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#28807102   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Bitter Melon Powder Protects against Obesity-associated Fatty Liver Disease by Improving Colonic Microenvironment in Rats with High-fat Diet-induced Obesity.

This study explored how bitter melon powder (BMP) alters the colonic microenvironment during the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in rats. We observed that BMP effectively inhibited the body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver, ameliorated glucose intolerance, and increased the colon weight after an 8-week treatment compared to that in the high-fat diet (HFD) group. BMP significantly decreased fecal water toxicity towards HT-29 cells, as revealed by the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay results, and the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in colon mucosa. Additionally, gut permeability in the BMP group was restored to normal levels. Finally, BMP alleviated the inflammatory state of the rat colon mucosa and liver tissues as well as the systemic inflammation.

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#26860188   2016/02/10 Save this To Up

Cocaine-mediated induction of microglial activation involves the ER stress-TLR2 axis.

Neuroinflammation associated with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection is often exacerbated by chronic cocaine abuse. Cocaine exposure has been demonstrated to mediate up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in in vitro cultures of microglia. The molecular mechanisms involved in this process, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to explore the underlying signaling pathways involved in cocaine-mediated activation of microglial cells.

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#26147005   2015/07/07 Save this To Up

Maternal Supplementation with Oligofructose (10%) during Pregnancy and Lactation Leads to Increased Pro-Inflammatory Status of the 21-D-Old Offspring.

Previously, we showed that oligofructose (10%) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased endotoxemia in 21-d-old pups. The present study evaluated the effect of 10% oligofructose diet supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in the presence or absence of hydrogenated vegetable fat on the pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring. On the first day of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control diet (C), control diet supplemented with 10% oligofructose (CF), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat (T) or diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat supplemented with 10% oligofructose (TF). Diets were maintained during pregnancy and lactation. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was assessed using a specific kit. Protein expression was determined by Western Blotting, and the relative mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction). We observed that 10% oligofructose supplementation during pregnancy and lactation increased offspring's IL-6R (interleukin-6 receptor) mRNA levels in the liver and RET (retroperitoneal white adipose tissue) and decreased ADIPOR2 (adiponectin receptor 2) and ADIPOR1 (adiponectin receptor 1) gene expression in liver and EDL (extensor digital longus)/ SOL (soleus) muscles of CF group. Additionally, TF group presented with increased serum TNF-α, protein expression of p-NFκBp65 (phosphorylated form of nuclear factor kappa B p65 subunit) in liver and IL-6R mRNA levels in RET. These findings were accompanied by decreased levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA in the EDL and SOL muscles of the TF group. In conclusion, supplementing the dam's diet with 10% of oligofructose during pregnancy and lactation, independent of hydrogenated vegetable fat addition, contributes to the increased pro-inflammatory status of 21-d-old offspring, possibly through the activation of the TLR4 (toll like receptor 4) pathway.

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#25595264   2015/01/17 Save this To Up

Astrocytic TLR4 expression and LPS-induced nuclear translocation of STAT3 in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain.

The sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs) comprise the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP) and lack the blood-brain barrier. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was seen at astrocytes throughout the sensory CVOs and at microglia in the AP and solitary nucleus around the central canal. The peripheral and central administration of lipopolysaccharide induced a similar pattern of nuclear translocation of STAT3. A microglia inhibitor minocycline largely suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced astrocytic nuclear translocation of STAT3 in the OVLT and AP, but its effect was less in the SFO.

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#25387796   2015/02/14 Save this To Up

Activation of BV2 microglia by lipopolysaccharide triggers an inflammatory reaction in PC12 cell apoptosis through a toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway.

Microglia play an important role in neuronal protection and damage. However, the molecular and cellular relationship between microglia and neurons is unclear. We carried out a prospective study to detect that activation of BV2 microglia induced PC12 cell apoptosis in vitro through the TLR4/adapter protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. BV2 microglia were treated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 h. Western blot was utilized to detect the expression of TLR4 and the downstream signaling pathway. The level of inflammatory mediator was quantified using a specific ELISA kit. The supernatant of 10 μg/ml LPS-treated BV2 cells was used as conditioned medium (CM). PC12 cells were co-culture with CM for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and cell apoptosis was tested by flow cytometry. BV2 microglia were treated with 10, 20, or 30 μg/ml LPS for 24 h. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB significantly increased. When PC12 cells were co-cultured with CM for 24 h, cell viability decreased. CM up-regulated the Bax level and down-regulated the Bcl-2 protein level in PC12 cells. PC12 cells pretreated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) for 30 min, significantly alleviated CM-induced PC12 cell apoptosis. These results suggest that BV2 microglia activated by LPS triggered TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway that induced the release of IL-1β and could participate in the PC12 cells injury.

