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#28938496   2017/09/22 Save this To Up

Icaritin Improves Antibody-Induced Thrombocytopenia in a Mouse Model by Regulating T-cell Polarization.

Previous studies have shown that icaritin (ICT) has significant protective effects on immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and the present study aimed to discuss the mechanism of this protective effect from the aspect of regulating T-cell polarization by an antibody-induced ITP mice model. Mice were given rat anti-mouse CD41 antibody (MWReg30) by intraperitoneal injection for 7 d to produce ITP model. At the same time, ICT was administrated at 10 mg/kg/d orally for 9 d. Peripheral blood platelets were counted by hematology analyzer. Spleen index was also tested. Spleen T-helper cell (Th), cytotoxic T-cell (CTL), Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T-cell (Treg), and follicular helper T-cell (Tfh) were quantified by flow cytometry. Serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines were tested by mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 cytometric bead array (CBA) kit and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The results indicated that ICT (10 mg/kg) protected against MWReg30-induced ITP, as evidenced by increased blood platelets and decreased spleen index. In addition, the imbalance of Th/CTL in ITP mice spleen was regulated by ICT. Meanwhile, ICT inhibited Th1, Th17, and Tfh and improved Th2 and Treg in ITP mice spleen. Furthermore, the results of CBA and ELISA suggested that ICT decreased serum Th1- and Th17-related cytokines and increased Th2 cytokines, as well as promoted the release of TGF-β. These results demonstrated that the protective effect of ICT on ITP was mediated by regulating T-cell polarization.

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#28901167   2017/09/13 Save this To Up

Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning on Myocardial Function and Infarct Size Following Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats Pretreated With Vildagliptin.

Cardioprotective actions of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are abolished in diabetic hearts. This study has investigated the combined effects of IPostC and vildagliptin (Vilda) on myocardial function and infarct size (IS) against I/R injury in diabetic myocardium.

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#28824319   2017/08/21 Save this To Up

Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61) upregulated in pulmonary arterial hypertension promotes the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the expression of cysteine rich 61 (Cyr61) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as well as monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH rat, and further investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of Cyr61 on the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Methods and Results: Plasma samples were collected from 20 patients with idiopathic PAH, 20 connective tissue disease (CTD) associated PAH, 29 age-, gender- and disease matched CTD without PAH patients, and 28 healthy controls. ELISA was used to detect the level of Cyr61 in plasma. MCT-induced PAH (MCT-PAH) rat model was established by a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60mg·kg-1). Lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of rats were collected, while the PASMCs were dissected and cultivated for in vitro experiments. Expression of Cyr61 in the lung tissues, pulmonary arteries and PASMCs were tested by immunohistochemical staining, western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. PASMCs from PAH rats were stimulated by exogenous recombinant Cyr61 protein and knocked down by small interfering RNA. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to identify cell proliferation and the expression of p-AKT and AKT were analysed by western blot. The results showed plasma level of Cyr61 in PAH patients, especially CTD-PAH patients, were significant higher than that of CTD without PAH patients and healthy controls. Compared with wild rats, Cyr61 was overexpressed in the lung tissue, pulmonary arterial and PASMCs in PAH rats. Exogenous recombinant Cyr61 protein promoted the proliferation of PASMCs in a dose-dependent manner. While the expression of Cyr61 in PASMCs was inhibited by specific siRNA, cell proliferation was restrained and the expression of p-AKT declined. Conclusion: Plasma Cyr61 concentration in PAH patients was highly increased. Cyr61 could promote PASMCs proliferation via AKT pathway, indicating that Cyr61 may play a role in the pathogenesis of PAH.

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#28820276   2017/08/18 Save this To Up

Attenuation of Sulfite-Induced Testicular Injury in Rats by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Sulfite salts, including sodium metabisulfte, are widely used as preservatives in foods and pharmaceutical agents. Previous studies suggest that oxidative stress may be an important mediator of testicular injury. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of exposure to sodium metabisulfite by gavage without or with Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract on the rat testes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ginger-treated (500 mg/kg/day), sodium metabisulfite- (SMB-) treated (260 mg/kg/day), and SMB + ginger- (SZ-) treated groups. After 28 days, the rats were anesthetized by ether and, after laparotomy, blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone level by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Then left testes and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for histological examination and sperm analysis, and right testes were removed for assessing lipid peroxidation (indexed by malondialdehyde [MDA]) and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that spermatogenesis, epididymal morphometry, and sperm parameters were affected by SMB. There was a significant increase in MDA level and a significant reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) in the SMB-treated rats compared to the control. Ginger treatment of SMB-exposed rats significantly increased testosterone level and the number of different spermatogenic cells. The level of MDA reversed to the control levels and the activities of GPx and GR were significantly increased when SMB was coadministered with ginger extract. It is concluded that coadministration of ginger, through its antioxidant and androgenic properties, exerts a protective effect against SMB-induced testicular oxidative stress.

