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#21725772   2011/07/04 Save this To Up

Erythropoietin attenuates inflammatory factors and cell death in neonatal rats with intracerebral hemorrhage.

Stroke affects infants at a rate of 26/100,000 live births each year. Of these strokes, approximately 6.7 are hemorrhagic strokes. Erythropoietin (EPO) is an anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective hormone. In adult rodents, EPO attenuates inflammatory factor expression and blood-brain barrier damage after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the effect of EPO in neonatal ICH stroke remains unexplored. This investigation aimed to elucidate the underpinnings of inflammation after ICH in postnatal day 7 (P7) rats and the effect of human recombinant EPO (hrEPO) treatment on ICH-induced inflammation. The P7 rat pups were pretreated with hrEPO (5,000 U/kg i.p.) or saline vehicle 4 h prior to the induction of ICH by blood injection into the right cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Supplemental half doses of hrEPO treatment or saline injections were subsequently given 16 h after ICH induction. Real-time PCR done 24 h after ICH showed reductions in interleukin1-β (IL1-β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA expression in the basal ganglia of the hrEPO-treated rats compared to saline-treated rats. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining indicated fewer dying cells in the hrEPO-treated brain. Our data suggest that hrEPO has an anti-inflammatory action in neonates after ICH. The suppression of inflammatory cascades likely contributes to hrEPO's neuroprotective effect, which may be explored as a therapeutic treatment for ICH.

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#15571975   2004/12/01 Save this To Up

Temporal patterns of the cerebral inflammatory response in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

To better understand the role of inflammatory responses in temporal lobe epilepsy, we characterized Interleukin1-beta (IL1-beta), Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression together with neurodegeneration in the rat lithium-pilocarpine model. The immunohistochemical expression of IL1-beta, NF-kappaB, and COX-2 started by 12 h post-injection, persisted for 24 h (status epilepticus period), and returned to basal levels by 3 and 6 days (latent period). The regional distribution of IL1-beta, NF-kappaB, and COX-2 occurred mainly in structures prone to develop neuronal damage. Using double-staining protocols, we detected IL1-beta expression in glial cells, COX-2 expression in neurons, and NF-kappaB in both cell types. The presence of Fluoro-Jade-B-positive degenerating neurons was associated with IL1-beta, NF-kappaB, and COX-2 proteins expression during status epilepticus but not during the latent period while neurons were still degenerating. These data suggest that seizure-related IL1-beta, NF-kappaB, and COX-2 expression may contribute to the pathophysiology of epilepsy by inducing neuronal death and astrocytic activation.

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#10912189   2000/08/16 Save this To Up

The role of 3D-microscopy in the study of chondrocyte-matrix interaction (alginate bead or sponge, rat femoral head cap, human osteoarthritic cartilage) and pharmacological application.

The potentialities of a new non-invasive optical scanning microscopy technique were evaluated through 3D analysis of chondrocyte-matrix interactions. Five different 2D or 3D culture systems were used: (1) MonoLayer (ML) of human chondrosarcoma cell line; (2) rat or human chondrocytes encapsulated in Alginate Bead (AB); (3) human chondrocytes encapsulated in Alginate Sponge (AS); (4) Rat Femoral Head Cap (RFHC); (5) slices of knee human Osteoarthritic Cartilage (HOAC). Chondrocytes ML, AB, RFHC were incubated for 24 h in vitro in the presence of recombinant human interleukin1-beta (rhIL1-beta) and the effects on cytoskeleton organisation (F-actin filament), Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) expression (tyrosine kinase), collagenase B expression (metalloprotease) were studied. Furthermore, the production of intracellular IL1-beta by LPS- or rhIL1-beta-stimulated chondrocytes was shown to be partly suppressed by rhein (active metabolite of diacerhein) in all culture systems. This high resolution light microscopy gave complementary information that could be important for a better understanding of the interaction of chondrocytes with the extracellular matrix in a variety of culture devices.

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#10602391   2000/01/31 Save this To Up

Serum cytotoxin and oxidant stress markers in N-acetylcysteine treated thioacetamide hepatotoxicity of rats.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor used to treat several clinical conditions where intracellular oxidant-antioxidant balance is disturbed, among which, acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity may be counted. In this study, administering thioacetamide (TAA) as a hepatotoxic agent, a rat model of hepatotoxicity has been established, to investigate some of the immune mediated basic oxidant-antioxidant homeostatic mechanisms involved, and potential serum markers for follow-up of disease and treatment. To do this, four experimental groups receiving saline/saline, saline/NAC, saline/TAA and NAC/TAA as intraperitoneal injections, have been formed. Rat serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin1-beta (IL1-beta), malondialdehyde (MDA) as a measure of final oxidant damage and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) have been assayed. Hepatocellular damage has been measured via the biochemical estimates ALT, AST and LDH as well as histopathological grading. It was found that both TNF-alpha and IL1-beta were significantly elevated in saline/TAA receivers (P<0.01) when compared to NAC/TAA receivers. Serum MDA was also increased in TAA receivers in addition to SOD (P<0.05) and GSH-Px (P<0.05). Serum nitrite levels have also been assayed to give an estimate of nitric oxide that is suggested as a counter-balancer of oxidant stress. NAC/saline receivers had the highest levels of nitrites in the serum (P<0.05). Our results indicate that part of the hepatocellular injury to rat liver, induced by TAA is mediated by oxidative stress caused by the action of cytokines imparted by the enzymatic SOD and GSH-Px and non-enzymatic gaseous nitric oxide mechanisms causing an alleviation on administration of NAC. In addition, TNF-alpha, IL1-beta, MDA, SOD, GSH-Px and nitrites are potential candidates of serum indicators for monitorization of pathophysiological stage of liver disease.

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