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#25089018   2015/01/27 Save this To Up

Sophocarpine attenuates toll-like receptor 4 in steatotic hepatocytes to suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis.

Sophocarpine, a tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L., has been documented that it can suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis in alleviating nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in vivo. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a pattern recognition receptor whose activation results in the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. It has been reported that TLR4 is upregulated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH. This study aimed to examine the changes of TLR4 and its signaling pathways in sophocarpine's anti-inflammatory process on experimental NASH in vitro.

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#24587659   2014/03/03 Save this To Up

Sophocarpine attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway in rats.

To explore the effect of sophocarpine on experimental liver fibrosis and the potential mechanism involved.

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#24133029   2013/11/12 Save this To Up

Involvement of HMGB1 mediated signalling pathway in diabetic retinopathy: evidence from type 2 diabetic rats and ARPE-19 cells under diabetic condition.

Inflammation is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) could promote inflammation as an alarmin. We investigated the expression of HMGB1 signalling pathway components in type 2 diabetic rat retinas and in high glucose cultured ARPE-19 cells.

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#23970162   2013/08/28 Save this To Up

Inhibitory effect of TGF-β1 on NO production in peritoneal macrophages from collagen-induced arthritis rats involving the LPS-TLR4 pathway.

Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is critical in controlling inflammatory responses and the prevention of autoimmune diseases. Although the effect of TGF-β1 on macrophages from normal mice or rats has been established, little attention has been paid to its effect on disease conditions. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory effect, and possible mechanism, of TGF-β1 exposure on the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) in peritoneal macrophages (PMΦ) obtained from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. The CIA model was established by immunizing the emulsion of collagen type II and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) in Wistar rats. PMΦ were incubated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) for 36 h and the supernatant, and cell mRNA and protein were collected. NO concentration was determined using an NO assay kit. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression of iNOS was tested with western blot analysis. The expression of membrane TLR4 was determined by flow cytometry. We discovered that the secretion of NO from the PMΦ of CIA rats increased compared with normal rats. TGF-β1 significantly inhibited the production of NO in the PMΦ from CIA rats. iNOS mRNA and protein expression in the PMΦ from CIA rats may be suppressed by TGF-β1. TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in PMΦ from CIA rats were upregulated with LPS stimulation and treatment with TGF-β1 inhibited their expression. These results demonstrated that TGF-β1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in the PMΦ from CIA rats, which may be due to the inhibition of the LPS-TLR4 signaling pathway.

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#23612802   2013/09/24 Save this To Up

TLR4 mediates MAPK-STAT3 axis activation in bladder epithelial cells.

The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in immune cells is well characterized, but its biological properties in bladder epithelial cells (BECs), especially reciprocal crosstalk between mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3-mediated signal transduction elicited by TLR4 have not been demonstrated so far. The present studies were to demonstrate the signal transduction and inflammatory cytokine response elicited through activation of TLR4 in BECs with a special focus on the crosstalk between the MAPK-pathway and STAT3-mediated signals and its regulatory relevance for the inflammatory response towards lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We selected human bladder cancer T24 cell line in the present study and examined its expression of TLR4 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. The expression of p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and STAT3 were performed by RT-PCR, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting. Signal transduction was analyzed by Western blotting. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion in culture supernatants were tested by human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. BECs of rat infection in vivo model and patients with cystitis glandularis (CG) were analyzed as described above. Our study demonstrated that TLR4 was significantly upregulated following LPS treatment, with the maximum mRNA expression occurring at 4 h after stimulation. Activation of TLR4 signaling by LPS resulted in phosphorylation of MAPK and STAT pathways and upregulation of IL-10 in dose- and time-dependent manners in T24 cells. Pretreatment of cells with SB203580 (inhibitor of p38) and SP600125 (inhibitor of JNK) attenuated LPS-induced IL-10 expression, whereas it markedly inhibited the STAT3 expression. IL-10 mRNA expression was increased in inflamed lesions compared to noninflamed tissue in rats and patients with CG disease. Our results demonstrate that activation of TLR4 signaling in BECs induces IL-10 expression via activation of p38 and JNK, and the activation of STAT-3 was upregulated. Our data indicated that the reciprocal crosstalk between the MAPK pathway and STAT3-mediated signal transduction forms a critical axis successively activated by LPS in BECs.

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