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#28984208   2017/10/06 Save this To Up

Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases of kidney cancer in the United States, and 14,240 patients will die from the disease. Because the incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the most common type of kidney cancer, is expected to continue to increase in the US, there is an urgent need to find effective diagnostic biomarkers for KIRC that could help earlier detection of and customized treatment strategies for the disease. Accordingly, in this study we systematically investigated KIRC's prognostic biomarkers for survival using the reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and the high throughput sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

2824 related Products with: Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

Kidney clear cell carcino Kidney clear cell carcino Kidney clear cell carcino Kidney clear cell carcino Kidney multiple cancer ti Kidney cancer tissue arra Kidney cancer tissue arra Tissue array of kidney cl Mid advanced stage kidney Kidney cancer tissue arra Small cell lung carcinoma Non small cell lung carci

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#28969073   2017/10/03 Save this To Up

γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 protein foci changes in mesenchymal stem cells during prolonged X-ray irradiation.

At high exposure levels ionizing radiation is a carcinogen. Little is known about how human stem cells, which are known to contribute to tumorigenesis, respond to prolonged radiation exposures. We studied formation of DNA double strand breaks, accessed as γH2AX and 53BP1 foci, in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to either acute (5400 mGy/h) or prolonged (270 mGy/h) X-irradiation. We show a linear γH2AX and 53BP1 dose response for acute exposures. In contrast, prolonged exposure resulted in a dose-response curve that had an initial linear portion followed by a plateau. Analysis of Rad51 foci, as a marker of homologous recombination, in cells exposed to prolonged irradiation revealed a threshold in a dose response. Using Ki67 as a marker of proliferating cells, we show no difference in the γH2AX distribution in proliferating vs. quiescent cells. However, Rad51 foci were found almost exclusively in proliferating cells. Concurrent increases in the fraction of S/G2 cells were detected in cells exposed to prolonged irradiation by scoring CENPF-positive cells. Our data suggest that prolonged exposure of MSCs to ionizing radiation leads to cell cycle redistribution and associated activation of homologous recombination. Also, proliferation status may significantly affect the biological outcome, since homologous repair is not activated in resting MSCs.

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Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula RAD51 & CASP3 Protein Pro Octyl â D 1 thioglucopyr Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell HIV 1 intergase antigen. Anti C Reactive Protein A anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Rad51 Protein (Human) Rad51 Protein (Human) Rad

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#28936205   2017/09/22 Save this To Up

Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors.

Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

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#28922417   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Lingering single-strand breaks trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks in the polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase mutant of fission yeast.

The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs). In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR) of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ) cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that pnk1Δ cells have enhanced requirements for Rad3 (ATR/Mec1) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases, and the multi-BRCT domain protein Brc1 that binds phospho-histone H2A (γH2A) at damaged replication forks. The viability of pnk1Δ cells depends on Mre11 and Ctp1 (CtIP/Sae2) double-strand break (DSB) resection proteins, Rad52 DNA strand annealing protein, Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and Rqh1 (BLM/WRN/Sgs1) DNA helicase. Coupled with increased sister chromatid recombination and Rad52 repair foci in pnk1Δ cells, these findings indicate that lingering SSBs in pnk1Δ cells trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks. From these data, we propose models for HDR-mediated tolerance of persistent SSBs with 3' phosphate in pnk1Δ cells.

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Single Strand DNA Ligase, Single Strand DNA Ligase, E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded Amplite™ Fluorimetric A Aurora Kinase B Inhibitor Aurora Kinase B Inhibitor Aurora Kinase B Inhibitor

