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#27324778   2016/08/23 Save this To Up

In Vitro and In Vivo Assessments of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline.

Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes and atypical bacterial pathogens. A series of nonclinical studies, including mammalian pharmacologic receptor binding studies, human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel binding studies, studies of the effects on ex vivo sinoatrial (SA) node activity, and studies of in vivo effects on cardiovascular function in the cynomolgus monkey, was undertaken to assess the cardiovascular risk potential. Omadacycline was found to bind almost exclusively to the muscarinic subtype 2 acetylcholine receptor (M2), and in the SA node model it antagonized the effect of a pan-muscarinic agonist (carbamylcholine) in a concentration-dependent manner. Omadacycline exhibited no effect on hERG channel activity at 100 μg/ml (179.5 μM), with a 25% inhibitory concentration of 166 μg/ml (298.0 μM). Omadacycline had no effect on QTc in conscious monkeys at doses up to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Overall, omadacycline appears to attenuate the parasympathetic influence on the heart rate but has a low potential to induce cardiac arrhythmia or to have clinically significant cardiovascular toxicity.

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#25081016   2014/08/14 Save this To Up

Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity--detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in the serum and CSF of subpopulations of patients with a kaleidoscope of human neurological diseases, can undoubtedly do so too, by inducing several very potent pathological effects in the CNS. Collectively, the family of anti-glutamate receptor autoimmune antibodies seem to be the most widespread, potent, dangerous and interesting anti-brain autoimmune antibodies discovered up to now. This impression stems from taking together the presence of various types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies in a kaleidoscope of human neurological and autoimmune diseases, their high levels in the CNS due to intrathecal production, their multiple pathological effects in the brain, and the unique and diverse mechanisms of action by which they can affect glutamate receptors, signaling and effects, and subsequently impair neuronal signaling and induce brain damage. The two main families of autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies that were already found in patients with neurological and/or autoimmune diseases, and that were already shown to be detrimental to the CNS, include the antibodies directed against ionotorpic glutamate receptors: the anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies and anti-NMDA-NR2 antibodies, and the antibodies directed against Metabotropic glutamate receptors: the anti-mGluR1 antibodies and the anti-mGluR5 antibodies. Each type of these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is discussed separately in this very comprehensive review, with regards to: the human diseases in which these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies were found thus far, their presence and production in the nervous system, their association with various psychiatric/behavioral/cognitive/motor impairments, their possible association with certain infectious organisms, their detrimental effects in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models in mice, rats or rabbits, and their diverse and unique mechanisms of action. The review also covers the very encouraging positive responses to immunotherapy of some patients that have either of the above-mentioned anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, and that suffer from various neurological diseases/problems. All the above are also summarized in the review's five schematic and useful figures, for each type of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies separately. The review ends with a summary of all the main findings, and with recommended guidelines for diagnosis, therapy, drug design and future investigations. In the nut shell, the human studies, the in vitro studies, as well as the in vivo studies in animal models in mice, rats and rabbit revealed the following findings regarding the five different types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: (1) Anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies are present in ~25-30% of patients with different types of Epilepsy. When these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies (or other types of autoimmune antibodies) are found in Epilepsy patients, and when these autoimmune antibodies are suspected to induce or aggravate the seizures and/or the cognitive/psychiatric/behavioral impairments that sometimes accompany the seizures, the Epilepsy is called 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. In some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies associate significantly with psychiatric/cognitive/behavior abnormalities. In vitro and/or in animal models, the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies by themselves induce many pathological effects: they activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, kill neurons by 'Excitotoxicity', and/or by complement activation modulated by complement regulatory proteins, cause multiple brain damage, aggravate chemoconvulsant-induced seizures, and also induce behavioral/motor impairments. Some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' that have anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies respond well (although sometimes transiently) to immunotherapy, and thanks to that have reduced seizures and overall improved neurological functions. (2) Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are present in patients with autoimmune 'Anti-NMDA-receptor Encephalitis'. In humans, in animal models and in vitro the anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies can be very pathogenic since they can cause a pronounced decrease of surface NMDA receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons, and also decrease the cluster density and synaptic localization of the NMDA receptors. The anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies induce these effects by crosslinking and internalization of the NMDA receptors. Such changes can impair glutamate signaling via the NMDA receptors and lead to various neuronal/behavior/cognitive/psychiatric abnormalities. Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are frequently present in high levels in the CSF of the patients with 'Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis' due to their intrathecal production. Many patients with 'Anti-NMDA receptor Encephalitis' respond well to several modes of immunotherapy. (3) Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are present in a substantial number of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with or without neuropsychiatric problems. The exact percentage of SLE patients having anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies varies in different studies from 14 to 35%, and in one study such antibodies were found in 81% of patients with diffuse 'Neuropshychiatric SLE', and in 44% of patients with focal 'Neuropshychiatric SLE'. Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are also present in subpopulations of patients with Epilepsy of several types, Encephalitis of several types (e.g., chronic progressive limbic Encephalitis, Paraneoplastic Encephalitis or Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis), Schizophrenia, Mania, Stroke, or Sjorgen syndrome. In some patients, the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are present in both the serum and the CSF. Some of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies cross-react with dsDNA, while others do not. Some of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies associate with neuropsychiatric/cognitive/behavior/mood impairments in SLE patients, while others do not. The anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies can undoubtedly be very pathogenic, since they can kill neurons by activating NMDA receptors and inducing 'Excitotoxicity', damage the brain, cause dramatic decrease of membranal NMDA receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons, and also induce behavioral cognitive impairments in animal models. Yet, the concentration of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies seems to determine if they have positive or negative effects on the activity of glutamate receptors and on the survival of neurons. Thus, at low concentration, the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies were found to be positive modulators of receptor function and increase the size of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials, whereas at high concentration they are pathogenic as they promote 'Excitotoxcity' through enhanced mitochondrial permeability transition. (4) Anti-mGluR1 antibodies were found thus far in very few patients with Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Ataxia, and in these patients they are produced intrathecally and therefore present in much higher levels in the CSF than in the serum. The anti-mGluR1 antibodies can be very pathogenic in the brain since they can reduce the basal neuronal activity, block the induction of long-term depression of Purkinje cells, and altogether cause cerebellar motor coordination deficits by a combination of rapid effects on both the acute and the plastic responses of Purkinje cells, and by chronic degenerative effects. Strikingly, within 30 min after injection of anti-mGluR1 antibodies into the brain of mice, the mice became ataxic. Anti-mGluR1 antibodies derived from patients with Ataxia also caused disturbance of eye movements in animal models. Immunotherapy can be very effective for some Cerebellar Ataxia patients that have anti-mGluR1 antibodies. (5) Anti-mGluR5 antibodies were found thus far in the serum and CSF of very few patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and Limbic Encephalopathy (Ophelia syndrome). The sera of these patients that contained anti-GluR5 antibodies reacted with the neuropil of the hippocampus and cell surface of live rat hippocampal neurons, and immunoprecipitation from cultured neurons and mass spectrometry demonstrated that the antigen was indeed mGluR5. Taken together, all these evidences show that anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are much more frequent among various neurological diseases than ever realized before, and that they are very detrimental to the nervous system. As such, they call for diagnosis, therapeutic removal or silencing and future studies. What we have learned by now about the broad family of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is so exciting, novel, unique and important, that it makes all future efforts worthy and essential.

2808 related Products with: Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

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#22323713   2012/02/10 Save this To Up

Cracking down on inhibition: selective removal of GABAergic interneurons from hippocampal networks.

