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#28320072   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Constitutive androstane receptor regulates the intestinal mucosal response to injury.

The pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD), composed of Crohn's disease(CD) and ulcerative colitis(UC), involves aberrant interactions between a genetically susceptible individual, their microbiota and environmental factors. Alterations in xenobiotic receptor expression and function are associated with increased risk for IBD. In the current study, we assessed the role of the constitutive androstane receptor(CAR), a xenobiotic receptor closely related to the pregnane X receptor, in the regulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis.

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#28320035   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

sRAGE Is Elevated in the Lungs of Premature Infants Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

Background Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE), a soluble isoform of the RAGE receptor, is elevated in lungs from patients with acute conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchiolitis. This study investigated whether sRAGE is present in ventilated infants. Methods Tracheal aspirates from the first week or the fifth week of life were obtained from intubated very low birth weight subjects and analyzed by Western blot. Immunohistochemistry analysis for sRAGE was performed on paraffin-embedded lung autopsy slides from 19 other infants. Results The sRAGE band densities were similar among the seven infants who fully recovered, eight who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and 5 who died (analysis of variance p = 0.797) but was higher at 4 weeks, p = 0.0324. There was minimal sRAGE staining in the autopsied lungs from previable infants (20-21 weeks) or from those who were not ventilated or had mild lung disease. In contrast, substantial staining was present in two of three with BPD, and those who received high ventilatory support. Conclusion sRAGE is present in ventilated infants. Levels are generally higher in those who receive prolonged or vigorous mechanical ventilation. Since sRAGE may have roles in inflammation and cell adherence, its role in the development of BPD may warrant study.

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#28319947   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Effects of Capsaicin on Older Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

The standard of care for older patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is poor. Stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 might become a pharmacological strategy for these patients. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of film food containing 0.75 µg of capsaicin in these patients.

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#28319910   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

The role of vasopressin and the vasopressin type V1a receptor agonist selepressin in septic shock.

Septic shock remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. Despite early goal therapy and administration of cathecholaminergic agents, up to 30% of patients succumb to the disease. In this manuscript, we first summarize the standard of care of patients with septic shock and current guidelines. We review the physiologic role of vasopressin and its role in septic shock management. We then review the most up-to-date evidence on the potential role of V1a receptor agonists such as Selepressin, in septic shock. Exciting new trials are being completed in order to elucidate the role of V1a receptor agonists as potential first-line vasopressor alternatives in the therapy of circulatory shock in septic patients.

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#28319852   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Pterostilbene, a dimethylated analog of resveratrol, promotes energy metabolism in obese rats.

Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene) is a dimethylated analog of resveratrol and has been reported to exert various pharmacological effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pterostilbene on the pathogenesis of obesity and energy metabolism in obese rats. Pterostilbene significantly activates silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in vitro. At 4 weeks a 0.5% pterostilbene diet markedly suppressed the abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation in obese rats. The oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly higher in the pterostilbene group, and pterostilbene increased the fat metabolism rather than the carbohydrate metabolism in obese rats. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein, a thermogenic regulator, was increased and the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase and leptin, which are involved in lipogenesis and fat storage, were markedly decreased in WAT after the pterostilbene feeding. These results suggest that pterostilbene prevents WAT accumulation through the enhancement of energy metabolism and partly the suppression of lipogenesis in obese OLETF rats.

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#28319850   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Methylation of HPA axis related genes in men with hypersexual disorder.

Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality. The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip, measuring the methylation state of over 850K CpG sites. Prior to analysis, the global DNA methylation pattern was pre-processed according to standard protocols and adjusted for white blood cell type heterogeneity. We included CpG sites located within 2000bp of the transcriptional start site of the following HPA-axis coupled genes: Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein (CRHBP), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2), FKBP5 and the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). We performed multiple linear regression models of methylation M-values to a categorical variable of hypersexuality, adjusting for depression, dexamethasone non-suppression status, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire total score and plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6. Of 76 tested individual CpG sites, four were nominally significant (p<0.05), associated with the genes CRH, CRHR2 and NR3C1. Cg23409074-located 48bp upstream of the transcription start site of the CRH gene - was significantly hypomethylated in hypersexual patients after corrections for multiple testing using the FDR-method. Methylation levels of cg23409074 were positively correlated with gene expression of the CRH gene in an independent cohort of 11 healthy male subjects. The methylation levels at the identified CRH site, cg23409074, were significantly correlated between blood and four different brain regions. CRH is an important integrator of neuroendocrine stress responses in the brain, with a key role in the addiction processes. Our results show epigenetic changes in the CRH gene related to hypersexual disorder in men.

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#28319848   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with the GABAA receptor modulating steroid antagonist Sepranolone (UC1010)-A randomized controlled trial.

Allopregnanolone is a metabolite from progesterone and a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. This endogenous steroid may induce negative mood in sensitive women when present in serum levels comparable to the premenstrual phase. Its endogenous isomer, isoallopregnanolone, has been shown to antagonize allopregnanolone effects in experimental animal and human models.

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#28319815   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Shape-dependent enzyme-like activity of Co3O4 nanoparticles and their conjugation with his-tagged EGFR single-domain antibody.

In this study, Co3O4 nanopolyhedrons, nanocubes, nanoplates and nanorods were synthesized and characterized. Furthermore, the peroxidase- and catalase-like activities of these Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were studied and influence of the exposed crystal planes was explored. According to their morphology and peroxidase-like activity, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified Co3O4 nanopolyhedrons synthesized via coprecipitation method (Co3O4 NHs) were selected as a proper candidate for the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. Bivalent cobalt ions were coupled to the carboxyls on the surface of the obtained Co3O4 NHs so as to chelate the hexahistidine residues (His-Tags) at the C-terminal of EGFR single-domain antibodies (EGFR sdAbs). Finally, the as-obtained EGFR sdAbs-binding Co3O4 NHs (Co3O4 nanoprobes) were successfully applied to the detection of EGFR expression in NSCLC tissues.

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#28319807   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Targeting NF-kappa B Signaling by Artesunate Restores Sensitivity of Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells to Antiandrogens.

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most preferred treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the disease eventually progresses and develops resistance to ADT in majority of the patients, leading to the emergence of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we assessed artesunate (AS), an artemisinin derivative, for its anticancer properties and ability to alleviate resistance to androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. We have shown AS in combination with bicalutamide (Bic) attenuates the oncogenic properties of the castrate-resistant (PC3, 22RV1) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) PCa cells. Mechanistically, AS and Bic combination inhibits nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling and decreases AR and/or AR-variant 7 expression via ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. The combination induces oxidative stress and apoptosis via survivin downregulation and caspase-3 activation, resulting in poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Moreover, preclinical castrate-resistant PC3 xenograft studies in NOD/SCID mice (n =28, seven per group) show remarkable tumor regression and significant reduction in lungs and bone metastases upon administering AS (50 mg/kg per day in two divided doses) and Bic (50 mg/kg per day) via oral gavage. Taken together, we for the first time provide a compelling preclinical rationale that AS could disrupt AR antagonist-mediated resistance observed in mCRPC. The current study also indicates that the therapeutic combination of Food and Drug Administration-approved AS or NF-κB inhibitors and AR antagonists may enhance the clinical efficacy in the treatment of mCRPC patients.

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#28319749   2017/03/20 Save this To Up

Antidepressant activity of zinc: Further evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system.

The present study sought to further evaluate the role of the serotonergic system especially the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in the mechanism of antidepressant action of zinc.

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