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#28939762   2017/09/23 Save this To Up

RDM1 gene overexpression represents a therapeutic target in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

RAD52 motif containing 1 (RDM1) encodes the RAD52 protein involved in DNA double-strand break repair and recombination events. However, the importance of RDM1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the role of RDM1 in thyroid cancer. RDM1 expression in PTC patients was examined using immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of RDM1 mRNA in thyroid cancer cells were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was used to knock down RDM1 expression in the K1 and TPC1 cells. Then, changes in RDM1 target gene expression were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation was examined by a high content screening assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometric analysis and MTT analysis. We showed that RDM1 expression was higher in PTC tissue compared to pericarcinous tissue. RDM1 mRNA was found to be expressed by qRT-PCR. Using a lentivirus-based RNA interference (RNAi) approach, RDM1 expression was significantly inhibited. The inhibition of RDM1 expression by RNAi significantly impaired cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and arrested cells in the G2/M phase. These data revealed that RDM1 is highly expression in PTC tissue and in thyroid cancer cell lines. Moreover, RDM1 may play an important role in cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis of human PTC cells.

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#28922417   2017/09/18 Save this To Up

Lingering single-strand breaks trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks in the polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase mutant of fission yeast.

The DNA repair enzyme polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) protects genome integrity by restoring ligatable 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini at single-strand breaks (SSBs). In humans, PNKP mutations underlie the neurological disease known as MCSZ, but these individuals are not predisposed for cancer, implying effective alternative repair pathways in dividing cells. Homology-directed repair (HDR) of collapsed replication forks was proposed to repair SSBs in PNKP-deficient cells, but the critical HDR protein Rad51 is not required in PNKP-null (pnk1Δ) cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that pnk1Δ cells have enhanced requirements for Rad3 (ATR/Mec1) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases, and the multi-BRCT domain protein Brc1 that binds phospho-histone H2A (γH2A) at damaged replication forks. The viability of pnk1Δ cells depends on Mre11 and Ctp1 (CtIP/Sae2) double-strand break (DSB) resection proteins, Rad52 DNA strand annealing protein, Mus81-Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase, and Rqh1 (BLM/WRN/Sgs1) DNA helicase. Coupled with increased sister chromatid recombination and Rad52 repair foci in pnk1Δ cells, these findings indicate that lingering SSBs in pnk1Δ cells trigger Rad51-independent homology-directed repair of collapsed replication forks. From these data, we propose models for HDR-mediated tolerance of persistent SSBs with 3' phosphate in pnk1Δ cells.

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#28760773   2017/08/01 Save this To Up

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Mediated by Mitotic DNA Synthesis Engages Break-Induced Replication Processes.

Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism that occurs in a subset of cancers. By analyzing telomerase-positive cells and their human TERC knockout-derived ALT human cell lines, we show that ALT cells harbor more fragile telomeres representing telomere replication problems. ALT-associated replication defects trigger mitotic DNA synthesis (MiDAS) at telomeres in a RAD52-dependent, but RAD51-independent, manner. Telomeric MiDAS is a conservative DNA synthesis process, potentially mediated by break-induced replication, similar to type II ALT survivors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Replication stresses induced by ectopic oncogenic expression of cyclin E, G-quadruplexes, or R-loop formation facilitate the ALT pathway and lead to telomere clustering, a hallmark of ALT cancers. The TIMELESS/TIPIN complex suppresses telomere clustering and telomeric MiDAS, whereas the SMC5/6 complex promotes them. In summary, ALT cells exhibit more telomere replication defects that result in persistent DNA damage responses at telomeres, leading to the engagement of telomeric MiDAS (spontaneous mitotic telomere synthesis) that is triggered by DNA replication stress, a potential driver of genomic duplications in cancer.