Inhibitory (GABAergic) interneurons entrain assemblies of excitatory principal neurons to orchestrate information processing in the hippocampus. Disrupting the dynamic recruitment as well as the temporally precise activity of interneurons in hippocampal circuitries can manifest in epileptiform seizures, and impact specific behavioral traits. Despite the importance of GABAergic interneurons during information encoding in the brain, experimental tools to selectively manipulate GABAergic neurotransmission are limited. Here, we report the selective elimination of GABAergic interneurons by a ribosome inactivation approach through delivery of saporin-conjugated anti-vesicular GABA transporter antibodies (SAVAs) in vitro as well as in the mouse and rat hippocampus in vivo. We demonstrate the selective loss of GABAergic--but not glutamatergic--synapses, reduced GABA release, and a shift in excitation/inhibition balance in mixed cultures of hippocampal neurons exposed to SAVAs. We also show the focal and indiscriminate loss of calbindin(+), calretinin(+), parvalbumin/system A transporter 1(+), somatostatin(+), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3)/cholecystokinin/CB(1) cannabinoid receptor(+) and neuropeptide Y(+) local-circuit interneurons upon SAVA microlesions to the CA1 subfield of the rodent hippocampus, with interneuron debris phagocytosed by infiltrating microglia. SAVA microlesions did not affect VGLUT1(+) excitatory afferents. Yet SAVA-induced rearrangement of the hippocampal circuitry triggered network hyperexcitability associated with the progressive loss of CA1 pyramidal cells and the dispersion of dentate granule cells. Overall, our data identify SAVAs as an effective tool to eliminate GABAergic neurons from neuronal circuits underpinning high-order behaviors and cognition, and whose manipulation can recapitulate pathogenic cascades of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric illnesses.

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#19545523   2009/11/03 Save this To Up

Toxoplasma gondii: proteomic analysis of antigenicity of soluble tachyzoite antigen.

The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen of humans and animals. The tachyzoite of T. gondii is the main life-cycle stage that is responsible for toxoplasmosis. Study of the antigenicity of soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg) is important for discovery of protective antigens which will aid in the detection and prevention of toxoplasmosis. At present, no complete proteome map of T. gondii STAg is established, although a large-scale whole proteomic analysis of tachyzoites is underway. In this study, 1227 protein spots of T. gondii soluble tachyzoite antigen (STAg) were fractionated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) at pH range 3-10. By mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, among the separated 1227 protein spots, 426 were identified by searching the Swissport and NCBI nr databases. Two hundred and thirty of these identified spots (230/426, 54%) were demonstrated to be T. gondii protein by MS. Of the 21 Toxoplasma protein spots identified by Western blot with rabbit anti-T. gondii serum, 16 had immunoregulatory functions and five had immune defense functions. Due to multiple spots for a single protein, these 16 spots represented 11 proteins: a putative protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), a pyruvate kinase (PK), a putative glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), a coronin, a heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protein kinase C receptor 1 (RACK1), a malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a major surface antigen 1 (SAG1), an uridine phosphorylase (UPase) and a peroxiredoxin (Prx). Among the identified 11 proteins, except that the antigenicity and immunogenicity of the SAG1 has been reported and antigenicity of Hsp70 has been disputed, the remaining antigenic proteins were first identified in this study. In conclusion, we obtained nine novel types of immunogenic proteins that might be potential candidates of vaccine development for toxoplasmosis, which we will confirm in later studies.

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#18598260   2008/07/07 Save this To Up

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is involved in central sensitization in the spinal cord through GluR2 subunit composition switch after inflammation.

Central sensitization, similar to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, refers to the increased synaptic efficacy established in somatosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord following tissue injury or nerve damage. In the course of inflammation, many proteins including glutamate receptors are assumed to be dynamically reorganized in the postsynaptic density (PSD) and involved in persistent pain. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was inhibited at 4 h, but not at 24 h, by indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostanoid synthesis. To elucidate the nature of the molecule(s) involved in the late phase of inflammatory pain, we analysed the PSD fraction prepared from the lumbar spinal cord of rats before and 24 h after CFA injection by conducting two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) was identified as a downregulated protein in the PSD by MALDI-TOF MS and immunoblotting. Concomitant with the decrease in NSF, GluR2 and GluR3 were decreased and GluR1 was conversely increased in the PSD fraction 24 h after CFA injection. In vivo patch-clamp recordings of rats 24 h after CFA injection showed that excitatory postsynaptic currents of dorsal horn neurons evoked by pinch stimuli to inflamed skin were inwardly rectified and inhibited by 60% by philanthotoxin-433, a selective inhibitor of the Ca2+-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. These results suggest that peripheral inflammation gives rise to central sensitization in the spinal cord through subunit composition switch of AMPA receptors in the late phase.