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#28855448   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Caffeine has a synergistic anticancer effect with cisplatin via inhibiting Fanconi anemia group D2 protein monoubiquitination in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Cisplatin is an anticancer agent and induces DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). ICLs activate various signaling processes and induce DNA repair pathways, including the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway. FA complementation group D2 (FANCD2) is monoubiquitinated in response to DNA damage, leading to activation of the DNA double-strand-break repair protein, RAD51. Caffeine increases the anticancer activity of cisplatin by inhibiting DNA repair; however, details of the mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the synergistic anticancer effect of cisplatin and caffeine in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, focusing on the FA pathway. Caffeine (≥100 µg/mL) significantly enhanced the antiproliferative activity induced by 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin. Caffeine (200 µg/mL) promoted apoptosis and inhibited the increase in the proportion of viable cells in S phase that occurred in the presence of 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin. Both FANCD2 monoubiquitination and RAD51 expression were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with 200 µg/mL caffeine and 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin compared with cisplatin alone. In conclusion, caffeine enhances the anticancer effect of cisplatin by inhibiting FANCD2 monoubiquitination. In HepG2 cells, caffeine might inhibit the FA pathway and thereby regulate DNA damage responses such as DNA repair and apoptosis.

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Liver hepatocellular carc Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Normal liver and hepatoce HIV 1 intergase antigen. Allergens, Phospholipase Anti C Reactive Protein A anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl

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#28846114   2017/08/28 Save this To Up

Identification of translationally controlled tumor protein in promotion of DNA homologous recombination repair in cancer cells by affinity proteomics.

Translationally controlled tumor protein(TCTP) has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, DNA repair and drug resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying TCTP involved in cellular processes, we performed an affinity purification-based proteomic profiling to identify proteins interacting with TCTP in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. We found that a group of proteins involved in DNA repair are enriched in the potential TCTP interactome. Silencing TCTP by short hairpin RNA in breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells leads to the declined repair efficiency for DNA double-strand breaks on the GFP-Pem1 reporter gene by homologous recombination, the persistent activation and the prolonged retention of γH2AX and Rad51 foci following ionizing radiation. Reciprocal immunoprecipitations indicated that TCTP forms complexes with Rad51 in vivo, and the stability maintenance of Rad51 requires TCTP in MCF-7 cells under normal cell culture conditions. Moreover, inactivation of TCTP by sertraline treatment enhances UVC irradiation-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, and causes sensitization to DNA-damaging drug etoposide and DNA repair inhibitor olaparib. Thus, we have identified an important role of TCTP in promoting DNA double-stand break repair via facilitating DNA homologous recombination processes and highlighted the great potential of TCTP as a drug target to enhance conventional chemotherapy for cancer patients with high levels of TCTP expression.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 August 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.289.

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Liver cancer tissue array Octyl â D 1 thioglucopyr HIV 1 intergase antigen. anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma Human Macrophage Inflamma

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#28837865   2017/08/24 Save this To Up

Valproic acid sensitizes breast cancer cells to hydroxyurea through inhibiting RPA2 hyperphosphorylation-mediated DNA repair pathway.

It was reported that valproic acid (VPA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) can sensitize cancer cells to hydroxyurea (HU, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor) for chemotherapy, although the mechanism of VPA-induced HU sensitization is unclear. In this study, we systematically characterized VPA-induced HU sensitization of breast cancer cells. Multiple breast cancer cell models were employed to investigate whether the safe concentration of 0.5mM VPA and 2mM HU can result in DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and impact cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism was explored through cell biology assays, including clonogenic survival, homologous recombination (HR) activity, immunoblot and immunofluorescence. We found that VPA and HU cooperatively suppressed cancer cell survival. VPA resulted in the accumulation of more DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in response to HU-induced replication arrest and was able to block HU-stimulated homologous recombination (HR) through inhibiting the activity of two key HR repair proteins by hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A2 (RPA2-p) and recombinase Rad51. However, apoptosis was not detected under this condition. In addition, the results from the survival fraction in the cells expressing defective RPA2-p showed that VPA disrupted the HU-induced RPA2-p-Rad51-mediated HR pathway. Importantly, these findings were further supported by analyzing primary-culture cells from the tissue of chemical carcinogen (DMBA)-induced breast cancer in rats. Thus, our data demonstrated that VPA and HU synergistically suppressed tumor cells via disturbing RPA2-p-mediated DNA repair pathway, which provides a new way for combining chemotherapeutic drugs to sensitize breast cancer cells.