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#28800105   2017/08/11 Save this To Up

Anti-Anxiety Effect of (-)-Syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside from Albizzia julibrissin Durazz (Leguminosae).

Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, a Chinese Medicine, is commonly used for its anti-anxiety effects. (-)-syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (SAG) is the main ingredient of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect and potential mechanisms on the HPA axis and monoaminergic systems of SAG on acute restraint-stressed rats. The anxiolytic effect of SAG was examined through an open field test and an elevated plus maze test. The concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma was examined by an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit while neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We show that repeated treatment with SAG (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the number and time spent on the central entries in the open-field test when compared to the vehicle/stressed group. In the elevated plus maze test, 3.6 mg/kg SAG could increase the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In addition, the concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma and neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were decreased after SAG treatment, as compared to the repeated acute restraint-stressed rats. These results suggest that SAG is a potential anti-anxiety drug candidate.

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#28738537   2017/07/25 Save this To Up

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor ameliorates neuronal injury in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model.

This study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the neuroprotective effect of sildenafil citrate (SFC) on ischemia-reperfusion spinal cord (SC) injuries. Balloon occlusion of the thoracic aorta was used to induce SC ischemia. The animals (n=30) were separated into three groups: sham, SC injury with saline, and SC injury with 5mg/kg i.p. SFC treatment (SFC). The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) score was determined to assess neurological function at different time intervals after reperfusion. After 48h, histopathology of the SC was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl staining. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was estimated using an MPO assay kit. Western blot and ELISA assays were performed to estimate interleukin 1 & 10 (IL-1 & IL-10), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and nuclear factor (NF-kB) levels in SC tissue homogenates. The study results suggest that treatment with SFC significantly increased neurological function compared with the SC group. In addition, SFC treatment reduced MPO activity compared with the SC group, which subsequently inhibited the infiltration of neutrophils into the SC. There was a significant (p<0.01) decrease in the expression of IL-1 and TNF-α, and an increase in the expression of IL-10 in SFC tissue homogenates compared with SC tissues. Moreover, SFC treatment inhibited the activation of NF-kB in the SC after injury. This study shows that SFC exerts a neuroprotective effect on the SC after ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory mediators.

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#28709945   2017/07/15 Save this To Up

Punicalagin, a polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human PC-3 and LNCaP cells.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is an international health problem and search for its effective treatment is in progress. Punicalagin (PN), polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, is known to exhibit potent anticancer activity in lung, breast and cervical cells. However, there is paucity of information on its effect in PCa. This study evaluated anti-proliferative effects of PN and its effects on extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in PCa cells, and angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Antioxidant activities of PN were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) methods. PCa (PC-3 and LNCaP) and normal prostate (BPH-1) cells were cultured and treated with PN (10, 50 and 100 μM). Cytotoxicity and viability effects of PN were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and XTT assays, respectively. Antiangiogenic effects were measured using CAM assay, while apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, enrichment factor by Cell Death Detection ELISA kit and expressions of caspases-3 and -8. Results showed that PN (10-200 μM) significantly scavenged DPPH and inhibited LPO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PN (10-100 μM) concentration-dependently inhibited viability in PC-3 and LNCaP, while viability in BPH-1 was insignificantly affected. PN had low toxicity on cells in vitro at concentrations tested. Also, PN (100 μM) increased enrichment factor in PC-3 (2.34 ± 0.05) and LNCaP (2.31 ± 0.26) relative to control (1.00 ± 0.00). In addition, PN (50 μM) decreased the network of vessels in CAM, suggesting its anti-angiogenic effect. Moreso, PN increased the expressions of caspases-3 and -8 in PC-3. Overall, PN exerts anti-proliferative activity in PCa cells via induction of apoptosis and anti-angiogenic effect.

