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#28834864   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Effects of tamoxifen on urinary incontinence: Case report and review of literature.

Tamoxifen has been used in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and has been shown to successfully reduce both recurrence and mortality. On the contrary, long-term use of tamoxifen has hormone-related urogenital side effects which decrease the quality of life of the patients.

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#28834751   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Neurotensin Receptor-1 Identifies a Subset of Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons that Coordinates Energy Balance.

Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are heterogeneous and differentially regulate ingestive and locomotor behaviors that affect energy balance. Identification of which VTA DA neurons mediate behaviors that limit weight gain has been hindered, however, by the lack of molecular markers to distinguish VTA DA populations. Here, we identified a specific subset of VTA DA neurons that express neurotensin receptor-1 (NtsR1) and preferentially comprise mesolimbic, but not mesocortical, DA neurons. Genetically targeted ablation of VTA NtsR1 neurons uncouples motivated feeding and physical activity, biasing behavior toward energy expenditure and protecting mice from age-related and diet-induced weight gain. VTA NtsR1 neurons thus represent a molecularly defined subset of DA neurons that are essential for the coordination of energy balance. Modulation of VTA NtsR1 neurons may therefore be useful to promote behaviors that prevent the development of obesity.

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#28834750   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Synaptic Regulation of a Thalamocortical Circuit Controls Depression-Related Behavior.

The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine elicits a long-lasting antidepressant response in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Understanding how antagonism of NMDARs alters synapse and circuit function is pivotal to developing circuit-based therapies for depression. Using virally induced gene deletion, ex vivo optogenetic-assisted circuit analysis, and in vivo chemogenetics and fMRI, we assessed the role of NMDARs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in controlling depression-related behavior in mice. We demonstrate that post-developmental genetic deletion of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B from pyramidal neurons in the mPFC enhances connectivity between the mPFC and limbic thalamus, but not the ventral hippocampus, and reduces depression-like behavior. Using intersectional chemogenetics, we show that activation of this thalamocortical circuit is sufficient to elicit a decrease in despair-like behavior. Our findings reveal that GluN2B exerts input-specific control of pyramidal neuron innervation and identify a medial dorsal thalamus (MDT)→mPFC circuit that controls depression-like behavior.

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#28834747   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Triggering of NOD2 Receptor Converts Inflammatory Ly6C(high) into Ly6C(low) Monocytes with Patrolling Properties.

The signals that regulate the fate of circulating monocytes remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that triggering of the NOD2 receptor by muramyl dipeptide (MDP) converts inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes into patrolling Ly6C(low) monocytes. Administration of MDP to Nr4a1(-/-) mice, which lack Ly6C(low) monocytes, or to Ly6C(low)-depleted mice led to the emergence of blood-patrolling monocytes with a profile similar to that of Ly6C(low) monocytes, including high expression of CX3CR1 and LFA1. Using intravital microscopy in animal models of inflammatory diseases, we also found that converted Ly6C(high) monocytes patrol the endothelium of blood vessels and that their presence contributes to a reduction in the inflammatory response following MDP injection. Our results demonstrate that NOD2 contributes to the regulation of blood monocytes and suggest that it could be therapeutically targeted to treat inflammatory diseases.

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#28834742   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

The Proprioceptive System Regulates Morphologic Restoration of Fractured Bones.

Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed "natural reduction." Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly. Blocking Runx3 expression in the peripheral nervous system, but not in limb mesenchyme, recapitulated the null phenotype, as did inactivation of muscles flanking the fracture site. Egr3 knockout mice, which lack muscle spindles but not Golgi tendon organs, displayed a less severe phenotype, suggesting that both receptor types, as well as muscle contraction, are required for this regulatory mechanism. These findings uncover a physiological role for proprioception in non-autonomous regulation of skeletal integrity.

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#28834734   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

ONTD induces growth arrest and apoptosis of human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells though a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent pathway.

ONTD (3-Oxo-29-noroleana-1,9(11),12-trien-2,20-dicarbonitrile) is a novel synthetic derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), which has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities through its mechanisms are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated that ONTD induces apoptosis of human hepatoma cells via a MAPK-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Recently, ONTD was found to increase sub-G1 accumulation and Annexin-V positive staining, indicating apoptotic induction effect. It was also be found that ONTD increase the PPAR-γ activity, reduce the phosphorylation of Akt and increase phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells, and these were associated with the inhibition of cells proliferation. More importantly, these effects could be diminished by GW9662, a specific PPAR-γ antagonist, suggesting that ONTD can act as a ligand of PPAR-γ. Taken together, our novel observations suggested that ONTD may have potential implication in HCC prevention and treatment, and showed for the first time that the anti-tumor effect of ONTD may also be mediated through modulation of the PPAR-γ activation and mediated by the PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. The present study also supports ONTD as a potential drug candidate for chemoprevention or chemotherapy of HCC.

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#28834708   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Parvalbumin, but not calretinin, neurons express high levels of α1-containing GABAA receptors, α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and D2-dopamine receptors in the basolateral amygdala of the rat.