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Human Dnak (HSP70) His ta Top 4 types of cancer (co Top 4 types of cancer (co Top 4 types of cancer (co Top 4 types of cancer (co Tissue microarray of top Valproic Acid, Sodium Sal Breast cancer membrane pr AP-1 Reporter – HEK293 SRE Reporter - HEK293 Cel Wnt Signaling Pathway TCF JAK pathway ISRE reporter

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#28836581   2017/08/24 Save this To Up

Ginsenosides synergize with mitomycin C in combating human non-small cell lung cancer by repressing Rad51-mediated DNA repair.

The use of ginseng extract as an adjuvant for cancer treatment has been reported in both animal models and clinical applications, but its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Mitomycin C (MMC), an anticancer antibiotic used as a first- or second-line regimen in the treatment for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), causes serious adverse reactions when used alone. Here, by using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence for an optimal therapy for NSCLC with total ginsenosides extract (TGS), which significantly enhanced the MMC-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC A549 and PC-9 cells in vitro when used in combination with relatively low concentrations of MMC. A NSCLC xenograft mouse model was used to confirm the in vivo synergistic effects of the combination of TGS with MMC. Further investigation revealed that TGS could significantly reverse MMC-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest and inhibit Rad51-mediated DNA damage repair, which was evidenced by the inhibitory effects of TGS on the levels of phospho-MEK1/2, phospho-ERK1/2 and Rad51 protein and the translocation of Rad51 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to MMC. In summary, our results demonstrate that TGS could effectively enhance the cytotoxicity of MMC against NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby revealing a novel adjuvant anticancer mechanism of TGS. Combined treatment with TGS and MMC can significantly lower the required concentration of MMC and can further reduce the risk of side effects, suggesting a better treatment option for NSCLC patients.

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#28787697   2017/08/08 Save this To Up

Bufalin enhances radiosensitivity of glioblastoma by suppressing mitochondrial function and DNA damage repair.

Bufalin, a cardiotonic steroid found in the venom of the Chinese toad Bufo gargarizan, has been shown to inhibit the growth of human cancers, such as colon and bladder. Here, we investigated the response of U251 and U87MG glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines to bufalin in vitro and found that bufalin impaired several biological processes. First, in both U251 and U87 MG, bufalin reduced cell proliferation and induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest (∼10% vs∼30%, untreated vs treated cells, respectively). Second, bufalin disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to reduced oxygen consumption and ATP production. Third, homologous recombination (HR) efficiency was reduced by∼40% in both cell lines in the presence of bufalin. At the molecular level, bufalin led to decreased RAD51 protein, a central player in HR, and increased γ-H2AX, a marker for the presence of DNA double strand breaks. Finally, bufalin was additive with radiation in the treatment of GBM cells in vitro. Cell death increased significantly under combination treatment compared to radiation treatment alone. Our findings indicated that bufalin led to reduced mitochondrial and DNA repair function and therefore, might be a promising therapeutic drug to increase the sensitivity of GBM cells to radiotherapy.

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#28771594   2017/08/03 Save this To Up

Patients experiencing statin-induced myalgia exhibit a unique program of skeletal muscle gene expression following statin re-challenge.

Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with statin myalgia who were undergoing statin re-challenge (cases) versus those of statin-tolerant controls. A robust separation of case and control cohorts was revealed by Principal Component Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). To identify putative gene expression and metabolic pathways that may be perturbed in skeletal muscles of patients with statin myalgia, we subjected DEGs to Ingenuity Pathways (IPA) and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analyses. The most prominent pathways altered by statins included cellular stress, apoptosis, cell senescence and DNA repair (TP53, BARD1, Mre11 and RAD51); activation of pro-inflammatory immune response (CXCL12, CST5, POU2F1); protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation and RAS-GTPase activation (FDFT1, LSS, TP53, UBD, ATF2, H-ras). Based on these data we tentatively conclude that persistent myalgia in response to statins may emanate from cellular stress underpinned by mechanisms of post-inflammatory repair and regeneration. We also posit that this subset of individuals is genetically predisposed to eliciting altered statin metabolism and/or increased end-organ susceptibility that lead to a range of statin-induced myopathies. This mechanistic scenario is further bolstered by the discovery that a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and RYR2) associated with statin myalgia and myositis were observed with increased frequency among patients with statin myalgia.

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