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#28602639   2017/06/12 Save this To Up

Rad52 Inverse Strand Exchange Drives RNA-Templated DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

RNA can serve as a template for DNA double-strand break repair in yeast cells, and Rad52, a member of the homologous recombination pathway, emerged as an important player in this process. However, the exact mechanism of how Rad52 contributes to RNA-dependent DSB repair remained unknown. Here, we report an unanticipated activity of yeast and human Rad52: inverse strand exchange, in which Rad52 forms a complex with dsDNA and promotes strand exchange with homologous ssRNA or ssDNA. We show that in eukaryotes, inverse strand exchange between homologous dsDNA and RNA is a distinctive activity of Rad52; neither Rad51 recombinase nor the yeast Rad52 paralog Rad59 has this activity. In accord with our in vitro results, our experiments in budding yeast provide evidence that Rad52 inverse strand exchange plays an important role in RNA-templated DSB repair in vivo.

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#28591191   2017/06/07 Save this To Up

Reanalysis of BRCA1/2 negative high risk ovarian cancer patients reveals novel germline risk loci and insights into missing heritability.

While up to 25% of ovarian cancer (OVCA) cases are thought to be due to inherited factors, the majority of genetic risk remains unexplained. To address this gap, we sought to identify previously undescribed OVCA risk variants through the whole exome sequencing (WES) and candidate gene analysis of 48 women with ovarian cancer and selected for high risk of genetic inheritance, yet negative for any known pathogenic variants in either BRCA1 or BRCA2. In silico SNP analysis was employed to identify suspect variants followed by validation using Sanger DNA sequencing. We identified five pathogenic variants in our sample, four of which are in two genes featured on current multi-gene panels; (RAD51D, ATM). In addition, we found a pathogenic FANCM variant (R1931*) which has been recently implicated in familial breast cancer risk. Numerous rare and predicted to be damaging variants of unknown significance were detected in genes on current commercial testing panels, most prominently in ATM (n = 6) and PALB2 (n = 5). The BRCA2 variant p.K3326*, resulting in a 93 amino acid truncation, was overrepresented in our sample (odds ratio = 4.95, p = 0.01) and coexisted in the germline of these women with other deleterious variants, suggesting a possible role as a modifier of genetic penetrance. Furthermore, we detected loss of function variants in non-panel genes involved in OVCA relevant pathways; DNA repair and cell cycle control, including CHEK1, TP53I3, REC8, HMMR, RAD52, RAD1, POLK, POLQ, and MCM4. In summary, our study implicates novel risk loci as well as highlights the clinical utility for retesting BRCA1/2 negative OVCA patients by genomic sequencing and analysis of genes in relevant pathways.

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#28551686   2017/05/28 Save this To Up

Human RAD52 interactions with replication protein A and the RAD51 presynaptic complex.

Rad52 is a highly conserved protein involved in the repair of DNA damage. Human RAD52 has been shown to mediate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and is synthetic lethal with mutations in other key recombination proteins. For this study, we used single-molecule imaging and ssDNA curtains to examine the binding interactions of human RAD52 with replication protein A (RPA)-coated ssDNA, and we monitored the fate of RAD52 during assembly of the presynaptic complex. We show that RAD52 binds tightly to the RPA-ssDNA complex and imparts an inhibitory effect on RPA turnover. We also found that during presynaptic complex assembly, most of the RPA and RAD52 was displaced from the ssDNA, but some RAD52-RPA-ssDNA complexes persisted as interspersed clusters surrounded by RAD51 filaments. Once assembled, the presence of RAD51 restricted formation of new RAD52-binding events, but additional RAD52 could bind once RAD51 dissociated from the ssDNA. Together, these results provide new insights into the behavior and dynamics of human RAD52 during presynaptic complex assembly and disassembly.

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#28549257   2017/05/26 Save this To Up

Human somatic cells deficient for RAD52 are impaired for viral integration and compromised for most aspects of homology-directed repair.

Homology-directed repair (HDR) maintains genomic integrity by eliminating lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and stalled replication forks and thus a deficiency in HDR is associated with genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The mechanism of HDR is best understood and most rigorously characterized in yeast. The inactivation of the fungal radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) gene, which has both recombination mediator and single-strand annealing (SSA) activities in vitro, leads to severe HDR defects in vivo. Confusingly, however, the inactivation of murine and chicken RAD52 genes resulted in mouse and chicken cells, respectively, that were largely aphenotypic. To clarify this issue, we have generated RAD52 knockout human cell lines. Human RAD52-null cells retain a significant level of SSA activity demonstrating perforce that additional SSA-like activities must exist in human cells. Moreover, we confirmed that the SSA activity associated with RAD52 is involved in, but not absolutely required for, most HDR subpathways. Specifically, a deficiency in RAD52 impaired the repair of DNA DSBs and intriguingly decreased the random integration of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). Finally, an analysis of pan-cancer genome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed an association between aberrant levels of RAD52 expression and poor overall survival in multiple cancers. In toto, our work demonstrates that RAD52 contributes to the maintenance of genome stability and tumor suppression in human cells.