The generation of emotional responses by the basolateral amygdala is largely determined by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to its principal neurons - the pyramidal cells. The activity of these neurons is tightly controlled by g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons, especially by those expressing parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR). Although it is known that GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic fibres make synapses on PV and CR cells, knowledge of the various receptors which are used by these cells is still incomplete. Thus, the present study investigates whether neurons expressing PV or CR co-express specific GABA, acetylcholine and/or dopamine receptors in the basolateral amygdala of the rat. The results show that almost two-thirds of PV neurons co-express high concentrations of α1 subunit of GABAA receptor, and more than half of them co-express high levels of α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and/or D2-subtype of dopamine receptor. In contrast, a smaller percentage of CR neurons had detectable amounts of these receptors and at lower levels of abundance in most cases. In conclusion, the present results indicate that not only principal neurons but also GABAergic interneurons have specific receptors, which allow these cells to respond to the GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic inputs coming to the basolateral amygdala of the rat. Since these cells receive intrinsic GABAergic inputs, they are strongly interconnected. Since they also receive extrinsic cholinergic and dopaminergic inputs, such stimulation may result in stimulus-driven feed-forward control of the principal neurons. The effects of such control may be either feed-forward inhibition of the principal neurons via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or disinhibition of these cells via D2-dopamine receptors.

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#28834692   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Soluble Extracellular Domain of Death Receptor 5 Inhibits TRAIL-induced Apoptosis by Disrupting Receptor-Receptor Interactions.

Dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling is a key feature of various inflammatory disorders. Current treatments for TNF-related diseases function either by sequestering ligand or blocking ligand-receptor interactions, which can cause dangerous side effects by inhibiting the receptors that are not involved in the disease condition. Thus, alternate strategies that target receptor-receptor interactions are needed. We hypothesized that the soluble extracellular domain (ECD) of long isoform of Death Receptor 5 (DR5) could block endogenous receptor assembly, mimicking the biological effect of decoy receptors that lack the death domain to trigger apoptosis. Using live-cell FRET studies, we demonstrated that soluble ECD disrupts endogenous DR5-DR5 interactions. Cell viability assays were used to demonstrate the complete inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD, even though TRAIL is still able to bind to the receptor. Importantly, we used mutagenesis to prove that the inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the ECD predominantly comes from the disruption of DR5 oligomerization, and not ligand-sequestration. Inhibition of death receptor activation should have important therapeutic applications in diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. More generally, this approach should be generalized to enable the inhibition of other TNF receptor signaling mechanisms that are associated in a wide range of clinical conditions.

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#28834688   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Innate immune genes in persistent mating-induced endometritis in horses.

Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) severely decreases fertility in horses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences between horses susceptible to PMIE and a control group in terms of the expression of selected immune response and effector genes, and the effects of oestrous cycle stage on this expression. Endometrial biopsies from 18 uterine samples of mares in the control group (eight in dioestrus, 10 in oestrus) and 16 PMIE-susceptible mares (four in dioestrus, 12 in oestrus) were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genes for pathogen recognition receptors Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and NLR family CARD domain containing 5 (NLRC5), as well as tissue-specific inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and uteroferrin were expressed at similar levels in the control group and in susceptible mares. Genes for C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and the antimicrobial peptides secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipocalin 2 and lactoferrin were all expressed at higher levels in susceptible compared with control mares. The expression of genes for the antimicrobial peptides equine β-defensin 1 (EBD1), lysozyme (LYZ) and secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) was also higher in susceptible than control mares. The diagnostic sensitivity of assays for EBD1, LYZ and SLP1 gene expression to detect susceptibility to PMIE was estimated to be 100%, 94% and 100% respectively, with specificities of 83%, 78% and 78% respectively. When all three tests were positive, the specificity increased to 94%, with an overall sensitivity of 94%. The present study has yielded insights into pathophysiological changes in mares susceptible to PMIE and identified robust diagnostic markers (EBD1, LYZ and SLPI) for susceptibility to this disease.

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#28834578   2017/08/23 Save this To Up

Phenotypic change in trigeminal ganglion neurons associated with satellite cell activation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation is involved in lingual neuropathic pain.

Iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries remain a common and complex clinical problem. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation, associated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and neuropeptide expression in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are known to be involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain related to trigeminal nerve injury. However, the involvement of these molecules in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in lingual nerve crush (LNC) rats was observed in SGCs. To evaluate the role of neuron-SGC interactions under neuropathic pain, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (IR), phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2)-IR and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-IR cells in the TG were studied in LNC rats. The number of CGRP-IR neurons and neurons encircled with pERK1/2-IR SGCs was significantly larger in LNC rats compared with sham rats. The percentage of large sized CGRP-IR neurons was significantly higher in LNC rats. The number of CGRP-IR neurons, neurons encircled with pERK1/2-IR SGCs and neurons encircled with GFAP-IR SGCs was decreased following CGRP receptor blocker CGRP8-37 or mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1 inhibitor PD98059 administration into the TG after LNC. Reduced thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation to the tongue in LNC rats were also significantly recovered following CGRP8-37 or PD98059 administration. The present findings suggest that CGRP released from TG neurons activates SGCs through ERK1/2 phosphorylation and TG neuronal activity is enhanced, resulting in the tongue hypersensitivity associated with lingual nerve injury. The phenotypic switching of large myelinated TG neurons expressing CGRP may account for the pathogenesis of tongue neuropathic pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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