of rabbit preadipocytes isolated from VAT of regular diet (RD), HFD, and testosterone-treated HFD rabbits. VAT was studied by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR. Isolated rPADs were exposed to adipocyte differentiating mixture (DIM) to evaluate adipogenic potential. Adipocyte size was significantly increased in HFD VAT compared with RD, indicating adipocyte dysfunction, which was normalized by testosterone dosing. Accordingly, perilipin, an anti-lipolytic protein, was significantly increased in HFD VAT, when compared with other groups. HFD VAT was hypoxic, while testosterone dosing normalized VAT oxygenation. In VAT, androgen receptor expression was positively associated with mRNA expression of GLUT4 (SLC2A4) (insulin-regulated glucose transporter) and STAMP2 (STEAP4) (androgen-dependent gene required for insulin signaling). In testosterone-treated HFD VAT, STAMP2 mRNA was significantly increased when compared with the other groups. Moreover, GLUT4 membrane translocation was significantly reduced in HFD VAT, compared with RD, and increased by testosterone. In DIM-exposed preadipocytes from HFD, triglyceride accumulation, adipocyte-specific genes, insulin-stimulated triglyceride synthesis, glucose uptake, and GLUT4 membrane translocation were reduced compared with preadipocytes from RD and normalized by in vivo testosterone dosing. In conclusion, testosterone dosing in a MetS animal model positively affects VAT functions. This could reflect the ability of testosterone in restoring insulin sensitivity in VAT, thus counteracting metabolic alterations.

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#22791158   2012/07/13 Save this To Up

The novel non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator S-101479 has additive effects with bisphosphonate, selective estrogen receptor modulator, and parathyroid hormone on the bones of osteoporotic female rats.

We have studied non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) to develop anti-osteoporosis drugs for males and females. Many SARMs have been studied for their anabolic effects on bone or muscle with reduced virilizing effects in male animals. However, the tissue selectivities of these agents in female animals have not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the novel SARM S-101479 from tetrahydroquinoline libraries in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. S-101479 preferentially bound to the androgen receptor with nanomolar affinity among nuclear receptors. It increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of femurs and diminished the effects on the uterus and clitoral gland in OVX rats. We then compared the effect of S-101479 on bone with those of commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs such as alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of combination treatments with these agents in OVX rats. After 16-week treatment, all agents significantly increased BMD, but the magnitude of bone mineral content (BMC) and/or bone size (projected bone area) were different. Alendronate, raloxifene, and teriparatide maintained BMC and bone size in this experimental dose. Only S-101479 increased BMC with bone size on single treatments. In combination treatment, S-101479 significantly increased BMC and bone size compared with single treatments of other agents. S-101479, like natural androgen, may have showed periosteal bone formation of the cortical area and indicated additive effects with commercial anti-osteoporosis drugs. These results indicate that S-101479 may be a useful anti-osteoporosis drug, particularly for patients with established severe osteoporosis.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen Rabbit anti Androgen Rece Recombinant Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph

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#22597534   2012/06/25 Save this To Up

Dihydrotestosterone inhibits lectin-like oxidized-LDL receptor-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells via a NF-κB/AP-1-mediated mechanism.

The mechanisms involved in the antiatherosclerotic effects of androgens are unclear. Although lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in endothelial cells plays critical roles in atherosclerosis, the effects of androgens on endothelial LOX-1 expression has not been examined. Therefore, to investigate the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on LOX-1 expression in rabbit aortic endothelial cells and cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), pellets containing DHT or placebo were s.c. implanted into 26 male New Zealand white rabbits at the time of castration or sham operation. The rabbits were then fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 2 wk. Microscopic examination of the aortic arch revealed that DHT significantly reduced HCD-induced LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells compared with placebo. In cultured HAEC, DHT at concentrations above 10(-9) to 10(-7) mol/liter inhibited TNFα-induced LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression. Deletion and mutation analysis of human LOX-1 promoter-luciferase constructs transfected into HAEC with an androgen receptor (AR) expression plasmid revealed that the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) response element (TRE; nucleotides -60/-53) contributed to the inhibitory effects of DHT on TNFα-induced LOX-1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and re-ChIP assays revealed that TNFα- and TPA-dependent enrichment of p65 and phosphorylated c-Jun in the TRE chromatin region was inhibited by DHT-AR. Consistent with these results, DHT also suppressed TPA-induced expression of LOX-1. In conclusion, DHT exerts antiatherosclerotic effects by suppressing endothelial LOX-1 expression. This effect is partly mediated by the suppression of nuclear factor-κB- and activator protein 1-dependent activation of the LOX-1 promoter.