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#28704719   2017/07/13 Save this To Up

Biochemical and functional analysis of corticotropin releasing factor purified from an aqueous extract of human placenta used as wound healer.

Human placental extract constitutes of innumerable therapeutically important components mostly used in wound healing arising from the skin and burn injuries. However, there is still some bioactive present in the placental extracts yet to be characterized to better under the complex process of wound healing mediated by the placental extract. In this study, the presence of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in an aqueous extract of human placenta was detected and quantified by dot blot and CRF-ELISA immunoassay kit respectively. Subsequently, it was purified by immuno-affinity chromatography and quantified as 0.45±0.05μg of CRF per ml of placental extract where its molecular weight found to be 4.78kDa by MALDI-TOF. To study functional analysis of CRF, an in vitro WI-38 lung fibroblast cell scratch wound model was used which indicated proliferation, motility of cells after treatment with purified CRF. Moreover, reduction in apoptosis rate of cells during closure of wound was observed from microscopy studies and FACS analysis. Also, Antalarmin, an antagonist of CRF type 1 receptor inhibited the wound closure potency of the purified component. Faster healing of wound with an elevation of IL-6 and TGF-β during early stages of repair by placental CRF was observed on excision rat model. The process of healing was accompanied by the decrease in the level of TNF-α and IFN-γ.

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#28684235   2017/07/07 Save this To Up

Cardioprotective time-window of Penehyclidine hydrochloride postconditioning: A rat study.

Pharmacological postconditioning offers a clinical perspective for all patients with ischemic heart disease. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is a new type of anticholinergic drug. We previously reported that PHC preconditioning protects against I/R injury in rat hearts in vivo. Ischemic heart disease often occurs suddenly, so postconditioning is more significant than preconditioning. However, studies evaluating myocardial protective effects of PHC postconditioning are unavailable. We explored the effects and time-window of cardioprotection of PHC postconditioning in myocardial I/R injury. PHC was administered by intravenous at various times (t = -5, 0, 5, 10, 15, or 30min) after the onset of reperfusion in addition to I/R rat. We observed five different indicators including infarct size, inflammatory response, myocardial enzyme, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) overload to quantify the effect of cardioprotection. Evans blue and TTC staining were used to measure myocardial infarct size. The expression of NF-κ B and IκB-α was analyzed using Western blot. ELISA was conducted to detect inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. The Ca(2+) level was determined using assay kit. PHC postconditioning (from -5 to 10min after the onset of reperfusion) significantly reduced infarct size, downregulated NF-κ B expression, and decreased the release of inflammatory mediators, while significantly upregulating IκB-α expression and increasing the release of anti-inflammatory mediators. All PHC postconditioning groups significantly reduced Ca(2+) level. PHC postconditioning is cardioprotective over a larger time-window (from -5 to 10min after the onset of reperfusion). The probable mechanism is inhibition of NF-кB regulated inflammatory response pathway.

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#28681147   2017/07/06 Save this To Up

Therapeutic effect of icariin combined with stem cells on postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats.

Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal fragility and microarchitectural deterioration. The side effects of drugs to treat osteoporosis will negatively affect the health of patients. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of icariin combined with adipose-derived stem cells on osteoporosis in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model after ovariectomy in rats. After ovariectomy the rats were treated with icariin combined with adipose-derived stem cell transplantation. The levels of alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, and bone γ-carboxyglutamate protein in serum were determined by ELISA. The bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mechanical properties were determined by a three-point bending test. The kidney functions were evaluated by an automatic analyzer and a diagnostic kit. Icariin combined with stem cells significantly reduced body weight gain caused by ovariectomy, significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and bone γ-carboxyglutamate protein content in serum, significantly increased osteoprotegerin content, significantly elevated bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, left femur, and right femur, and enhanced bone biomechanical properties of the femur, including maximum bending load, bending rigidity, and fracture energy, in osteoporotic rats. In addition, icariin combined with stem cells substantially decreased the damage to the liver and kidney in osteoporotic rats. Icariin combined with stem cells can not only ameliorate reduction of bone mass and disruption of the microarchitectural structure of bone tissue caused by osteoporosis in a rat model but can also have a beneficial effect on organ functions, such as those of the liver and kidney.

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