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#17460149   2007/06/20 Save this To Up

sigma(2)-receptor ligand-mediated inhibition of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels in the heart.

The sigma(2)-receptor agonist, ifenprodil, was suggested as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Nevertheless, an analysis of the role of sigma(2) receptors in cardiac electrophysiology has never been done. This work aims i) to identify the roles of cardiac sigma(2) receptors in the regulation of cardiac K(+) channel conductances and ii) to check whether sigma(2)-receptor agonists exhibit class III antiarrhythmic properties. The sigma(2)-receptor agonists ifenprodil, threo-ifenprodil, LNP250A [threo-8-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-hydroxy-propan-2-yl]-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decane-4-one] (a derivative of ifenprodil devoid of alpha(1)-adrenergic and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-blocking properties), and 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine were used to discriminate the effects linked to sigma(2) receptors from those of the sigma(1) subtype, induced by (+/-)-N-allylnormetazocine (SKF-10,047). The sigma(2)-receptor antagonist 3-alpha-tropanyl-2(pCl-phenoxy)butyrate (SM-21) was employed to characterize sigma(2)-mediated effects in patch-clamp experiments. In rabbits, all sigma(2)-receptor agonists reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac arrhythmias. They prolonged action potential duration in rabbit Purkinje fibers and reduced human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) K(+) currents. (+)-SKF-10,047 was completely inactive in the last two tests. The effects of threo-ifenprodil were not antagonized by SM-21. In HERG-transfected COS-7 cells, SM-21 potentiated the ifenprodil-induced blockade of the HERG current. These data suggest that sigma(2)-receptor ligands block I(Kr) and that this effect could explain part of the antiarrhythmic properties of this ligands family. Nevertheless, an interaction with HERG channels not involving sigma(2) receptors seems to share this pharmacological property. This work shows for the first time that particular caution has to be taken toward ligands with affinity for sigma(2) receptors. The repolarization prolongation and the early-afterdepolarization can be responsible for "torsades de pointe" and sudden cardiac death.

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#17341844   2007/03/23 Save this To Up

Aspirin may exert its antipyresis by inhibiting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent hydroxyl radical pathways in the hypothalamus.

Recent findings have suggested that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent hydroxyl radical pathway in the hypothalamus of rabbit brain may mediate the fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aspirin exerts its antipyresis by suppressing hypothalamic glutamate and hydroxyl radicals in rabbits. The microdialysis probes were stereotaxically and chronically implanted into the preoptic anterior hypothalamus of rabbit brain for determination of both glutamate and hydroxyl radicals in situ. It was found that intravenous (i.v.) injection of LPS, in addition to inducing fever, caused increased levels of both glutamate and hydroxyl radicals in the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with aspirin (10 - 60 mg/kg, i.v.) one hour before an i.v. dose of LPS significantly reduced the febrile response and attenuated the LPS-induced increased levels of both glutamate and hydroxyl radicals in the hypothalamus. The increased levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the hypothalamus induced by LPS could be suppressed by aspirin pretreatment. The data indicate that systemic administration of aspirin, in addition to suppressing PGE(2) production, may exert its antipyresis by inhibiting the NMDA receptor-dependent hydroxyl radical pathways in the hypothalamus during LPS fever.

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#15140557   2004/05/13 Save this To Up

Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2/3-immunoreactive neurons in the cat, rabbit, and hamster superficial superior colliculus.

Ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) subtypes occur in various types of cells in the central nervous system. We studied the distribution of AMPA glutamate receptor subtype GluR2/3 in the superficial layers of cat, rabbit, and hamster superior colliculus (SC) with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on this distribution. Furthermore, we compared this labeling to that of calbindin D28K and parvalbumin. Anti-GluR2/3-immunoreactive (IR) cells formed a dense band of labeled cells within the lower superficial gray layer (SGL) and upper optic layer (OL) in the cat SC. By contrast, GluR2/3-IR cells formed a dense band within the upper OL in the rabbit and within the OL in the hamster SC. Calbindin D28K-IR cells are located in three layers in the SC: one within the zonal layer (ZL) and the upper SGL in all three animals, a second within the lower OL and upper IGL in the cat, within the IGL in the rabbit and within the OL in the hamster, and a third within the deep gray layer (DGL) in all three animals. Many parvalbumin-IR neurons were found within the lower SGL and upper OL. Thus, the GluR2/3-IR band was sandwiched between the first and second layers of calbindin D28K-IR cells in the cat and rabbit SC while the distribution of GluR2/3-IR cells in the hamster matches the second layer of calbindin D28K-IR cells. The patterned distribution of GluR2/3-IR cells overlapped the tier of parvalbumin-IR neurons in cat, but only partially overlapped in hamster and rabbit. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that more than half (55.1%) of the GluR2/3-IR cells in the hamster SC expressed calbindin D28K. By contrast, only 9.9% of GluR2/3-IR cells expressed calbindin D28K in the cat. Double-labeled cells were not found in the rabbit SC. Some (4.8%) GluR2/3-IR cells in the cat SC also expressed parvalbumin, while no GluR2/3-IR cells in rabbit and hamster SC expressed parvalbumin. In this dense band of GluR2/3, the majority of labeled cells were small to medium-sized round/oval or stellate cells. Immunoreactivity for the GluR2/3 was clearly reduced in the contralateral SC following unilateral enucleation in the hamster. By contrast, enucleation appeared to have had no effect on the GluR2/3 immunoreactivity in the cat and rabbit SC. The results indicate that neurons in the mammalian SC express GluR2/3 in specific layers, which does not correlate with the expression of calbindin D28K and parvalbumin among the animals.

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#14712507   2004/01/08 Save this To Up

[Surface expression and co-localization of NMDA receptor and AMPA receptor on dendritic tree of hippocampal neurons in culture].

To investigate the developmental profiles on surface expression and co-localization of NMDA receptor clusters and AMPA receptor clusters on dendrite in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats.

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#12840843   2003/07/04 Save this To Up

Coexistence of immune-neuro-endocrine substances in the rat central neurons.

To investigate the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2), metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit 1 (mGluR1) and estrogen receptor (ER) in neurons of the rat central nervous system (CNS) and identify the coexistence possibility of these immune-neuro-endocrine substances in the central neurons, the tri-labeling immunocytochemical technique with different species-specific primary antibodies (goat anti-IL-2 antibody, rabbit anti-mGluR1 antibody and mouse anti-ER antibody) were used to incubate two serial neighbor sections (one for demonstrating IL-2, another for mGluR1 and ER) of the cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. There were IL-2-, mGluR1- and ER-immunoreactivity (IR)-positive labeled neurons in the above-mentioned central areas. The IL-2-IR production showed brown color, located in the cytoplasm; In the neighbor serial section, the mGluR1-IR, production showed blue-black color, located on the cell membrane; the ER-IR production also showed brown color, located in the cytoplasm and nuclei. There were mGluR1/ER double-labeled cells in the same section, which accounted for about 50%-60% of the total single and double labeled neurons. It was identified by projection check of serial neighbor sections that had mGluR1/ER/IL-2 tri-labeled cells, which accounted for about 30% of total mGluR1/ER double-labeled neurons. The results indicate that mGluR1, ER and Il-2 can coexist in the same rat central neurons, therefore, providing morphological basis for the theory about immune-neuro-endocrine network at the cellular level for the first time.

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