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#21771269   2011/07/20 Save this To Up

The effects of testosterone on craniosynostotic calvarial cells: a test of the gene/environmental model of craniofacial anomalies.

The gene-environmental interaction model for craniofacial development proposes that if a genetic predisposition for an anomaly is coupled with an environmental factor that can exacerbate this predisposition, more severe phenotypes will result. Here, we utilize cells derived from our non-syndromic rabbit model of craniosynostosis to test the hypothesis that an insult, testosterone (TP) administration (exogenous source) will alter the osteogenic activity of these cells.

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#21497463   2011/06/13 Save this To Up

Immunolocalization of estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta and androgen receptor in the pre-, peri- and post-pubertal stallion testis.

In various species, androgens and estrogens regulate the function of testicular Leydig, Sertoli, peritubular myoid, and germ cells by binding to their respective receptors and eliciting a cellular response. Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cells, Leydig cells and perivascular smooth muscle cells in the testis depending on the species, but its presence in germ cells remains controversial. Two different estrogen receptors have been identified, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), and their localization and function in testicular cells varies depending on the species, developmental stage of the cell and type of receptor. The localization of AR in an immature and mature stallion has been reported but estrogen receptors have only been reported for the mature stallion. In the present study, the localizations of AR and ERα/ERβ were investigated in pre-pubertal, peri-pubertal and post-pubertal stallions. Testes were collected by routine castration from 21 horses, of light horse breeds (3 months-27 years). Animals were divided into the following age groups: pre-pubertal (3-11 months; n=7), peri-pubertal (12-23 months; n=7) and post-pubertal (2-27 years; n=7). Testicular tissue samples were fixed and embedded, and the presence of AR, ERα and ERβ was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using procedures previously validated for the horse. Primary antibodies used were rabbit anti-human AR, mouse anti-human ERβ and rabbit anti-mouse ERα. Sections of each region were incubated with normal rabbit serum (NRS; AR and ERα) or mouse IgG (ERβ) instead of primary antibody to generate negative controls. Androgen receptors were localized in Leydig, Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells of all ages. Estrogen receptor alpha was localized in Leydig and germ cells of all ages but only in pre- and peri-pubertal Sertoli cells and post-pubertal peritubular myoid cells. Estrogen receptor beta was localized in Leydig and Sertoli cells of all ages but in only pre-pubertal germ cells and absent in peritubular myoid cells of all ages. Taken together, the data suggest that estrogen regulates steroidogenesis by acting through ERα and ERβ in the Leydig cells and promotes gametogenesis by acting through ERβ in the Sertoli cells and ERα in the germ cells. In contrast androgen receptors are not found in germ cells throughout development and thus are likely to support spermatogenesis by way of a paracrine/autocrine pathway via its receptors in Leydig, Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells.

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#21185853   2011/02/07 Save this To Up

The mitogenic effect of testosterone and 17β-estradiol on airway smooth muscle cells.

Airway disease distribution and/or severity exhibit sex differences suggesting that sex hormones are involved in the respiratory system physiology and pathophysiology. The implication of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in the physiology of the airways and the pathogenetic mechanism of airway remodeling is of great interest. Therefore, we studied the effect of testosterone and 17β-estradiol on ASMC proliferation and the mechanisms involved. Cell proliferation was estimated using the methyl-[³H]thymidine incorporation and Cell Titer 96® AQueous One Solution Assay methods. ASMC isolated from adult male or female rabbit trachea were incubated with testosterone (1 pM-1 μM) or 17β-estradiol (1 pM-1 μM), in the presence or absence of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 nM) or estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 (10 nM), as well as of the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 (20 μM) or wortmannin (1 μM), or the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (100 μM) or U0126 (1 μM). After 24 h of incubation, testosterone and 17β-estradiol increased methyl-[³H]thymidine incorporation and cell number, in ASMC isolated from male or female animals. The induction of ASMC proliferation by testosterone or 17β-estradiol was inhibited by flutamide or ICI182780 respectively, as well as by LY294002, wortmannin, PD98059 or U0126. In conclusion, testosterone and 17β-estradiol have a mitogenic effect on ASMC, which is receptor-mediated and involves the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways. Moreover, their effect is the same for ASMC from male and female animals. It is possible that gender-related differences in ASMC remodeling, may be influenced by the different patterns of sex steroid hormone secretion in males and females.

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