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#28487407   2017/05/10 Save this To Up

Acute inactivation of the replicative helicase in human cells triggers MCM8-9-dependent DNA synthesis.

DNA replication fork progression can be disrupted at difficult to replicate loci in the human genome, which has the potential to challenge chromosome integrity. This replication fork disruption can lead to the dissociation of the replisome and the formation of DNA damage. To model the events stemming from replisome dissociation during DNA replication perturbation, we used a degron-based system for inducible proteolysis of a subunit of the replicative helicase. We show that MCM2-depleted cells activate a DNA damage response pathway and generate replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Remarkably, these cells maintain some DNA synthesis in the absence of MCM2, and this requires the MCM8-9 complex, a paralog of the MCM2-7 replicative helicase. We show that MCM8-9 functions in a homologous recombination-based pathway downstream from RAD51, which is promoted by DSB induction. This RAD51/MCM8-9 axis is distinct from the recently described RAD52-dependent DNA synthesis pathway that operates in early mitosis at common fragile sites. We propose that stalled replication forks can be restarted in S phase via homologous recombination using MCM8-9 as an alternative replicative helicase.

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#28384494   2017/04/06 Save this To Up

Increased genome instability is not accompanied by sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in aged yeast cells.

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae divides asymmetrically, producing a new daughter cell from the original mother cell. While daughter cells are born with a full lifespan, a mother cell ages with each cell division and can only generate on average 25 daughter cells before dying. Aged yeast cells exhibit genomic instability, which is also a hallmark of human aging. However, it is unclear how this genomic instability contributes to aging. To shed light on this issue, we investigated endogenous DNA damage in S. cerevisiae during replicative aging and tested for age-dependent sensitivity to exogenous DNA damaging agents. Using live-cell imaging in a microfluidic device, we show that aging yeast cells display an increase in spontaneous Rad52 foci, a marker of endogenous DNA damage. Strikingly, this elevated DNA damage is not accompanied by increased sensitivity of aged yeast cells to genotoxic agents nor by global changes in the proteome or transcriptome that would indicate a specific "DNA damage signature". These results indicate that DNA repair proficiency is not compromised in aged yeast cells, suggesting that yeast replicative aging and age-associated genomic instability is likely not a consequence of an inability to repair DNA damage.

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#28212567   2017/02/17 Save this To Up

Ribosomal DNA status inferred from DNA cloud assays and mass spectrometry identification of agarose-squeezed proteins interacting with chromatin (ASPIC-MS).

Ribosomal RNA-encoding genes (rDNA) are the most abundant genes in eukaryotic genomes. To meet the high demand for rRNA, rDNA genes are present in multiple tandem repeats clustered on a single or several chromosomes and are vastly transcribed. To facilitate intensive transcription and prevent rDNA destabilization, the rDNA-encoding portion of the chromosome is confined in the nucleolus. However, the rDNA region is susceptible to recombination and DNA damage, accumulating mutations, rearrangements and atypical DNA structures. Various sophisticated techniques have been applied to detect these abnormalities. Here, we present a simple method for the evaluation of the activity and integrity of an rDNA region called a "DNA cloud assay". We verified the efficacy of this method using yeast mutants lacking genes important for nucleolus function and maintenance (RAD52, SGS1, RRM3, PIF1, FOB1 and RPA12). The DNA cloud assay permits the evaluation of nucleolus status and is compatible with downstream analyses, such as the chromosome comet assay to identify DNA structures present in the cloud and mass spectrometry of agarose squeezed proteins (ASPIC-MS) to detect nucleolar DNA-bound proteins, including Las17, the homolog of human Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP).

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